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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812196/convergent-validation-and-transfer-of-learning-studies-of-a-virtual-reality-based-pattern-cutting-simulator
#1
Arun Nemani, Woojin Ahn, Clairice Cooper, Steven Schwaitzberg, Suvranu De
INTRODUCTION: Research has clearly shown the benefits of surgical simulators to train laparoscopic motor skills required for positive patient outcomes. We have developed the Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skill Trainer (VBLaST) that simulates tasks from the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum. This study aims to show convergent validity of the VBLaST pattern cutting module via the CUSUM method to quantify learning curves along with motor skill transfer from simulation environments to ex vivo tissue samples...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811259/should-i-trust-you-learning-and-memory-of-social-interactions-in-dementia
#2
Stephanie Wong, Muireann Irish, Claire O'Callaghan, Fiona Kumfor, Greg Savage, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Michael Hornberger
Social relevance has an enhancing effect on learning and subsequent memory retrieval. The ability to learn from and remember social interactions may impact on susceptibility to financial exploitation, which is elevated in individuals with dementia. The current study aimed to investigate learning and memory of social interactions, the relationship between performance and financial vulnerability and the neural substrates underpinning performance in 14 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808834/biochemical-and-behavioral-phenotype-of-agat-and-gamt-deficient-mice-following-long-term-creatine-monohydrate-supplementation
#3
Furhan Iqbal, Herald Hoeger, Gurt Lubec, Olaf Bodamer
The creatine/phosphocreatine system is essential for cellular phosphate coupled energy storage and production. We investigated the utility of creatine monohydrate supplementation in two different creatine deficient knockout mouse models. Following weaning, female Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase (AGAT) and Guanidinoacetate: methyltransferase (GAMT) knockouts and wild type mice were studied based on their genotypes and dietary supplementation (creatine free or 2% creatine monohydrate supplemented diet) for 10 weeks, using a series of behavioral tests and biochemical analyzes...
August 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803457/development-of-a-proficiency-based-virtual-reality-simulation-training-curriculum-for-laparoscopic-appendicectomy
#4
Pramudith Sirimanna, Marc A Gladman
BACKGROUND: Proficiency-based virtual reality (VR) training curricula improve intraoperative performance, but have not been developed for laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA). This study aimed to develop an evidence-based training curriculum for LA. METHODS: A total of 10 experienced (>50 LAs), eight intermediate (10-30 LAs) and 20 inexperienced (<10 LAs) operators performed guided and unguided LA tasks on a high-fidelity VR simulator using internationally relevant techniques...
August 13, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802770/efficacy-of-navigation-may-be-influenced-by-retrosplenial-cortex-mediated-learning-of-landmark-stability
#5
Stephen D Auger, Peter Zeidman, Eleanor A Maguire
Human beings differ considerably in their ability to orient and navigate within the environment, but it has been difficult to determine specific causes of these individual differences. Permanent, stable landmarks are thought to be crucial for building a mental representation of an environment. Poor, compared to good, navigators have been shown to have difficulty identifying permanent landmarks, with a concomitant reduction in functional MRI (fMRI) activity in the retrosplenial cortex. However, a clear association between navigation ability and the learning of permanent landmarks has not been established...
August 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791157/context-dependent-female-mate-choice-maintains-variation-in-male-sexual-activity
#6
Carolin Sommer-Trembo, Martin Plath, Jakob Gismann, Claudia Helfrich, David Bierbach
The existence of individual variation in males' motivation to mate remains a conundrum as directional selection should favour high mating frequencies. Balancing selection resulting from (context-dependent) female mate choice could contribute to the maintenance of this behavioural polymorphism. In dichotomous choice tests, mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) females preferred virtual males showing intermediate mating frequencies, reflecting females' tendencies to avoid harassment by highly sexually active males...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789870/relevance-of-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-gelatinous-part-in-learned-preferences-induced-by-intragastric-nutrient-administration
#7
María A Zafra, Antonio D Agüera, Filomena Molina, Amadeo Puerto
Food preferences have been investigated in Wistar rats utilizing a learned concurrent flavor preference behavioral procedure. Previous studies have demonstrated that the perivagal administration of neurotoxin capsaicin disrupts the learning of preferences induced by intragastric administration of rewarding nutrients (pre-digested milk). The vagus nerve projects almost exclusively towards the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), a brain medullary gateway for visceral signals. The objective of this study was to investigate the participation of the lateral portion of the dorsomedial region, the gelatinous subnucleus (SolG), in the learning of a concurrent preference task...
August 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789739/teamstepps-virtual-teams-interactive-virtual-team-training-and-practice-for-health-professional-learners
#8
Rachel A Umoren, Julie A Poore, Linda Sweigart, Natalia Rybas, Evalyn Gossett, Miles Johnson, Martina Allen, Patricia J Scott, Barbara Truman, Rohit Das
Medical errors because of communication failure are common in health care settings. Teamwork training, such as Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS), improves team performance and patient outcomes. Academic institutions seek high-quality, low-cost curricula for interprofessional education (IPE) to prepare learners for clinical experiences before and after graduation; however, most IPE curricula involve lectures, simple tabletop exercises, and in-person simulations and are not readily accessible to geographically distributed and asynchronously engaged learners...
August 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777114/use-of-a-virtual-learning-platform-for-distance-based-simulation-in-an-acute-care-nurse-practitioner-curriculum
#9
Margaret Carman, Shu Xu, Sharron Rushton, Benjamin A Smallheer, Denise Williams, Sathya Amarasekara, Marilyn H Oermann
BACKGROUND: Acute care nurse practitioner (ACNP) programs that use high-fidelity simulation as a teaching tool need to consider innovative strategies to provide distance-based students with learning experiences that are comparable to those in a simulation laboratory. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe the use of virtual simulations in a distance-based ACNP program and student performance in the simulations. METHOD: Virtual simulations using iSimulate were integrated into the ACNP course to promote the translation of content into a clinical context and enable students to develop their knowledge and decision-making skills...
September 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768952/evaluation-of-an-evidence-based-medicine-educational-program-for-pharmacists-and-pharmacy-students
#10
Tadashi Shimizu, Masahiro Ueda, Mikoto Toyoyama, Shiho Ohmori, Nobumasa Takagaki
 This study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based medicine (EBM) educational program on EBM-related knowledge and skills of pharmacists and pharmacy students. Our preliminary educational program included the following four sessions: 1) ice breaker, 2) formulation of answerable clinical questions from virtual clinical scenario using the PICO criteria, 3) critical appraisal of the literature using a checklist, and 4) critical appraisal of the results and integrating the evidence with experience and patients values...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766097/ranking-docking-poses-by-graph-matching-of-protein-ligand-interactions-lessons-learned-from-the-d3r-grand-challenge-2
#11
Priscila da Silva Figueiredo Celestino Gomes, Franck Da Silva, Guillaume Bret, Didier Rognan
A novel docking challenge has been set by the Drug Design Data Resource (D3R) in order to predict the pose and affinity ranking of a set of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists, prior to the public release of their bound X-ray structures and potencies. In a first phase, 36 agonists were docked to 26 Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures of the FXR receptor, and next rescored using the in-house developed GRIM method. GRIM aligns protein-ligand interaction patterns of docked poses to those of available PDB templates for the target protein, and rescore poses by a graph matching method...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763626/virtual-morris-task-responses-in-individuals-in-an-abstinence-phase-from-alcohol
#12
Mauro Ceccanti, Giovanna Coriale, Derek Hamilton, Valentina Carito, Roberto Coccurello, Bruna Scalese, Stefania Ciafre', Claudia Codazzo, Marisa Patrizia Messina, George Chaldakov, Marco Fiore
The present study was aimed at examining spatial learning and memory in 33 men and 12 women with alcohol use disorder (AUD) undergoing ethanol detoxification by using a virtual Morris task. As controls, we recruited 29 men and 10 women among episodic drinkers without a history of alcohol addiction and/or alcohol related diseases. Elevated latency to the first movement in all trials was observed only in AUD persons, furthermore, control women had higher latencies compared to control men. Increased time spent to reach the hidden platform in the learning phase was found for women of both groups compared to men, in particular during trial 3...
August 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761885/self-directed-learning-barriers-in-a-virtual-environment-a-qualitative-study
#13
Noushin Kohan, Kamran Soltani Arabshahi, Rita Mojtahedzadeh, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Tayebeh Rakhshani, Amirhousein Emami
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing trend in online education courses in higher education institutes. Previous studies have shown that high levels of self-direction are essential for successful online learning. The present study aims to investigate challenges of and barriers to self-directed virtual-learning among postgraduate students of medical sciences. METHOD: 23 postgraduate virtual students of medical sciences in Iran, collected through maximum variation purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews, served as the sample of this study...
July 2017: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761554/towards-neuro-inspired-symbolic-models-of-cognition-linking-neural-dynamics-to-behaviors-through-asynchronous-communications
#14
Pierre Bonzon
A computational architecture modeling the relation between perception and action is proposed. Basic brain processes representing synaptic plasticity are first abstracted through asynchronous communication protocols and implemented as virtual microcircuits. These are used in turn to build mesoscale circuits embodying parallel cognitive processes. Encoding these circuits into symbolic expressions gives finally rise to neuro-inspired programs that are compiled into pseudo-code to be interpreted by a virtual machine...
August 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759971/validity-of-a-newly-developed-measure-of-memory-feasibility-study-of-the-virtual-environment-grocery-store
#15
Thomas D Parsons, Michael Barnett
Virtual reality-based neuropsychological assessments proffer the potential to address the limited ecological validity of pen-and-paper measures of memory. To investigate the construct validity of a newly developed virtual reality measure of memory, the Virtual Environment Grocery Store (VEGS), traditional neuropsychological measures of memory and executive functioning were administered to 48 older adults and 55 young adults. Performances on the VEGS memory tasks and the traditional neuropsychological assessments of memory were positively correlated, indicating that memory for VEGS content was similar to memory for traditional paper-and-pencil measures...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759739/online-embryology-teaching-using-learning-management-systems-appears-to-be-a-successful-additional-learning-tool-among-egyptian-medical-students
#16
Ahmed Farid Al-Neklawy
Although the traditional didactic lecture is considered to be efficient for presenting information and providing explanations, it usually does not provide adequate time for deeper learning activities. So, traditional lecture is one of the most widely criticized educational methods. Virtual learning environment (VLE) is a specially designed environment that facilitates teachers' management of educational courses for their students, using computer hardware and software, which involves distance learning. In this study, we evaluated the experiment of online teaching of General Embryology for Egyptian undergraduate medical students using WizIQ learning management system...
July 29, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755270/embodied-conversational-agents-for-the-detection-and-prevention-of-suicidal-behaviour-current-applications-and-open-challenges
#17
Juan Martínez-Miranda
Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are advanced computational interactive interfaces designed with the aim to engage users in the continuous and long-term use of a background application. The advantages and benefits of these agents have been exploited in several e-health systems. One of the medical domains where ECAs are recently applied is to support the detection of symptoms, prevention and treatment of mental health disorders. As ECAs based applications are increasingly used in clinical psychology, and due that one fatal consequence of mental health problems is the commitment of suicide, it is necessary to analyse how current ECAs in this clinical domain support the early detection and prevention of risk situations associated with suicidality...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755051/reference-frames-in-spatial-updating-when-body-based-cues-are-absent
#18
Qiliang He, Timothy P McNamara, Jonathan W Kelly
The current study investigated the reference frame used in spatial updating when idiothetic cues to self-motion were minimized (desktop virtual reality). In Experiment 1, participants learned a layout of eight objects from a single perspective (learning heading) in a virtual environment. After learning, they were placed in the same virtual environment and used a keyboard to navigate to two of the learned objects (visible) before pointing to a third object (invisible). We manipulated participants' starting orientation (initial heading) and final orientation (final heading) before pointing, to examine the reference frame used in this task...
July 28, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754067/using-virtual-patient-simulations-to-prepare-primary-health-care-professionals-to-conduct-substance-use-and-mental-health-screening-and-brief-intervention
#19
Glenn Albright, Craig Bryan, Cyrille Adam, Jeremiah McMillan, Kristen Shockley
BACKGROUND: Primary health care professionals are in an excellent position to identify, screen, and conduct brief interventions for patients with mental health and substance use disorders. However, discomfort in initiating conversations about behavioral health, time concerns, lack of knowledge about screening tools, and treatment resources are barriers. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the impact of an online simulation where users practice role-playing with emotionally responsive virtual patients to learn motivational interviewing strategies to better manage screening, brief interventions, and referral conversations...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751492/honeybees-in-a-virtual-reality-environment-learn-unique-combinations-of-colour-and-shape
#20
Claire Rusch, Eatai Roth, Clément Vinauger, Jeffrey A Riffell
Honeybees are well-known models for the study of visual learning and memory. Whereas most of our knowledge of learned responses comes from experiments using free-flying bees, a tethered preparation would allow fine-scale control of the visual stimuli as well as accurate characterization of the learned responses. Unfortunately, conditioning procedures using visual stimuli in tethered bees have been limited in their efficacy. Here in this study, using a novel virtual reality environment and a differential training protocol in tethered walking bees, we show that the majority of honeybees learn visual stimuli, and need only six paired training trials to learn the stimulus...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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