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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550807/effects-of-waterborne-copper-delivered-under-two-different-exposure-and-salinity-regimes-on-osmotic-and-ionic-regulation-in-the-mudflat-fiddler-crab-minuca-rapax-ocypodidae-brachyura
#1
Mariana V Capparelli, John C McNamara, Martin Grosell
The effects of exposure to copper (Cu) on tissue Cu accumulation, on hemolymph osmotic, Na(+) and Cl(-) regulation, and on gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) activities were evaluated in the fiddler crab Minuca rapax. Waterborne copper was delivered to the crabs at one of three salinities (seawater at 25‰ salinity [S] = isosmotic control; distilled water [<0.1‰ S] = hypo-osmotic medium; or 60‰ S = hyper-osmotic seawater) either for 5 days in a 0.5-cm water film containing 0, 50, 150, 250 or 500µg Cu/L with free access to a dry surface, or in crabs fully submerged for 5h at 0, 250 or 500µg Cu/L...
May 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543028/correlated-evolution-between-colouration-and-ambush-site-in-predators-with-visual-prey-lures
#2
F M Gawryszewski, M A Calero-Torralbo, R G Gillespie, M A Rodríguez-Gironés, M E Herberstein
The evolution of a visual signal will be affected by signaller and receiver behaviour, and by the physical properties of the environment where the signal is displayed. Crab spiders are typical sit-and-wait predators found in diverse ambush sites, such as tree bark, foliage and flowers. Some of the flower-dweller species present a UV(+) -white visual lure that makes them conspicuous and attractive to their prey. We hypothesised that UV(+) -white colouration was associated with the evolution of a flower-dwelling habit...
May 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542291/the-first-darter-aves-anhingidae-fossils-from-india-late-pliocene
#3
Thomas Stidham, Rajeev Patnaik, Kewal Krishan, Bahadur Singh, Abhik Ghosh, Ankita Singla, Simran S Kotla
New fossils from the latest Pliocene portion of the Tatrot Formation exposed in the Siwalik Hills of northern India represent the first fossil record of a darter (Anhingidae) from India. The darter fossils possibly represent a new species, but the limited information on the fossil record of this group restricts their taxonomic allocation. The Pliocene darter has a deep pit on the distal face of metatarsal trochlea IV not reported in other anhingids, it has an open groove for the m. flexor perforatus et perforans digiti II tendon on the hypotarsus unlike New World anhingid taxa, and these darter specimens are the youngest of the handful of Neogene records of the group from Asia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540707/fast-real-time-pcr-for-the-detection-of-crustacean-allergens-in-foods
#4
Francisco J Santaclara, Montserrat Espiñeira
Crustaceans are one of the most common allergens causing severe food reaction. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with seafood intake are one of the most common food allergies in adults. Crustaceans including shrimps, prawns, crabs, lobster, and crayfish are a common cause of anaphylaxis or hypersensitivity, with shrimps and crabs being the most common causes of allergy. Symptoms occur most often when food or cooking water are ingested.These food allergens are a health problem, and they have become very important; as evidenced by the existence of several regulations that establish that labeling must be present regarding these allergens to warn consumers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539398/a-balance-of-outward-and-linear-inward-ionic-currents-is-required-for-the-generation-of-slow-wave-oscillations
#5
Jorge Golowasch, Amitabha Bose, Yinzheng Guan, Dalia Salloum, Andrea Roeser, Farzan Nadim
Regenerative inward currents help produce slow oscillations through a negative-slope conductance region of their current-voltage relationship that is well approximated by a linear negative conductance. We used dynamic clamp injections of a linear current with such conductance, INL, to explore why some neurons can generate intrinsic slow oscillations whereas others cannot. We addressed this question, in synaptically isolated neurons of the crab Cancer borealis, after blocking action potentials. The pyloric network consists of a distinct pacemaker and follower neurons, all of which express the same complement of ionic currents...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537612/proline-rich-antimicrobial-peptides-targeting-protein-synthesis
#6
Michael Graf, Mario Mardirossian, Fabian Nguyen, A Carolin Seefeldt, Gilles Guichard, Marco Scocchi, C Axel Innis, Daniel N Wilson
Covering: up to 2017The innate immune system employs a broad array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to attack invading microorganisms. While most AMPs act by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane, specific subclasses of AMPs have been identified that pass through membranes and inhibit bacterial growth by targeting fundamental intracellular processes. One such subclass is the proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) that bind to the ribosome and interfere with the process of protein synthesis. A diverse range of PrAMPs have been identified in insects, such as bees, wasps and beetles, and crustaceans, such as crabs, as well as in mammals, such as cows, sheep, goats and pigs...
May 24, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528392/habitat-quality-mediates-personality-through-differences-in-social-context
#7
Benjamin A Belgrad, Blaine D Griffen
Assessing the stability of animal personalities has become a major goal of behavioral ecologists. Most personality studies have utilized solitary individuals, but little is known on the extent that individuals retain their personality across ecologically relevant group settings. We conducted a field survey which determined that mud crabs, Panopeus herbstii, remain scattered as isolated individuals on degraded oyster reefs while high quality reefs can sustain high crab densities (>10 m(-2)). We examined the impact of these differences in social context on personality by quantifying the boldness of the same individual crabs when in isolation and in natural cohorts...
May 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525787/metals-in-the-scheldt-estuary-from-environmental-concentrations-to-bioaccumulation
#8
Evy Van Ael, Ronny Blust, Lieven Bervoets
To investigate the relationship between metal concentrations in abiotic compartments and in aquatic species, sediment, suspended matter and several aquatic species (Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, four crustacean species, three mollusc species and eight fish species) were collected during three seasons at six locations along the Scheldt estuary (the Netherlands-Belgium) and analysed on their metal content (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and the metalloid As). Sediment and biota tissue concentrations were significantly influenced by sampling location, but not by season...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523250/host-microrna-217-promotes-white-spot-syndrome-virus-infection-by-targeting-tube-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#9
Ying Huang, Keke Han, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small molecule non-encoding RNAs, are key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in many biological processes. In the current study, miR-217 from Eriocheir sinensis was selected for studying its roles during host-virus interaction. Overexpression or silencing of miR-217 led to considerable effects on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replication, implying that miR-217 played a positive role in WSSV infection. In insect High Five cells, miR-217 significantly inhibited Tube gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of the Tube...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522421/a-chymotrypsin-like-serine-protease-from-portunus-trituberculatus-involved-in-pathogen-recognition-and-amp-synthesis-but-not-required-for-prophenoloxidase-activation
#10
Hourong Liu, Yuan Liu, Chengwen Song, Zhaoxia Cui
Clip domain serine proteases (clip-SPs) play critical roles in various immune responses in arthropods, such as hemolymph coagulation, antimicrobial peptide (AMP) synthesis, cell adhesion and melanization. In the present study, we report the molecular and functional characterization of a clip domain serine protease (PtcSP2) from the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. The N-terminal clip domain and the C-terminal SP-like domain of PtcSP2 were expressed in Escherichia coli system, and assayed for their activities...
May 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512864/fish-kairomones-induce-spine-elongation-and-reduce-predation-in-marine-crab-larvae
#11
Corie L Charpentier, Alexander J Wright, Jonathan H Cohen
Specialized defense strategies are induced in zooplankton upon detection of predator chemical cues or kairomones. These defenses are well-described for freshwater zooplankters, with morphological defenses being particularly striking, but few studies have reported kairomone-induced morphological defenses in marine zooplankton. Here, we compare morphological responses to kairomones in the larvae of two marine crab species, estuarine mud crabs (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) and Asian shore crabs (Hemigrapsus sanguineus)...
May 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511938/floating-marine-litter-as-a-raft-for-drifting-voyages-for-planes-minutus-crustacea-decapoda-grapsidae-and-liocarcinus-navigator-crustacea-decapoda-polybiidae
#12
P Tutman, K Kapiris, M Kirinčić, A Pallaoro
The Columbus crab Planes minutus and Arch-fronted swimming crab Liocarcinus navigator, within their distribution ranges in the Mediterranean, were found rafted on plastic macro-litter floating on the open south Adriatic. While P. minutus was recorded from inanimate flotsam outside of the Mediterranean, L. navigator is herein reported for the first time on floating marine litter. The role of floating litter as habitat or as a dispersal agent for marine invertebrates has received quite attention however, records of decapod crabs drifting on litter has been relatively sparse...
May 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507135/parallel-memory-traces-are-built-after-an-experience-containing-aversive-and-appetitive-components-in-the-crab-neohelice
#13
Martín Klappenbach, Ayelén Nally, Fernando Federico Locatelli
The neurobiology of learning and memory has been mainly studied by focusing on pure aversive or appetitive experiences. Here, we challenged this approach considering that real-life stimuli come normally associated with competing aversive and appetitive consequences and that interaction between conflicting information must be intrinsic part of the memory processes. We used Neohelice crabs, taking advantage of two well-described appetitive and aversive learning paradigms and combining them in a single training session to evaluate how this affects memory...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503803/a-microstructural-study-of-the-pleon-holding-mechanism-in-carcinus-maenas-decapoda-brachyura-portunoidea-carcinidae-of-different-sizes
#14
Stephanie Köhnk, Stanislav N Gorb, Dirk Brandis
Within the Brachyura there are a variety of specialized holding mechanisms, which facilitate the close attachment of the highly reduced pleon underneath the cephalothorax. The most common mechanism in eubrachyurans, known as the press-button, consists of a sternal protrusion and a corresponding pleonal socket. Reports on the microstructural properties of the surface of these holding structures are scarce and patchy. In this study, the European Green Crab Carcinus maenas, is used as model to describe the microstructure of a typical press-button mechanism with the use of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopic histology...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502748/cytochrome-p450-diversity-in-the-tree-of-life
#15
David R Nelson
Sequencing in all areas of the tree of life has produced >300,000 cytochrome P450 (CYP) sequences that have been mined and collected. Nomenclature has been assigned to >41,000 CYP sequences and the majority of the remainder has been sorted by BLAST searches into clans, families and subfamilies in preparation for naming. The P450 sequence space is being systematically explored and filled in. Well-studied groups like vertebrates are covered in greater depth while new insights are being added into uncharted territories like horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), tardigrades (Hypsibius dujardini), velvet worm (Euperipatoides_rowelli), and basal land plants like hornworts, liverworts and mosses...
May 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496490/chitin-from-the-mollusc-chiton-extraction-characterization-and-chitosan-preparation
#16
Hashem Rasti, Kazem Parivar, Javad Baharara, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Farideh Namvar
This study presents the first ever data of extracting chitin from the Chiton shell, which was then converted to the soluble chitosan by soaking in the 45% NaOH solution. The obtained chitin and chitosan were characterized by the seven different methods. Antioxidant activity of the extracted chitosan was also evaluated using the two methods. The shell content was divided into calcium carbonate (90.5 %), protein (5.2%), and chitin (4.3 %). Due to the results of element analysis and (1)H NMR, the final degree of deacetylation of chitosan was 90%...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496442/a-proteomic-study-of-hemocyte-proteins-from-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-infected-with-white-spot-syndrome-virus-or-vibrio-alginolyticus
#17
Baozhen Sun, Zhi Wang, Ziyan Wang, Xiongchao Ma, Fei Zhu
In this study, we investigated the hemocytes' immune response to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus infection at the protein level. The differential proteomes from crab hemocytes infected with WSSV or V. alginolyticus were analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation approach immediately after infection. Using this approach, we identified 1,799 proteins by their by LC-MS/MS spectra and sequencing data. These included 157 upregulated proteins and 164 downregulated proteins after WSSV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492174/hematodinium-spp-infections-in-wild-and-cultured-populations-of-marine-crustaceans-along-the-coast-of-china
#18
Jin-Feng Wang, Meng Li, Jie Xiao, Wen-Jun Xu, Cai-Wen Li
The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium spp. infects a broad range of marine crustaceans. Its epidemics have impacted wild populations of various commercial fishery species around the world and the sustainability of mariculture in China. To study the epidemiology of Hematodinium spp. in marine crustaceans along the coast of China, we conducted a broad survey of wild and cultured stocks of major crustacean species in 2013 to 2015. Hematodinium sp. infections were identified in wild stocks of Portunus trituberculatus from Huludao, Laizhou, Qingdao, Yangtze River Estuary and Zhoushan, and Scylla paramamosain from Shantou; and cultured stocks of Portunus trituberculatus and Penaeus monodon from a polyculture pond in Qingdao...
May 11, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492173/disease-ecology-of-hematodinium-perezi-in-a-high-salinity-estuary-investigating-seasonal-trends-in-environmental-detection
#19
K A Lycett, J S Pitula
The blue crab Callinectes sapidus has seen a general decline in population levels. One factor influencing mortality is infections by Hematodinium perezi, a dinoflagellate parasite. A 2 yr study was conducted in 2014 and 2015 to monitor H. perezi DNA within the Maryland (USA) coastal bays, comparing seasonal cycles in the abundance of parasite DNA in environmental samples to parasite presence in host blue crabs. A late summer to early fall peak in H. perezi infections in blue crabs was observed, consistent with previous work...
May 11, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491058/a-meta-transcriptomics-survey-reveals-changes-in-the-microbiota-of-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis-infected-with-hepatopancreatic-necrosis-disease
#20
Huaishun Shen, Yanan Zang, Kun Song, Yuanchao Ma, Tianhao Dai, Ali Serwadda
Infection of the freshwater Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis with hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (HPND) has been a major problem in the crab-cultivated Chinese Province of Jiangsu since 2015. To explore the etiology of HPND, meta-transcriptomic libraries of the hepatopancreata from crabs with and without HPND were constructed. Comparison analyses showed that there were no statistically significant differences in viral and microsporidial communities in the hepatopancreata of diseased and healthy crabs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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