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Pediatric radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903112/bypass-surgery-to-treat-symptomatic-fusiform-dilation-of-the-internal-carotid-artery-following-craniopharyngioma-resection-report-of-2-cases
#1
Long Wang, Xiang'en Shi, Fangjun Liu, Hai Qian
Fusiform dilation of the internal carotid artery (FDICA) is an infrequent vascular complication following resection of suprasellar lesions in the pediatric population, and its course appears to be benign without apparent clinical symptoms. However, data correlating symptomatic FDICA with bypass surgery are scarce. The authors here report 2 symptomatic cases that were treated using internal maxillary artery bypass more than 5 years after total removal of a craniopharyngioma at an outside institution. Both cases of FDICA were resected to relieve the mass effect and to expose the craniopharyngioma...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902503/bedside-placement-of-the-postpyloric-tube-in-infants
#2
Patricia Clifford, Elizabeth Ely, Lauren Heimall
BACKGROUND: Patients in the neonatal intensive care unit are a vulnerable population with specific nutritional requirements, which include increased protein and caloric needs for adequate growth. Some infants cannot tolerate gastric feeds and need to have postpyloric feeds to grow. Placement of a postpyloric tube can be done by gastric insufflation. Gastric insufflation is a technique where air is inserted into the stomach as a nasogastric tube is advanced through the pylorus to the duodenum...
November 29, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898606/facial-nerve-meningioma-a-cause-of-pediatric-facial-weakness
#3
Nicholas L Deep, Sharon H Gnagi, David F Carpentieri, P David Adelson, Peter A Weisskopf
OBJECTIVE: To present an unusual case of a temporal bone meningioma with intrafascicular spread throughout the temporal facial nerve from cerebellopontine angle (CPA) to stylomastoid foramen. PATIENT: Four-year-old female with progressive facial weakness and normal hearing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings of temporal bone meningiomas. RESULTS: A patient presented with progressive facial weakness and normal hearing...
November 24, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898253/establishing-equipoise-national-survey-of-the-treatment-of-pediatric-para-pneumonic-effusion-and-empyema
#4
Morgan K Richards, Jarod P Mcateer, Todd C Edwards, Lucas R Hoffman, Matthew P Kronman, Dennis W Shaw, Adam B Goldin
BACKGROUND: Despite six randomized trials of various treatments for pediatric para-pneumonic effusion (PPE), management approaches differ. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into opinions on PPE treatment with the goal of designing a definitive trial to generate consensus intervention guidelines. METHODS: To evaluate physician opinions regarding PPE management, we developed a survey based on input from a nationwide, multi-disciplinary advisory group that established content validity...
November 29, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894835/reducing-resource-utilization-during-non-operative-treatment-of-pediatric-proximal-humerus-fractures
#5
A Z Gladstein, A T Schade, A W Howard, M W Camp
INTRODUCTION: The majority of proximal humeral fractures in the skeletally immature are treated non-operatively. Operative indications vary but are largely based on degree of displacement. Non-union is rare. Non-operatively treated fractures are typically monitored radiographically to assess healing. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that the decision to treat fractures operatively is made at the time of first imaging and that follow-up X-rays do not lead to a change in management...
November 25, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891546/ct-image-quality-in-sinogram-affirmed-iterative-reconstruction-phantom-study-is-there-a-point-of-diminishing-returns
#6
Juan C Infante, Yu Liu, Cynthia K Rigsby
BACKGROUND: In our pediatric practice, we have observed qualitatively limited improvement in the image quality of images generated with sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) compared to series generated with filtered back projection (FBP), particularly in cases near or below a CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) of 1-mGy. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the image quality advantage of SAFIRE remains constant across clinically used CT dose levels in an American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation phantom including the lower dose range used in pediatric imaging...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891287/sapovirus-gastroenteritis-in-young-children-presenting-as-distal-small-bowel-obstruction-a-report-of-2-cases-and-literature-review
#7
Lynn Model, Cathy Anne Burnweit
Abdominal pain and distention in children are commonly encountered problems in the pediatric emergency room. The majority of complaints are found to be due to benign entities such as gastroenteritis and constipation. What confounds these diagnoses is that young children often deliver a challenging and unreliable exam. Thus, it often becomes exceedingly problematic to differentiate these benign conditions from surgical conditions requiring prompt attention including small or large bowel obstruction, volvulus, and appendicitis...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889813/pediatric-radiology-editorial-board-acknowledgments-and-updates
#8
EDITORIAL
Peter J Strouse, Øystein E Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888430/radiation-exposure-in-diagnostic-imaging-wisdom-and-prudence-but-still-a-lot-to-understand
#9
Paolo Tomà, Vittorio Cannatà, Elisabetta Genovese, Andrea Magistrelli, Claudio Granata
Since 2000, a series of scientific articles on CT have been raising increasing concern about the risk of radiation induced cancer in children. The alarming conclusions of some of these articles had international echo through global media, provoking widespread public concern. Actually, many of these alarming scientific publications appeared to be flawed by poor study design, but their conclusions were not openly contradicted. In US and Europe pediatric radiologists had to face a huge challenge, which brought to the Image Gently campaign and the Eurosafe initiative with the aim to rebut misinformation and to support medical radiation protection...
November 25, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885945/clinical-imaging-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-type-ii-extratemporal-epilepsies-in-children-analyses-of-an-institutional-case-series
#10
Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus, Mary B Connolly, Glenda Hendson, Paul Steinbok, Christopher Dunham
OBJECTIVE Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Type II is divided into 2 subgroups based on the absence (IIA) or presence (IIB) of balloon cells. In particular, extratemporal FCD Type IIA and IIB is not completely understood in terms of clinical, imaging, biological, and neuropathological differences. The aim of the authors was to analyze distinctions between these 2 formal entities and address clinical, MRI, and immunohistochemical features of extratemporal epilepsies in children. METHODS Cases formerly classified as Palmini FCD Type II nontemporal epilepsies were identified through the prospectively maintained epilepsy database at the British Columbia Children's Hospital in Vancouver, Canada...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881822/lowered-h3k27me3-and-dna-hypomethylation-define-poorly-prognostic-pediatric-posterior-fossa-ependymomas
#11
Jill Bayliss, Piali Mukherjee, Chao Lu, Siddhant U Jain, Chan Chung, Daniel Martinez, Benjamin Sabari, Ashley S Margol, Pooja Panwalkar, Abhijit Parolia, Melike Pekmezci, Richard C McEachin, Marcin Cieslik, Benita Tamrazi, Benjamin A Garcia, Gaspare La Rocca, Mariarita Santi, Peter W Lewis, Cynthia Hawkins, Ari Melnick, C David Allis, Craig B Thompson, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Alexander R Judkins, Sriram Venneti
Childhood posterior fossa (PF) ependymomas cause substantial morbidity and mortality. These tumors lack recurrent genetic mutations, but a subset of these ependymomas exhibits CpG island (CpGi) hypermethylation [PF group A (PFA)], implicating epigenetic alterations in their pathogenesis. Further, histological grade does not reliably predict prognosis, highlighting the importance of developing more robust prognostic markers. We discovered global H3K27me3 reduction in a subset of these tumors (PF-ve ependymomas) analogous to H3K27M mutant gliomas...
November 23, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878779/total-estimated-effective-doses-from-radiologic-imaging-modalities-of-children-with-cancer-a-single-center-experience
#12
Derya Özyörük, Suna Emir, Hacı Ahmet Demir, Gülşah Bayram Kabaçam, Bahattin Tunç
BACKGROUND: Recently, awareness of the cumulative radiation exposure for pediatric oncology patients has been increasing, together with increased survival rates and longer life expectancy. The aim of our study was to quantify the amount of ionising radiation from imaging modalities of pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients who were diagnosed with childhood cancer and followed up for 5 years between 2004-2014 in our center were included in the study...
November 23, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878583/imaging-button-battery-ingestions-and-insertions-in-children-a-15-year-single-center-review
#13
Brian S Pugmire, Tom K Lin, Scott Pentiuk, Alessandro de Alarcon, Catherine K Hart, Andrew T Trout
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown an increase in morbidity associated with button battery ingestions in children. OBJECTIVE: To perform a comprehensive, imaging-focused review of all patients with confirmed button battery ingestions/insertions imaged at our institution in the last 15 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiology reports from Jan. 1, 2000, to July 12, 2015, were searched for the terms "battery" and "batteries." Confirmed cases of battery ingestion/insertion for which images were available were reviewed...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876583/treatment-ofpediatric-forearm-midshaft-fractures-is-there-a-difference-between-types-of-orthopedic-surgeon
#14
Di Lu, Zhou Lin, Jing-Dong Zhang, Hua Chen, Liao-Jun Sun
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The objective of this study was tocompare the clinical and radiological outcomes of pediatric forearmmidshaft fractures treated operatively with titanium elastic nails (TENs) bypediatric orthopedists and non-pediatric orthopedists. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 88 childrenofforearmmidshaft fractures, who were randomized to operative stabilization eitherby pediatric orthopedists (Group A, 44 cases) or by non-pediatric orthopedists (Group B, 44 cases) from April 2013 to February 2014...
November 19, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875505/radiologic-predictors-of-surgery-in-newly-diagnosed-pediatric-crohn-disease-patients
#15
Damien Parker, Boaz Karmazyn, Steven J Steiner
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess whether small bowel imaging conducted at the time of diagnosis could be used as a predictor of small bowel surgical intervention in a population of pediatric patients with Crohn disease (CD). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of small bowel imaging within 30 days of diagnosis of pediatric CD was conducted. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on small bowel imaging: those with no or minor abnormalities (71%) and those with more extensive or obstructive abnormalities (29%)...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871578/children-with-heart-disease-risk-stratification-for-non-cardiac-surgery
#16
Angela K Saettele, Jacob L Christensen, Kelly L Chilson, David J Murray
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Children with congenital or acquired heart disease have an increased risk of anesthesia related morbidity and mortality. The child's anesthetic risk is related to the severity of their underlying cardiac disease, associated comorbidities, and surgical procedure. The goal of this project was to determine the ease of use of a preoperative risk stratification tool for assigning pediatric cardiac staff and to determine the relative frequency that children with low, moderate, and high risk cardiac disease present for non-cardiac surgery at a tertiary pediatric hospital...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867852/laparoscopic-management-of-urachal-cysts
#17
Salvatore Fabio Chiarenza, Cosimo Bleve
BACKGROUND: The urachus and the urachal remnants represent a failure in the obliteration of the allantois at birth that connects the bladder to the umbilicus. After birth it obliterates and presents as the midline umbilical ligament. Urachal cyst are the most common urachal anomaly in the pediatric population. The traditional surgical approach is a semicircular infraumbilical incision or a lower midline laparotomy. METHODS: In a 10 years period at Pediatric Surgery Department of Vicenza 16 children were diagnosed with urachal anomalies presenting as abdominal or urinary symptoms...
October 2016: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867536/life-threatening-mrsa-sepsis-with-bilateral-pneumonia-osteomyelitis-and-septic-arthritis-of-the-knee-in-a-previously-healthy-13-year-old-boy-a-case-report
#18
Nina Hardgrib, Michala Wang, Anne Grethe Jurik, Klaus K Petersen
The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia, arthritis of the knee, and osteomyelitis of the tibia. Radiological investigation and interpretation directed the treatment, especially the surgical debridement, and combined with clinical and biochemical findings lead to close interdisciplinary treatment with frequent surgical interventions and antimicrobial combination therapy...
October 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866569/computed-tomography-in-germany
#19
Roman Pokora, Lucian Krille, Steffen Dreger, Choonsik Lee, Christian Günster, Hajo Zeeb, Maria Blettner
BACKGROUND: In 2001, calculations in models based on atomic bomb survivors indicated that children exposed to ionizing radiation by computed tomography (CT) would be expected to have an increased risk of cancer. This led to the issuance of new recommendations in Germany concerning CT in children. METHODS: We analyzed data from the German pediatric CT cohort study together with data on children from a large general statutory health insurance provider (AOK) in order to characterize the secular trend in the use of CT in Germany...
October 28, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865797/radboud-centre-for-mitochondrial-medicine-pediatric-mri-score
#20
Sheila Suet-Na Wong, Bozena Goraj, Cheuk-Wing Fung, Jeroen Vister, Lonneke de Boer, Saskia Koene, Jan Smeitink
We developed the first user-friendly, semi-quantitative, and quick-to-perform Radboud Centre for Mitochondrial Medicine Pediatric MRI score (RCMM-PMRIS), focusing on the six most commonly described neuroimaging abnormalities in the literature. The RCMM-PMRIS was validated through individual review of 30 sets of brain MRI studies in 24 patients with genetically confirmed mitochondrial disorders by six raters. The application of RCMM-PMRIS can help to define the extent of the brain involvement and therefore to assess the radiological mitochondrial disease severity, to monitor disease progression and consequently to act as an outcome measure for treatment effects in patients with mitochondrial disease...
November 16, 2016: Mitochondrion
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