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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100720/audience-affects-decision-making-in-a-marmoset-communication-network
#1
Camille R Toarmino, Lauren Wong, Cory T Miller
An audience can have a profound effect on the dynamics of communicative interactions. As a result, non-human primates often adjust their social decision-making strategies depending on the audience composition at a given time. Here we sought to test how the unique vocal behaviour of multiple audience members affected decisions to communicate. To address this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which common marmosets directly interacted with multiple 'virtual monkeys' (VMs), each of whom represented an individual marmoset with distinct vocal behaviour...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092563/effects-of-different-types-of-virtual-reality-display-on-presence-and-learning-in-a-safety-training-scenario
#2
Fabio Buttussi, Luca Chittaro
The increasing availability of head-mounted displays (HMDs) for home use motivates the study of the possible effects that adopting this new hardware might have on users. Moreover, while the impact of display type has bee respectively representative of: (i) desktop VR (a standard desktop monitor), (ii) many setups for immersive VR used in the literature (an HMD with narrow field of view and a 3-DOF tracker), and (iii) new setups for immersive home VR (an HMD with wide field of view and 6-DOF tracker). We assessed effects on knowledge gain, and different self-reported measures (self-efficacy, engagement, presence)...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090102/virtual-patient-case-sharing-across-two-schools-of-pharmacy
#3
Michael A Smith, Laura A Siemianowski, Neal Benedict
Objective. To expand the use of virtual patients at 2 schools of pharmacy through virtual patient case sharing. Design. Faculty members at two schools of pharmacy collaborated to expand the use of virtual patients. Two simulation programs, vpSim and DecisionSim (Decision Simulation, LLC, Chadsford, PA), were used to create interactive patient cases for a required course and an elective course at the different schools. Each school developed cases for their own use and then shared the cases with the other school...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089473/box-or-virtual-reality-trainer-which-tool-results-in-better-transfer-of-laparoscopic-basic-skills-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#4
Christian Brinkmann, Mathias Fritz, Ulrich Pankratius, Ralf Bahde, Philipp Neumann, Steffen Schlueter, Norbert Senninger, Emile Rijcken
OBJECTIVE: Simulation training improves laparoscopic performance. Laparoscopic basic skills can be learned in simulators as box- or virtual-reality (VR) trainers. However, there is no clear recommendation for either box or VR trainers as the most appropriate tool for the transfer of acquired laparoscopic basic skills into a surgical procedure. DESIGN: Both training tools were compared, using validated and well-established curricula in the acquirement of basic skills, in a prospective randomized trial in a 5-day structured laparoscopic training course...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086875/learning-global-health-a-pilot-study-of-an-online-collaborative-intercultural-peer-group-activity-involving-medical-students-in-australia-and-indonesia
#5
Mark Ambrose, Linda Murray, Nicholas E Handoyo, Deif Tunggal, Nick Cooling
BACKGROUND: There is limited research to inform effective pedagogies for teaching global health to undergraduate medical students. Theoretically, using a combination of teaching pedagogies typically used in 'international classrooms' may prove to be an effective way of learning global health. This pilot study aimed to explore the experiences of medical students in Australia and Indonesia who participated in a reciprocal intercultural participatory peer e-learning activity (RIPPLE) in global health...
January 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073736/development-of-an-educational-game-to-set-up-surgical-instruments-on-the-mayo-stand-or-back-table-applied-research-in-production-technology
#6
Crislaine Pires Padilha Paim, Silvia Goldmeier
BACKGROUND: Existing research suggests that digital games can be used effectively for educational purposes at any level of training. Perioperative nursing educators can use games to complement curricula, in guidance and staff development programs, to foster team collaboration, and to give support to critical thinking in nursing practice because it is a complex environment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the process of developing an educational game to set up surgical instruments on the Mayo stand or back table as a resource to assist the instructor in surgical instrumentation training for students and nursing health professionals in continued education...
January 10, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073670/simulation-based-training-platforms-for-arthroscopy-a-randomized-comparison-of-virtual-reality-learning-to-benchtop-learning
#7
Robert M Middleton, Abtin Alvand, Patrick Garfjeld Roberts, Caroline Hargrove, Georgina Kirby, Jonathan L Rees
PURPOSE: To determine whether a virtual reality (VR) arthroscopy simulator or benchtop (BT) arthroscopy simulator showed superiority as a training tool. METHODS: Arthroscopic novices were randomized to a training program on a BT or a VR knee arthroscopy simulator. The VR simulator provided user performance feedback. Individuals performed a diagnostic arthroscopy on both simulators before and after the training program. Performance was assessed using wireless objective motion analysis and a global rating scale...
January 7, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066818/microbiome-helper-a-custom-and-streamlined-workflow-for-microbiome-research
#8
André M Comeau, Gavin M Douglas, Morgan G I Langille
Sequence-based approaches to study microbiomes, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics, are uncovering associations between microbial taxa and a myriad of factors. A drawback of these approaches is that the necessary sequencing library preparation and bioinformatic analyses are complicated and continuously changing, which can be a barrier for researchers new to the field. We present three essential components to conducting a microbiome experiment from start to finish: first, a simplified and step-by-step custom gene sequencing protocol that requires limited lab equipment, is cost-effective, and has been thoroughly tested and utilized on various sample types; second, a series of scripts to integrate various commonly used bioinformatic tools that is available as a standalone installation or as a single downloadable virtual image; and third, a set of bioinformatic workflows and tutorials to provide step-by-step guidance and education for those new to the microbiome field...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065689/virtual-teach-to-goal%C3%A2-adaptive-learning-of-inhaler-technique-for-inpatients-with-asthma-or-copd
#9
Valerie G Press, Colleen A Kelly, John J Kim, Steven R White, David O Meltzer, Vineet M Arora
BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) result in more than 1 million hospitalizations annually. Most hospitalized patients misuse respiratory inhalers. This misuse can be corrected with in-person education; however, this strategy is resource intensive and skills wane quickly after discharge. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and pilot a virtual teach-to-goal™ (V-TTG™) inhaler skill training module, using innovative adaptive learning technology...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057502/variations-of-the-morris-water-maze-task-to-comparatively-assess-human-and-rodent-place-navigation
#10
Robby Schoenfeld, Thomas Schiffelholz, Christian Beyer, Bernd Leplow, Nigel Foreman
Performance in the Morris water maze has been widely used in routine behavioural studies of rodents. Since the advent of computer-based virtual environments, adaptations of the water maze have become available for human research. Despite decades of comparative neuroscience, formal comparisons of human and animal place navigation performance are rarely. We studied 36 subjects, 18 young male mice in a Morris water maze and 18 male students in a virtual version. Quantitative measures (escape latencies, distances and platform crossings) indicated no discernable differences between human and rodent performance, reinforcing the task's general validity and its implied cross-species comparability...
January 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056023/short-term-motor-skill-acquisition-improves-with-size-of-self-controlled-virtual-hands
#11
Ori Ossmy, Roy Mukamel
Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048717/mo-fg-202-09-virtual-imrt-qa-using-machine-learning-a-multi-institutional-validation
#12
G Valdes, M Chan, R Scheuermann, J Deasy, T Solberg
PURPOSE: To validate a machine learning approach to Virtual IMRT QA for accurately predicting gamma passing rates using different QA devices at different institutions. METHODS: A Virtual IMRT QA was constructed using a machine learning algorithm based on 416 IMRT plans, in which QA measurements were performed using diode-array detectors and a 3%local/3mm with 10% threshold. An independent set of 139 IMRT measurements from a different institution, with QA data based on portal dosimetry using the same gamma index and 10% threshold, was used to further test the algorithm...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045895/a-framework-for-analyzing-the-whole-body-surface-area-from-a-single-view
#13
Marco Piccirilli, Gianfranco Doretto, Donald Adjeroh
We present a virtual reality (VR) framework for the analysis of whole human body surface area. Usual methods for determining the whole body surface area (WBSA) are based on well known formulae, characterized by large errors when the subject is obese, or belongs to certain subgroups. For these situations, we believe that a computer vision approach can overcome these problems and provide a better estimate of this important body indicator. Unfortunately, using machine learning techniques to design a computer vision system able to provide a new body indicator that goes beyond the use of only body weight and height, entails a long and expensive data acquisition process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045758/a-virtual-reality-simulation-model-of-spinal-ultrasound-role-in-teaching-spinal-sonoanatomy
#14
Reva Ramlogan, Ahtsham U Niazi, Rongyu Jin, James Johnson, Vincent W Chan, Anahi Perlas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound assessment of the lumbar spine improves the success of spinal and epidural anesthesia, especially for patients with underlying difficult anatomy. To assist with the teaching and learning of ultrasound-guided neuraxial anesthesia, we have created an online interactive educational model (http://www.usra.ca/vspine.php and http://pie.med.utoronto.ca/vspine). The aim of the current study was to determine whether the virtual spine model improved the knowledge of neuraxial anatomy and sonoanatomy...
December 29, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041606/acquisition-retention-and-transfer-of-simulated-laparoscopic-tasks-using-fnir-and-a-contextual-interference-paradigm
#15
Patricia A Shewokis, Faiz U Shariff, Yichuan Liu, Hasan Ayaz, Andres Castellanos, D Scott Lind
BACKGROUND: Using functional near infrared spectroscopy, a noninvasive, optical brain imaging tool that monitors changes in hemodynamics within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we assessed performance and cognitive effort during the acquisition, retention and transfer of multiple simulated laparoscopic tasks by novice learners within a contextual interference paradigm. METHODS: Third-year medical students (n = 10) were randomized to either a blocked or random practice schedule...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039801/persuasive-technology-in-teaching-acute-pain-assessment-in-nursing-results-in-learning-based-on-pre-and-post-testing
#16
Ana Graziela Alvarez, Grace T Marcon Dal Sasso, M Sriram Iyengar
BACKGROUND: Thousands of patients seek health services every day with complaints of pain. However, adequate pain assessment is still flawed, a fact that is partly related to gaps in professional learning on this topic. Innovative strategies such as the use of a virtual learning object mediated by persuasive technology in the learning of undergraduate nursing students can help to fill these gaps and to provide different ways of learning to learn. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results in learning among undergraduate nursing students about assessment of acute pain in adults and newborns, before and after an online educational intervention...
December 22, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039649/or-fire-virtual-training-simulator-design-and-face-validity
#17
Denis Dorozhkin, Jaisa Olasky, Daniel B Jones, Steven D Schwaitzberg, Stephanie B Jones, Caroline G L Cao, Marcos Molina, Steven Henriques, Jinling Wang, Jeff Flinn, Suvranu De
BACKGROUND: The Virtual Electrosurgical Skill Trainer is a tool for training surgeons the safe operation of electrosurgery tools in both open and minimally invasive surgery. This training includes a dedicated team-training module that focuses on operating room (OR) fire prevention and response. The module was developed to allow trainees, practicing surgeons, anesthesiologist, and nurses to interact with a virtual OR environment, which includes anesthesia apparatus, electrosurgical equipment, a virtual patient, and a fire extinguisher...
December 30, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035889/naive-juveniles-are-more-likely-to-become-breeders-after-witnessing-predator-mobbing
#18
Michael Griesser, Toshitaka N Suzuki
Responding appropriately during the first predatory attack in life is often critical for survival. In many social species, naive juveniles acquire this skill from conspecifics, but its fitness consequences remain virtually unknown. Here we experimentally demonstrate how naive juvenile Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus) derive a long-term fitness benefit from witnessing knowledgeable adults mobbing their principal predator, the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Siberian jays live in family groups of two to six individuals that also can include unrelated nonbreeders...
January 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035841/rehabilitation-robotics-for-the-upper-extremity-review-with-new-directions-for-orthopaedic-disorders
#19
Renée M Hakim, Brandon G Tunis, Michael D Ross
The focus of research using technological innovations such as robotic devices has been on interventions to improve upper extremity function in neurologic populations, particularly patients with stroke. There is a growing body of evidence describing rehabilitation programs using various types of supportive/assistive and/or resistive robotic and virtual reality-enhanced devices to improve outcomes for patients with neurologic disorders. The most promising approaches are task-oriented, based on current concepts of motor control/learning and practice-induced neuroplasticity...
December 30, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032413/variation-in-external-representations-as-part-of-the-classroom-lecture-an-investigation-of-virtual-cell-animations-in-introductory-photosynthesis-instruction
#20
Eric E Goff, Katie M Reindl, Christina Johnson, Phillip McClean, Erika G Offerdahl, Noah L Schroeder, Alan R White
The use of external representations (ERs) to introduce concepts in undergraduate biology has become increasingly common. Two of the most prevalent are static images and dynamic animations. While previous studies comparing static images and dynamic animations have resulted in somewhat conflicting findings in regards to learning outcomes, the benefits of each have been shown individually. Using ERs developed by the Virtual Cell Animation project, we aim to further investigate student learning using different ERs as part of an introductory biology lecture...
December 28, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
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