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Zhengfei Wang, Ziqian Wang, Xuejia Shi, Qiong Wu, Yitao Tao, Huayun Guo, Chenyao Ji, Yuze Bai
In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of the crab Parasesarma affine is determined, characterized and compared with other decapod crustaceans. The P. affine mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is 15,638 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and a control region (CR). Then, 23 of the 37 genes are encoded by the heavy (+) strand while 14 are encoded by the light (-) strand. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons and 4 of the 13 PCGs harbored the incomplete termination codon by T or TA...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Durairajan Rubini, Sanaulla Farisa Banu, B Narayanan Vedahari, Durai Ramyadevi, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Paramasivam Nithyanand
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of biofilm-associated and indwelling device related infections. The present study explores the anti-virulent and antibiofilm potency of chitosan extracted from the shells of the marine crab Portunus sanguinolentus against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The chemical characterization results revealed that the extracted chitosan (EC) has structural analogy to that of a commercial chitosan (CC). The extracted chitosan was found to be effective in reducing the staphyloxanthin pigment, a characteristic virulence feature of MRSA that promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species...
June 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jinlei Miao, Haihui Liu, Yongbing Li, Xingxiang Zhang
Electronic waste (E-waste) contain large environmental contaminants such as toxic heavy metals and hazardous chemicals. These contaminants would migrate into drinking water or food chains and pose a serious threat to environment and human health. Biodegradable green electronics has great potential to address the issue of E-waste. Here we report on a novel biodegradable and flexible transparent electrode, integrate three-dimensionally (3D) interconnected conductive nanocomposites into edible starch-chitosan based substrates...
June 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maíra Sales Castilho, Sheila Canevese Rahal, Luciane Dos Reis Mesquita, Ramiro das Neves Dias Neto, Renato Tavares Conceição, Ana Luiza Denes, Washington Takashi Kano, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Alessandra Melchert
  This study aimed to assess joint angle values in the forelimbs and hind limbs of crab-eating foxes ( Cerdocyon thous) using a conventional manual goniometer. Nine captive crab-eating foxes, aged over 1 yr old, weighing from 5.9 to 7.5 kg were used. The maximum flexion and maximum extension of the shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints were measured. The range of motion was determined through the difference between the maximum flexion and the maximum extension. There was no significant difference between the right and left sides in the goniometric measurements...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Wai Hoong Chang, Alvina G Lai
The homeodomain-containing proteins are an important group of transcription factors found in most eukaryotes including animals, plants and fungi. Homeobox genes are responsible for a wide range of critical developmental and physiological processes, ranging from embryonic development, innate immune homeostasis to whole-body regeneration. With continued fascination on this key class of proteins by developmental and evolutionary biologists, multiple efforts have thus far focused on the identification and characterization of homeobox orthologs from key model organisms in attempts to infer their evolutionary origin and how this underpins the evolution of complex body plans...
2018: F1000Research
Marcus Vinicius Cunha Oliveira, Márcio Couto Henrique
The article investigates the social and environmental impacts of construction of Highway PA-458, which turned 26km of mangrove swamp into a landfill between the municipality of Bragança and Ajuruteua beach in northeastern Pará. Working with official documents, newspapers, photographs, and oral accounts, it analyzes politicians', local residents', and crab harvesters' representations of the significance of the highway. It is concluded that officials have disregarded the environmental impact both on the mangrove swamps and on the daily lives of crab harvesters...
April 2018: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Marcelo A A Pinheiro, Marcelo R Souza, Luciana C M Santos, Roberto F C Fontes
Ucides cordatus is a relevant fishery resource of Brazilian mangroves and requires legal normative to sustainable use based on stock assessment and management. This study evaluated some population parameters (structure, density, abundance, fishery potential and stock) of this crab species in Brazil Southeast (São Paulo, State), discussing the use of the results to delineate fishery management strategies. Density was monthly evaluated (September 1998 to August 1999), using five sample quadrats of 2x2 m. Density (ind...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Vikas Dadwal, Himani Agrawal, Kanika Sonkhla, Robin Joshi, Mahesh Gupta
Phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables have achieved immense significance owing to the increasing evidence which signifying their activity for antioxidant and prevention of chronic diseases. The amount of phloretin (88.39 µg mg-1 ) and phloridzin (83.03 µg mg-1 ) were found to be higher among other phenolics determined using UPLC. DPPH, ABTS+ , metal chelating and ·OH radical assays were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Malus baccata pulp portion showed higher antioxidant activity than seed portion...
June 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Ya-Ru Xu, Gao-Yuan Wang, Yi-Chao Zhou, Wan-Xi Yang
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, have been implicated in various biological and physiological processes, especially in the gonad development. However, scarce studies were focused on the roles of BMPs in the reproductive system of crustaceans. In this study, the whole gene encoding BMP7 protein was cloned and characterized firstly in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The bioinformatics analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that Es-BMP7 was composed of prodomain/latency-associated peptide and the TGF-β characteristic domain...
June 8, 2018: Gene
Kevin Scott, Petra Harsanyi, Alastair R Lyndon
The effects of simulated electromagnetic fields (EMF), emitted from sub-sea power cables, on the commercially important decapod, edible crab (Cancer pagurus), were assessed. Stress related parameters were measured (l-Lactate, d-Glucose, Haemocyanin and respiration rate) along with behavioural and response parameters (antennular flicking, activity level, attraction/avoidance, shelter preference and time spent resting/roaming) during 24-h periods. Exposure to EMF had no effect on Haemocyanin concentrations, respiration rate, activity level or antennular flicking rate...
June 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Megan E Roegner, Hsiang-Yin Chen, R Douglas Watson
Existing data indicate that a Ca2+ signal stimulates ecdysteroid hormone production by crustacean molting glands (Y-organs). Ca2+ signaling is dependent on a tightly regulated Ca2+ gradient, with intracellular free Ca2+ maintained at a low basal level (typically sub-micromolar). This is achieved through the action of proteins intrinsic to the plasma membrane and the membranes of organelles. One such protein, the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), pumps Ca2+ from cytosol to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum...
June 7, 2018: Gene
Fatemeh Samadi, Ali Sarafraz-Yazdi, Zarrin Es'haghi
A vortex assisted dispersive solid phase extraction approach (VADSPE) based on crab shell powder as biodegradable and biocompatible μ-sorbent was developed for simultaneous analysis of three benzodiazepines (BZPs): Oxazepam, Flurazepamand Diazepam, in biological matrixes included blood, nail, hair and urine samples. The effective parameters in VADSPE process, including the volume of uptake solvent, the dosage of sorbent, extraction time and back extraction time, were optimized using response surface methodology(RSM) based on central composite design(CCD)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Thiago Pereira Alves, Luiz Laureno Mafra
Dinophysis spp. are a major source of diarrheic toxins to marine food webs, especially during blooms. This study documented the occurrence, in late May 2016, of a massive toxic bloom of the Dinophysis acuminata complex along the southern coast of Brazil, associated with an episode of marked salinity stratification. The study tracked the daily vertical distribution of Dinophysis spp. cells and their ciliate prey, Mesodinium cf. rubrum , and quantified the amount of lipophilic toxins present in seston and accumulated by various marine organisms in the food web...
June 6, 2018: Toxins
Peter K L Ng, Paul Y C Ng
Seven species of freshwater crabs from three families are recorded from and around the Danum Valley Conservation Area in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo: Thelphusula capillodigitus sp. n. , Thelphusula dicerophilus Ng & Stuebing, 1990, Arachnothelphusa terrapes Ng, 1991, Terrathelphusa secula Ng & Tan, 2015, Parathelphusa valida Ng & Goh, 1987 (new record) (Gecarcinucidae); Isolapotamon ingeri Ng & Tan, 1998 (Potamidae); and Geosesarma danumense Ng, 2002 (Sesarmidae). The new species of Thelphusula Bott, 1979, can be distinguished from all congeners by a unique combination of morphological features, most notably the presence of dense patches of short setae on the fingers of the adult male chelipeds, as well as the structure of the male first gonopod...
2018: ZooKeys
Peng Liu, Jie Du, Jia Zhang, Jian Wang, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Spiroplasma eriocheiris, a pathogen that causes mass mortality of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, is a wall less bacteria and belongs to the Mollicutes. This study was designed to investigate the effects of colchicine on S. eriocheiris growth, cell morphology, and proteins expression. We found that in the presence of colchicine, the spiroplasma cells lost their helicity, and the length of the cells in the experimental group was longer than that of the control. With varying concentrations of the colchicine treatment, the total time to achieve a stationary phase of the spiroplasma was increased, and the cell population was decreased...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fei Zhu, Xiyi Qian, Xiongchao Ma
To assess the immune response of hemocytes to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus infection in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain, a transcriptome analysis was performed. We report the analysis of 45131 transcripts from S. paramamosain hemocytes by de novo assembly. A comparison with GenBank protein and nucleotide sequences identified 33699 genes as previously known. The length distribution of the genes was 8147 genes ≥200 bp, 4714 genes ≥300 bp, and 3517 genes ≥2000 bp. A total of 21579 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were found in the transcriptomic dataset, including 9% monomers, 53...
June 2, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mônica F Kersch-Becker, Bruno B Grisolia, Maria J O Campos, Gustavo Q Romero
The strength and outcome of mutualistic interactions can be highly dependent on the combination of traits of the species involved. Distinct foraging strategies (e.g., hunting mode) of mutualistic predators may cause predator-prey interactions to vary, potentially affecting the strength of trophic cascades. We evaluate the causes of variation in the strength of spider-plant mutualisms by focusing on contrasting hunting modes of two spiders: an actively hunting lynx spider (Peucetia sp.) and a sit-and-wait crab spider (Misumenops argenteus)...
June 4, 2018: Oecologia
Kenneth B Raposa, Richard A McKinney, Cathleen Wigand, Jeffrey W Hollister, Cassie Lovall, Katelyn Szura, John A Gurak, Jason McNamee, Christopher Raithel, Elizabeth B Watson
Southern New England salt marsh vegetation and habitats are changing rapidly in response to sea-level rise. At the same time, fiddler crab ( Uca spp.) distributions have expanded and purple marsh crab ( Sesarma reticulatum ) grazing on creekbank vegetation has increased. Sea-level rise and reduced predation pressure drive these changing crab populations but most studies focus on one species; there is a need for community-level assessments of impacts from multiple crab species. There is also a need to identify additional factors that can affect crab populations...
2018: PeerJ
Toshio Shibata, Yuki Kobayashi, Yuto Ikeda, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata
Horseshoe crab hemolymph coagulation is believed to be triggered by the autocatalytic activation of serine protease zymogen factor C to the active form, α-factor C, belonging to the trypsin family, through an active transition state of factor C responding to bacterial LPS, designated factor C*. However, the existence of factor C* is only speculative and its proteolytic activity has not been validated. In addition, it remains unclear whether the proteolytic cleavage of the Phe-737-Ile-738 bond (F737 site) of factor C required for the conversion to α-factor C occurs intramolecularly or intermolecularly between the factor C molecules...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Iara da C Souza, Hiulana P Arrivabene, Carol-Ann Craig, Andrew J Midwood, Barry Thornton, Silvia T Matsumoto, Michael Elliott, Daniel A Wunderlin, Magdalena V Monferrán, Marisa N Fernandes
Anthropogenic activities including metal contamination create well-known problems in coastal mangrove ecosystems but understanding and linking specific pollution sources to distinct trophic levels within these environments is challenging. This study evaluated anthropogenic impacts on two contrasting mangrove food webs, by using stable isotopes (δ13 C, δ15 N, 87 Sr/86 Sr, 206 Pb/207 Pb and 208 Pb/207 Pb) measured in sediments, mangrove trees (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia schaueriana), plankton, shrimps (Macrobranchium sp...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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