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Yuan Wang, Xin-Cang Li, Guihong Fu, Shu Zhao, Yuange Chen, Hao Wang, Tiantian Chen, Junfang Zhou, Wenhong Fang
Ameson portunus n. sp. is a new microsporidian species that infects the skeletal muscle of Portunus trituberculatus, a pond-reared swimming crab from China. This parasite was characterized using morphological and molecular phylogenetic data. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that this microsporidian experienced disporogonic and polysporogonic (chain-like) life cycles. Mature uninucleate spores appeared ovoid, measured 1.4±0.06×1.0±0.07μm on ultrathin sections, and exhibited no dimorphism...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
Rebecca L Anderson, Winsor H Watson, Christopher C Chabot
While horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus from regions with two daily tides express endogenous circatidal (~ 12.4 h) activity rhythms, much less is known about locomotor rhythm expression in horseshoe crabs from other tidal regimes. This study investigated whether horseshoe crabs (1) always express activity rhythms consistent with their natural tides, and (2) can alter activity rhythm expression in response to novel tide cycles. Activity rhythms of animals from environments with two daily tides (Gulf of Maine, 43°6' N/70°52' W, and Massachusetts, 41°32' N/70°40'W), one dominant daily tide (Apalachee Bay, Florida, 29°58' N/84°20' W), and microtides (Indian River Lagoon, Florida, 28°5' N/80°35' W) were recorded in 2011-2013 during three artificial tide conditions: no tides, a 12...
April 2017: Marine Biology
Joanna Burger, Nellie Tsipoura, Michael Gochfeld
Understanding the relationship between metal level in predators and their prey is an important issue, and is usually difficult to determine because animals eat a variety of organisms. However, shorebirds that stop over during spring migration along Delaware Bay (New Jersey) stay for only 2-3 weeks, and eat mainly horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs. In this paper, we examine the relationship between metal levels in horseshoe crab eggs, and blood and feather levels of metals in red knot (Calidris canutus rufa; n = 30), sanderling (Calidris alba; n = 20) and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 38) from Delaware Bay...
August 28, 2017: Toxics
Wenshi Li, Xixiang Tang, Yan Chen, Wanwei Sun, Yan Liu, Yi Gong, Xiaobo Wen, Shengkang Li
As a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) could function in the innate immunity of invertebrates. Recently, it is shown that arthropod Dscams play similar functions as antibodies in the adaptive immune system. Dscam could produce thousands of isoforms by alternative splicing and specifically bind to various pathogens. In the present study, we cloned the first Dscam from mud crab Scylla paramamosain (SpDscam), with full-length cDNA 7363 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 6069bp and encoding 2022 amino acids, which had typical domain architecture as other arthropods, i...
October 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xianliang Meng, Xiaohui Zhang, Jian Li, Ping Liu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNA, known as key post-transcriptional regulators for development and function of reproductive organ in animals. However, limited information is currently available on the regulatory roles of miRNAs in crustacean reproduction. In the present study, we performed small RNA deep sequencing in ovary and testis tissues of the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, which is a commercially important species in East Asian countries, to identify and characterize the miRNAs in gonads...
October 11, 2017: Gene
Salina Parveen, Channel White, Mark L Tamplin
During the processing and handling of commercial blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), Listeria monocytogenes can potentially contaminate cooked meat and grow to hazardous levels. To manage this risk, predictive models are useful tools for designing and implementing preventive controls; however, no model specific for blue crab meat has been published or evaluated. In this study, a cocktail of L. monocytogenes strains was added to pasteurized blue crab meat, which was incubated at storage temperatures from 0 to 35°C...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
N Hasyima Ismail, A Amin Safwan, N Fairuz Fozi, F H Megat, H Muhd Farouk, S A Kamaruddin, M Ikhwanuddin, M A Ambak
BACKGROUND: Orange mud crab Scylla olivacea is one of the most important fisheries resources. A new development in ageing technique of crustaceans has been introduced. The detection of growth band deposited in hard structure of gastric mill in the cardiac stomach are found retained after moulting process can be used as age indicator and growth estimation. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine the comparison between carapace width and growth band count of S...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Xiaowen Chen, Jun Wang, Wucheng Yue, Shu Huang, Jiao Chen, Yipei Chen, Chenghui Wang
Alternative splicing is an essential molecular mechanism that increase the protein diversity of a species to regulate important biological processes. Ecdysone receptor (EcR), an essential nuclear receptor, is essential in the molting, growth, development, reproduction, and regeneration of crustaceans. In this study, the whole sequence of EcR gene from Eriocheir sinensis was obtained. The sequence was 45,481 bp in length with 9 exons. Moreover, four alternatively spliced EcR isoforms (Es-EcR-1, Es-EcR-2, Es-EcR-3 and Es-EcR-4) were identified...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhilai Guo, Xue Qiao, Ruomei Cheng, Nannan Shi, Aili Wang, Tingting Feng, Yan Chen, Fen Zhang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Host defense peptides (HDPs), a class of conserved components of animal innate immune system, possess direct antimicrobial activities against invading pathogens and broadly participate in boosting and modulating host immune responses. Cathelicidins is an important family of HDPs that has been identified exclusively in vertebrates. Considering the relatively conserved innate immune system between invertebrates and vertebrates, it is speculated that HDPs from vertebrates may also possess modulating functions on invertebrate innate immune system...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Lang Lang, Zuobing Zhang, Weixin Jing, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Shao-Chin Lee, Lan Wang
Toll signaling is essential for expression of immune genes which are important for defense against bacterial, fungal and viral infections in invertebrates. Although several toll genes have been identified in the crustaceans, none of them has been investigated in freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense. Moreover, the effect of cadmium (Cd) on toll gene expression has never been examined on the freshwater crabs which live in the sediments and are prone to heavy metal bioaccumulation. Our transcriptomic analysis of hepatopancreas tissue reveals that toll3 gene expression has been decreased when treated with Cd...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Anatoly Borisovich Shekhter, Anastasia V Balakireva, Natalia V Kuznetsova, Marina N Vukolova, Petr F Litvitsky, Andrey A Zamyatnin
Nowadays, enzymatic therapy is a very promising line of treatment for many different diseases. There is a group of disorders and conditions, caused by fibrotic and scar processes and associated with the excessive accumulation of collagen that needs to be catabolized to normalize the connective tissue content. The human body normally synthesizes special extracellular enzymes, matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) by itself. These enzymes can cleave components of extracellular matrix (ECM) and different types of collagen and thus maintain the balance of the connective tissue components...
October 6, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Hisashi Murakami, Takenori Tomaru, Yukio-Pegio Gunji
Foraging fiddler crabs form a strict spatial relationship between their current positions and burrows, allowing them to run directly back to their burrows when startled even without visual contacts. Path integration (PI), the underlying mechanism, is a universal navigation strategy through which animals continuously integrate directions and distances of their movements. However, we report that fiddler crabs also use visual orientation during homing runs using burrow entrances as cues, with the prioritised mechanism (i...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Bo-Ping Tang, Yu Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Dai-Zhen Zhang, Zheng-Fei Wang, Xiao-Yu Zhu, Ying Wang, Hua-Bin Zhang, Chun-Lin Zhou, Xin-Yue Chai, Qiu-Ning Liu
The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) provides important information for phylogenetic analysis and understanding evolutionary origins. Herein, we sequenced, annotated, and characterised the mitogenome of the crab Helice wuana to better understand its molecular evolution and phylogeny. The 16,359bp mitogenome includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and an A+T-rich control region. The genome composition is highly A+T biased 68.42%, and exhibits a negative AT-skew (-0...
October 2, 2017: Genomics
Tamzin A Blewett, Dustin Newton, Shannon L Flynn, Daniel S Alessi, Greg G Goss, Trevor J Hamilton
Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a non-essential metal ubiquitous in the environment due to industrial processes. However, little is known regarding the ability of Cd(2+) to impact the behaviour of aquatic animals in receiving environments. Green shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were exposed to waterborne Cd(2+) [control (no Cd(2+)), low (0.30 μmol/L), medium (3.3 μmol/L) and high (63 μmol/L)], for 24 h, then, crabs were placed in an open field and shelter test to determine potential changes in locomotion and preference for shelter...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Jonathan P GroΔ, Johanna Nattenmüller, Stefan Hemmer, Diana Tichy, Julia Krzykalla, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Uta Bertsch, Stefan Delorme, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Jens Hillengass, Maximilian Merz
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for malignant tumors and increased body mass index (BMI) is correlated to the risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM). The correlation of body fat composition with disease activity, adverse events and treatment response of MM patients has not been investigated yet. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A subgroup of 108 patients from a single institution enrolled in the prospective GMMG-MM5 trial, who received a whole-body low-dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) before induction therapy, were included in this study...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Kate Buckman, Vivien Taylor, Hannah Broadley, Daniel Hocking, Prentiss Balcom, Rob Mason, Keith Nislow, Celia Chen
Spatial variation in mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation in urban coastal watersheds reflects complex interactions between Hg sources, land use, and environmental gradients. We examined MeHg concentrations in fauna from the Delaware River estuary, and related these measurements to environmental parameters and human impacts on the waterway. The sampling sites followed a north to south gradient of increasing salinity, decreasing urban influence, and increasing marsh cover. Although mean total Hg in surface sediments (top 4cm) peaked in the urban estuarine turbidity maximum and generally decreased downstream, surface sediment MeHg concentrations showed no spatial patterns consistent with the examined environmental gradients, indicating urban influence on Hg loading to the sediment but not subsequent methylation...
September 2017: Estuaries and Coasts: Journal of the Estuarine Research Federation
Ju-Hye Yang, Jae-Myung Yoo, Esther Lee, BoHyoung Lee, Won-Kyung Cho, Kwang-Il Park, Jin Yeul Ma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Perillae Herba is a perennial plant that is widely distributed throughout Asia. The leaves of Perillae Herba have been widely used to treat various diseases, such as cold due to wind-cold, headache, cough, abdominal fullness, distention, and fish and crab poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the anti-inflammatory activity of Perillae Herba leaf ethanolic extract (PHE) in human keratinocytes, we measured the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/interferon (IFN)-γ-induced mRNA expression and production of proinflammatory chemokines such as thymus and activation-regulated chemokines; regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; interleukin (IL)-6; and IL-8 in HaCaT cells...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yuan Liu, Guijian Liu, Zijiao Yuan, Houqi Liu, Paul K S Lam
This study aims at describing and interpreting concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and vanadium (V) in seven species of fish, three species of shellfish, one species of crab and two species of shrimp from the typical estuary-bay ecosystem. Arsenic, Hg and V differed among species, and the highest As, Hg and V were observed in shellfish. The stable nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) isotopes were determined to investigate the trophic interactions between fluctuating environment and aquatic species...
September 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Cyrus Rumisha, Martine Leermakers, Robinson H Mdegela, Marc Kochzius, Marc Elskens
The coastal population in East Africa is growing rapidly but sewage treatment and recycling facilities in major cities and towns are poorly developed. Since estuarine mangroves are the main hotspots for pollutants, there is a potential for contaminants to accumulate in edible fauna and threaten public health. This study analysed trace metals in muscle tissues of the giant mud crabs (Scylla serrata) and the giant tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) from the Tanzanian coast, in order to determine the extent of bioaccumulation and public health risks...
September 30, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yuhang Hong, Xiaozhen Yang, Guangwen Yan, Yi Huang, Fang Zuo, Yixue Shen, Yan Ding, Yongxu Cheng
As a broad-spectrum organophosphorus herbicide, glyphosate is widely utilized around the world. The toxic effects of glyphosate on Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, were assessed using immunotoxicity and genotoxicity biomarkers in this study. The results showed that 24 h and 96 h LC50 values of glyphosate for E. sinensis were estimated as 461.54 and 97.89 mg/L, respectively, and the safe concentration was 4.4 mg/L. According to the results above, glyphosate was applied at concentrations of 0, 4...
September 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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