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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917011/an-unprecedented-coastwide-toxic-algal-bloom-linked-to-anomalous-ocean-conditions
#1
Ryan M McCabe, Barbara M Hickey, Raphael M Kudela, Kathi A Lefebvre, Nicolaus G Adams, Brian D Bill, Frances M D Gulland, Richard E Thomson, William P Cochlan, Vera L Trainer
A coastwide bloom of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in spring 2015 resulted in the largest recorded outbreak of the neurotoxin, domoic acid, along the North American west coast. Elevated toxins were measured in numerous stranded marine mammals and resulted in geographically extensive and prolonged closures of razor clam, rock crab, and Dungeness crab fisheries. We demonstrate that this outbreak was initiated by anomalously warm ocean conditions. Pseudo-nitzschia australis thrived north of its typical range in the warm, nutrient-poor water that spanned the northeast Pacific in early 2015...
October 16, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913792/genetic-engineering-approach-to-develop-next-generation-reagents-for-endotoxin-quantification
#2
Hikaru Mizumura, Norihiko Ogura, Jun Aketagawa, Maki Aizawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata, Toshio Oda
The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs) were then prepared to reconstruct the reaction cascade in the amebocyte lysate reagent...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907093/mangrove-crab-ucides-cordatus-removal-does-not-affect-sediment-parameters-and-stipule-production-in-a-one-year-experiment-in-northern-brazil
#3
Nathalie Pülmanns, Ulf Mehlig, Inga Nordhaus, Ulrich Saint-Paul, Karen Diele
Mangrove crabs influence ecosystem processes through bioturbation and/or litter feeding. In Brazilian mangroves, the abundant and commercially important crab Ucides cordatus is the main faunal modifier of microtopography establishing up to 2 m deep burrows. They process more than 70% of the leaf litter and propagule production, thus promoting microbial degradation of detritus and benefiting microbe-feeding fiddler crabs. The accelerated nutrient turn-over and increased sediment oxygenation mediated by U. cordatus may enhance mangrove tree growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905044/modulatory-effect-of-the-exudates-released-by-the-brown-kelp-lessonia-spicata-on-the-toxicity-of-copper-in-early-developmental-stages-of-ecologically-related-organisms
#4
Alexandre Fellous, Santiago Andrade, Francisco Vidal-Ramirez, Ricardo Calderón, Jessica Beltran, Juan A Correa
Lessonia spicata is a key dominant species along the Pacific coast of South America, providing a habitat for many organisms. However, this role can be affected by abiotic stress, such as metals. To counteract the toxic effect, L. spicata, among other seaweeds, releases exudates that bind metals. In this study, tolerances to copper of organisms related to the kelp forest (spores of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) and L. spicata (Phaeophyceae) and Zoea I of Taliepus dentatus (Milne-Edwards, Crustacea)) were studied; then, exudates are assessed by their protective effect...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#5
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899642/the-ucsc-genome-browser-database-2017-update
#6
Cath Tyner, Galt P Barber, Jonathan Casper, Hiram Clawson, Mark Diekhans, Christopher Eisenhart, Clayton M Fischer, David Gibson, Jairo Navarro Gonzalez, Luvina Guruvadoo, Maximilian Haeussler, Steve Heitner, Angie S Hinrichs, Donna Karolchik, Brian T Lee, Christopher M Lee, Parisa Nejad, Brian J Raney, Kate R Rosenbloom, Matthew L Speir, Chris Villarreal, John Vivian, Ann S Zweig, David Haussler, Robert M Kuhn, W James Kent
Since its 2001 debut, the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser (http://genome.ucsc.edu/) team has provided continuous support to the international genomics and biomedical communities through a web-based, open source platform designed for the fast, scalable display of sequence alignments and annotations landscaped against a vast collection of quality reference genome assemblies. The browser's publicly accessible databases are the backbone of a rich, integrated bioinformatics tool suite that includes a graphical interface for data queries and downloads, alignment programs, command-line utilities and more...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898308/emerging-biopharmaceuticals-from-marine-actinobacteria
#7
REVIEW
Syed Shams Ul Hassan, Komal Anjum, Syed Qamar Abbas, Najeeb Akhter, Bibi Ibtesam Shagufta, Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Umber Tasneem
Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others...
November 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896558/h3k9ac-involved-in-the-decondensation-of-spermatozoal-nuclei-during-spermatogenesis-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#8
Genliang Li, Xianjiang Kang, Shumei Mu, Mingshen Guo, Shiwen Huang, Qinna Chen, Song Nong, Xiaomin Huang, Hongliu Hu, Ke Sun
As a well-known crustacean model species, the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis presents spermatozoa with decondensed DNA. Our aim was to analyze structural distribution of the histone H3 and its acetylated lysine 9 (H3K9ac) during spermatogenesis for the mechanistic understanding of the nuclear decondensation of the spermatozoa in E. sinensis. Using specific antibodies, we followed the structural distribution and acetylated lysine 9 of the histone H3 during spermatogenesis, especially spermiogenesis, of E...
November 28, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896477/how-do-anthropogenic-contaminants-acs-affect-behaviour-multi-level-analysis-of-the-effects-of-copper-on-boldness-in-hermit-crabs
#9
Stephen J White, Mark Briffa
Natural animal populations are increasingly exposed to human impacts on the environment, which could have consequences for their behaviour. Among these impacts is exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. Any environmental variable that influences internal state could impact behaviour across a number of levels: at the sample mean, at the level of among-individual differences in behaviour ('animal personality') and at the level of within-individual variation in behaviour (intra-individual variation, 'IIV'). Here we examined the effect of exposure to seawater-borne copper on the startle response behaviour of European hermit crabs, Pagurus bernhardus across these levels...
November 28, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890715/effects-of-atrazine-on-ovarian-growth-in-the-estuarine-crab-neohelice-granulata
#10
G R Silveyra, I S Canosa, E M Rodríguez, D A Medesani
Atrazine, a herbicide that is intensively used in Argentina, was assayed to evaluate the alteration of reproduction in a wild species of crustaceans. Adult females of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata were exposed to formulated atrazine during the 3-month pre-reproductive period. Three atrazine concentrations (0.03, 0.3 and 3mg/L) were assayed, together with a water dilution control. At the end of the exposure period, several variables concerning the energetic status of animals were measured, such as weight gain, glycemia, and energy reserves in both muscle and hepatopancreas...
November 24, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881972/multilocus-sequence-typing-analysis-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-a-chinese-burns-institute
#11
Guangtao Huang, Supeng Yin, Yali Gong, Xia Zhao, Lingyun Zou, Bei Jiang, Zhiwei Dong, Yu Chen, Jing Chen, Shouguang Jin, Zhiqiang Yuan, Yizhi Peng
Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) has left few effective antibiotics for clinicians to use. To investigate the temporal evolutionary relationships among CRAB strains, we collected 248 CRAB isolates from a Chinese burns institute over 3 years. The prevalence of the OXA-23 gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Multilocus sequence typing was used to type the CRAB strains and eBURST was used to analyze their evolutionary relationships...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880779/a-mighty-claw-pinching-force-of-the-coconut-crab-the-largest-terrestrial-crustacean
#12
Shin-Ichiro Oka, Taketeru Tomita, Kei Miyamoto
Crustaceans can exert a greater force using their claws than many animals can with other appendages. Furthermore, in decapods, the chela is a notable organ with multifunctional roles. The coconut crab, Birgus latro, is the largest terrestrial crustacean and has a remarkable ability to lift weights up to approximately 30 kg. However, the pinching force of this crab's chelae has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we measured the pinching force of the chelae in 29 wild coconut crabs (33-2,120 g in body weight)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867813/the-evaluation-of-the-three-edible-tissues-of-dead-adult-chinese-mitten-crabs-eriocheir-sinensis-freshness-in-harvest-season-based-on-the-analysis-of-tvbn-and-biogenic-amine
#13
Xiaozhen Yang, Jinbiao Zhang, Yongxu Cheng
This study was carried out to evaluate the quality of the three edible tissues (muscles, hepatopancreas and gonads) of the male and female Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) in natural harvest season, based on total volatile base nitrogen test (TVBN) and biogenic amines analysis at intervals time of 3 h extended for 24 h during 30 °C storage (a mean ambient temperature in harvest season). In addition, the relationship between the value of TVBN and storage time or main biogenic amine was evaluated...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866343/maternal-transfer-of-trace-elements-in-the-atlantic-horseshoe-crab-limulus-polyphemus
#14
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
The maternal transfer of trace elements is a process by which offspring may accumulate trace elements from their maternal parent. Although maternal transfer has been assessed in many vertebrates, there is little understanding of this process in invertebrate species. This study investigated the maternal transfer of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs and compared concentrations to those in adult leg and gill tissue. For the majority of individuals, all trace elements were transferred, with the exception of Cr, from the female to the eggs...
November 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863254/acute-exposure-to-high-environmental-ammonia-hea-triggers-the-emersion-response-in-the-green-shore-crab
#15
Alex M Zimmer, Chris M Wood
The physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure have been well documented in many aquatic species. In particular, it has recently been demonstrated that exposure to ammonia in fish leads to a similar hyperventilatory response as observed during exposure to hypoxia. In littoral crabs, such as the green crab (Carcinus maenas), exposure to severe hypoxia triggers an emersion response whereby crabs escape hypoxia to breathe air. We hypothesized that exposure to HEA in green crabs would lead to a similar behavioural response which is specific to ammonia...
November 15, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861598/contrasting-patterns-of-clinal-genetic-diversity-and-potential-colonization-pathways-in-two-species-of-western-atlantic-fiddler-crabs
#16
Claudia Laurenzano, Tânia M Costa, Christoph D Schubart
Fiddler crabs (Brachyura, Ocypodidae), like many other marine organisms, disperse via planktonic larvae. A lengthy pelagic larval duration is generally assumed to result in genetic connectivity even among distant populations. However, major river outflows, such as of the Amazon or Orinoco, or strong currents may act as phylogeographic barriers to ongoing gene flow. For example, the Mona Passage, located between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, has been postulated to impair larval exchange of several species. In this study, Cox1 mtDNA data was used to analyze population genetic structure of two fiddler crab species from the western Atlantic, comparing the continental coastline and Caribbean islands...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859349/development-of-in-situ-hybridization-and-real-time-pcr-assays-for-the-detection-of-hepatospora-eriocheir-a-microsporidian-pathogen-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#17
Z F Ding, J Q Chen, J Lin, X S Zhu, G H Xu, R L Wang, Q G Meng, W Wang
A microsporidian parasite, Hepatospora eriocheir, is an emerging pathogen for the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Currently, there is scant information about the way it transmits infection in the crustacean of commercial importance, including its pathogenesis, propagation and infection route in vivo. In this study, chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays were developed to address this pressing need, and we provided an advance in the detection methods available...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859063/habitat-augmentation-drives-secondary-invasion-an-experimental-approach-to-determine-the-mechanism-of-invasion-success
#18
Luke S O'Loughlin, Peter T Green
The entry of secondary invaders into, or their expansion within, native communities is contingent on the changes wrought by other (primary) invaders. When primary invaders have altered more than one property of the recipient community, standard descriptive and modeling approaches only provide a best guess of the mechanism permitting the secondary invasion. In rainforest on Christmas Island, we conducted a manipulative field experiment to determine the mechanism of invasion success for a community of land snails dominated by non-native species...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856766/context-dependent-memory-traces-in-the-crab-s-mushroom-bodies-functional-support-for-a-common-origin-of-high-order-memory-centers
#19
Francisco Javier Maza, Julieta Sztarker, Avishag Shkedy, Valeria Natacha Peszano, Fernando Federico Locatelli, Alejandro Delorenzi
The hypothesis of a common origin for the high-order memory centers in bilateral animals is based on the evidence that several key features, including gene expression and neuronal network patterns, are shared across several phyla. Central to this hypothesis is the assumption that the arthropods' higher order neuropils of the forebrain [the mushroom bodies (MBs) of insects and the hemiellipsoid bodies (HBs) of crustaceans] are homologous structures. However, even though involvement in memory processes has been repeatedly demonstrated for the MBs, direct proof of such a role in HBs is lacking...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853615/not-what-it-looks-like-mate-searching-behaviour-mate-preferences-and-clutch-production-in-wandering-and-territory-holding-female-fiddler-crabs
#20
M Peso, E Curran, P R Y Backwell
Risks inherent in mate-searching have led to the assumption that females moving sequentially through populations of courting males are sexually receptive, but this may not be true. We examined two types of fiddler crab females: wanderers moving through the population of courting males and residents that were occupying and defending their own territories. Sometimes residents leave territories to look for new burrows and we simulated this by displacing wanderers and residents and observing their behaviour while wandering...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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