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Hsi-Te Shih, Benny K K Chan, Peter K L Ng
A new pseudocryptic species of fiddler crab, Tubuca alcocki sp. n. , is described from the northern Indian Ocean. The new species was previously identified with T. urvillei (H. Milne Edwards, 1852), but can be distinguished by the structures of the anterolateral angle of the carapace and male first gonopod. The molecular data of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene shows that both are sister taxa and the divergence time is estimated at 2.2 million years ago, around the beginning of the Pleistocene...
2018: ZooKeys
Natalie Ann Welden, Bexultan Abylkhani, Leigh Michael Howarth
Microplastic pollution is apparent throughout the marine environment from deep ocean sediments to coastal habitats. Most of this is believed to originate on land, although marine activities, such as fishing and shipping, also contribute to the release and redistribution of microplastic. The relative importance of these maritime plastic sources, the manner by which they are distributed in the environment, and their effect on uptake by marine organisms are yet to be fully quantified. In this study, the relative impact of fishing activities on microplastic uptake by demersal fish and crustaceans was explored...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Peter K L Ng, Savel R Daniels
A new species of freshwater chasmocarcinid crab, Australocarcinus insperatus sp. n. , is described from the Seychelles Islands in the Indian Ocean. This is the first record of the genus and the subfamily Trogloplacinae Guinot, 1986, from the Indian Ocean, with all other members previously recorded from Australia, New Britain, New Caledonia, and Palau in the Pacific Ocean. The disjunct distribution of Australocarcinus is unexpected considering all trogoplacines are believed to practice direct development, lacking free-swimming larval stages...
2018: ZooKeys
Amira M Sultan, Wael A Seliem
Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii is a causative pathogen of various healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and is particularly prevalent in high-risk hospital settings. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with HAIs caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods: This prospective study was performed between January 2013 and June 2014 among NICU patients at the Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt...
February 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Elaa Maamar, Carla Andrea Alonso, Sana Ferjani, Ali Jendoubi, Zaineb Hamzaoui, Alia Jebri, Mabrouka Saidani, Salma Ghedira, Carmen Torres, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben Boubaker
Gastrointestinal colonization by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), is a critical step before nosocomial infection. Our objective was to evaluate CRAB intestinal carriage in patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a Tunisian Hospital and to determine the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms involved. From December-2014 to February-2015, all 63 patients admitted at the ICU were screened for rectal CRAB-colonization upon admission and once weekly thereafter. ICU-patients who acquired a CRAB-nosocomial-infection were also included...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Christin Wittfoth, Steffen Harzsch
Persistent neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway characterizes many reptant decapods such as lobsters, crayfish and crabs. In these animals, the deutocerebral proliferative system generates new neurons which integrate into the neuronal network of the first order processing neuropil of the olfactory system, the deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (also called olfactory lobes). However, differences concerning the phenotype and the mechanisms that drive adult neurogenesis were reported in crayfish versus spiny lobsters...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Andrea Dechner, Kevin M Flesher, Catherine Lindell, Téo Vega de Oliveira, Brian A Maurer
Understanding the factors that influence the presence and distribution of carnivores in human-dominated agricultural landscapes is one of the main challenges for biodiversity conservation, especially in landscapes where setting aside large protected areas is not feasible. Habitat use models of carnivore communities in rubber plantations are lacking despite the critical roles carnivores play in structuring ecosystems and the increasing expansion of rubber plantations. We investigated the habitat use of a mammalian carnivore community within a 4,200-ha rubber plantation/forest landscape in Bahia, Brazil...
2018: PloS One
A P Olson, C E Siddon, G L Eckert
Many crab fisheries around the world are managed by size, sex and season, where males are given at least one opportunity to reproduce before being harvested. Golden king crab ( Lithodes aequispinus ) supports a commercial fishery in Southeast Alaska and legal size is based on growth and maturity information from other parts of their range. Size-at-maturity estimates varied for crabs among seven management areas in Southeast Alaska, where male maturity estimates increased in size with increases in latitude, while maturity estimates across their North Pacific range decreased in size with increases in latitude...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
B P Girish, C H Swetha, M Srilatha, M Hemalatha, P Sreenivasula Reddy
The possible involvement of 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) in the regulation of ovarian development in Oziotelphusa senex senex was investigated. Injection of CRA, into avitellogenic crabs significantly increased ovarian index, oocyte diameter and ovarian vitellogenin levels. Injection of CRA also resulted in a significant increase in the secretory rates of mandibular organs and Y-organs and circulatory levels of the methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids. Further, administration of CRA into avitellogenic crabs produced higher amounts of Retinoid X Receptor, Ecdysteroid Receptor, E75 and vitellogenin mRNAs in the hepatopancreas...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Chih-Hung Lee, Chia-Ching Wu, Yu-Chang Tyan, Wei-Tai Yu, Edward S Huang, Hsu-Sheng Yu
Food allergy is one of the most important health issues worldwide. In Taiwan, current literature suggests shrimps and crabs are the most common causes of food allergy, and are frequently associated with acute allergic reactions such as urticaria, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. However, knowledge regarding the shrimp allergens remains limited. Thus, there is an urgent need to establish comprehensive information for elucidating underlying triggers for food allergy. In this study, whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was used to evaluate the IgE-binding properties of various shrimp proteins to 7 allergic patients' sera by western blot...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
J Kotta, T Wernberg, H Jänes, I Kotta, K Nurkse, M Pärnoja, H Orav-Kotta
The escalating spread of invasive species increases the risk of disrupting the pathways of energy flow through native ecosystems, modify the relative importance of resource ('bottom-up') and consumer ('top-down') control in food webs and thereby govern biomass production at different trophic levels. The current lack of understanding of interaction cascades triggered by non-indigenous species underscores the need for more basic exploratory research to assess the degree to which novel species regulate bottom-up and/or top down control...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melanie Ailín Basnak, Verónica Pérez-Schuster, Gabriela Hermitte, Martín Berón de Astrada
Many animal species take advantage of polarization vision for vital tasks such as orientation, communication, and contrast enhancement. Previous studies have suggested that decapod crustaceans use a two-channel polarization system for contrast enhancement. Here, we characterize the polarization contrast sensitivity in a grapsid crab . We estimated the polarization contrast sensitivity of the animals by quantifying both their escape response and changes in heart rate when presented with polarized motion stimuli...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Deborah H L Ng, Kalisvar Marimuthu, Jia Jun Lee, Wei Xin Khong, Oon Tek Ng, Wei Zhang, Bee Fong Poh, Pooja Rao, Maya Devi Rajinder Raj, Brenda Ang, Partha Pratim De
Background: In May 2015, we noticed an increase in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU). To investigate this, we studied the extent of environmental contamination and subsequent onward clonal transmission of CRAB. Methods: We conducted a one-day point prevalence screening (PPS) of the patients and environment in the MICU. We screened patients using endotracheal tube aspirates and swabs from nares, axillae, groin, rectum, wounds, and exit sites of drains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Muhammad Nur Arif Othman, Ruhana Hassan, Mohd Nasarudin Harith, Amir Shah Ruddin Md Sah
Red seaweed Gracilaria , one of the largest genus in Division Rhodophyta inhabits Sarawak coastal water. This study was designed to identify the species of Gracilaria using morphological approach and to assess selected water quality parameters in Gracilaria habitats. Three field samplings were carried out in Santubong and Asajaya, Sarawak from November 2013 to December 2014. Overall, three species were identified namely Gracilaria changii , G. blodgettii and G. coronopifolia , attached to net of cage culture in Santubong and root of mangrove trees in Asajaya...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Eko Sri Wiyono, Ihsan
In order to manage blue swimming crabs in Pangkajene Kepulauan, management measures are required. Since the environment which affects the abundance of the blue swimming crab varies seasonally, it is necessary to take into account the seasonal nature with the aim of developing a management strategy. The objectives of this study are to define the abundance of and fishing season of blue swimming crabs in the Pangkajene Kepulauan waters, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The fishing season was analysed using seasonal index analysis, while fish abundance was analysed by means of Equilibrium-Schaefer...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Temim Deli, Evrim Kalkan, Selahattin Ünsal Karhan, Sonya Uzunova, Alireza Keikhosravi, Raşit Bilgin, Christoph D Schubart
BACKGROUND: Recently, population genetic studies of Mediterranean marine species highlighted patterns of genetic divergence and phylogeographic breaks, due to the interplay between impacts of Pleistocene climate shifts and contemporary hydrographical barriers. These factors markedly shaped the distribution of marine organisms and their genetic makeup. The present study is part of an ongoing effort to understand the phylogeography and evolutionary history of the highly dispersive Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847), across the Mediterranean Sea...
April 11, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jie Zhang, Mi Feng, Xingmei Lu, Chunyan Shi, Xiaoqian Li, Jiayu Xin, Guikuan Yue, Suojiang Zhang
Low molecular weight (LMW) chitin exhibits antimicrobial activity, and its preparation generally employs high molecular weight chitin as raw material. Here we use raw crab shell as material to isolate LMW-chitin. The raw crab shell was treated with hydrochloric acid under different conditions, and the demineralization and deproteinization of acid to the raw and demineralized crab shell were examined. Under conditions of 3-5 wt% acid, 110 °C, and 180-600 min, the obtained LMW-chitin owns 92% purity and 53-80 kDa molecular weight...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Cong Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Yang, Min-Jie Xu, Gen-Yong Huang, Qian Zhang, Yong-Xu Cheng, Long He, Hong-Yu Ren
In the pond culture of juvenile Eriocheir sinensis , a high limb-impairment rate seriously affects the culture success. Therefore, it is particularly important to artificially promote limb regeneration. This study evaluated the effects of melatonin on cheliped regeneration, digestive ability, and immunity, as well as its relationship with the eyestalk. It was found that the injection of melatonin significantly increased the limb regeneration rate compared with the saline group ( P < 0.05). The qRT-PCR results of growth-related genes showed that the level of EcR-mRNA (ecdysteroid receptor) and Chi-mRNA (chitinase) expression was significantly increased following the melatonin injection, while the expression of MIH-mRNA (molt-inhibiting hormone) was significantly decreased ( P < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zachary Emberts, Christine W Miller, Daniel Kiehl, Colette M St Mary
Autotomy, self-induced limb loss, is an extreme trait observed throughout the animal kingdom; lizards drop their tails, crickets release their legs, and crabs drop their claws. These repeated evolutionary origins suggest that autotomy is adaptive. Yet, we do not have a firm understanding of the selective pressures that promote and maintain this extreme trait. Although multiple adaptive hypotheses exist, research has generally focused on autotomy's adaptive value as a form of predator escape. However, autotomy could also be selected to reduce the cost of an injured limb, which we investigate here...
July 2017: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Tiancai Liang, Guobiao Liang, Yang Du, Xin Wang, Yuanliang Wang, Anjian Chen, Zongping Chen, Jiang Du, Hao Li, Lang Yu
RATIONALE: Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Paragonimus in the lungs; it can be divided into intrapulmonary type and extrapulmonary type. Adult patients with scrotal paragnonimus are rarely seen clinically and not widely reported in the literature. Here, we report 2 cases of scrotal paragonimiasis in adults and their treatment process. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two young males sought medical advice because of scrotal masses. Both patients had the previous history of eating uncooked river crabs and presented with palpable quasicircular nodules of about 1...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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