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Virtual learning

Nicole Battaglioli, Felix Ankel, Christopher I Doty, Arlene Chung, Michelle Lin
Introduction: Physician wellness has recently become a popular topic of conversation and publication within the house of medicine and specifically within emergency medicine (EM). Through a joint collaboration involving Academic Life in Emergency Medicine's (ALiEM) Wellness Think Tank, Essentials of Emergency Medicine (EEM), and the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (EMRA), a one-day Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS) was organized. Methods: The RWCS was held on May 15, 2017, as a pre-day event prior to the 2017 EEM conference in Las Vegas, Nevada...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Lucas Pinto, Sue A Koay, Ben Engelhard, Alice M Yoon, Ben Deverett, Stephan Y Thiberge, Ilana B Witten, David W Tank, Carlos D Brody
The gradual accumulation of sensory evidence is a crucial component of perceptual decision making, but its neural mechanisms are still poorly understood. Given the wide availability of genetic and optical tools for mice, they can be useful model organisms for the study of these phenomena; however, behavioral tools are largely lacking. Here, we describe a new evidence-accumulation task for head-fixed mice navigating in a virtual reality (VR) environment. As they navigate down the stem of a virtual T-maze, they see brief pulses of visual evidence on either side, and retrieve a reward on the arm with the highest number of pulses...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Christina Strube, Katharina Raue, Elisabeth Janecek
One of the main goals in academia is, and has been, high quality education of students to provide theoretical and practical knowledge essential for professional life. Achieving this goal is highly dependent on teaching procedures and, consequently, on a constant adaptation of teaching styles to align to technical advances and cutting-edge topics. Technical advances can strongly influence teaching and learning in the complex subject area of veterinary parasitology. Today's students are provided with extensive, digital lecture notes, and e-learning offers including virtual microscope technology to independently obtain intensified theoretical knowledge and understanding...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Yang Hou, Yanping Lin, Jiangang Shi, Huajiang Chen, Wen Yuan
BACKGROUND: The virtual simulation surgery has initially exhibited its promising potentials in neurosurgery training. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effectiveness of the Virtual Surgical Training System (VSTS) on novice residents placing thoracic pedicle screws in a cadaver study. METHODS: A total of 10 inexperienced residents participated in this study and were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The group using VSTS to learn thoracic pedicle screw fixation was the simulation training (ST) group and the group receiving an introductory teaching session was the control group...
March 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Misun Kim, Eleanor A Maguire
Humans commonly operate within 3D environments such as multifloor buildings and yet there is a surprising dearth of studies that have examined how these spaces are represented in the brain. Here, we had participants learn the locations of paintings within a virtual multilevel gallery building and then used behavioral tests and fMRI repetition suppression analyses to investigate how this 3D multicompartment space was represented, and whether there was a bias in encoding vertical and horizontal information. We found faster response times for within-room egocentric spatial judgments and behavioral priming effects of visiting the same room, providing evidence for a compartmentalized representation of space...
March 15, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Vincent Sitzmann, Ana Serrano, Amy Pavel, Maneesh Agrawala, Diego Gutierrez, Belen Masia, Gordon Wetzstein
Understanding how people explore immersive virtual environments is crucial for many applications, such as designing virtual reality (VR) content, developing new compression algorithms, or learning computational models of saliency or visual attention. Whereas a body of recent work has focused on modeling saliency in desktop viewing conditions, VR is very different from these conditions in that viewing behavior is governed by stereoscopic vision and by the complex interaction of head orientation, gaze, and other kinematic constraints...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Nitish Padmanaban, Timon Ruban, Vincent Sitzmann, Anthony M Norcia, Gordon Wetzstein
Virtual reality systems are widely believed to be the next major computing platform. There are, however, some barriers to adoption that must be addressed, such as that of motion sickness - which can lead to undesirable symptoms including postural instability, headaches, and nausea. Motion sickness in virtual reality occurs as a result of moving visual stimuli that cause users to perceive self-motion while they remain stationary in the real world. There are several contributing factors to both this perception of motion and the subsequent onset of sickness, including field of view, motion velocity, and stimulus depth...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kristin J Effland, Karen Hays
Increasing the midwifery workforce requires that aspiring midwives complete education and training, but structural racism and microaggressions impact the lives of underrepresented midwifery students and apprentices, adding stressors and disparities to the usual demanding educational challenges. In order to be resilient, students rely on preceptors, faculty, administrators and institutions to promote equity. Equity-focused learning environments improve student experiences and success rates, and better prepare all students to provide culturally humble and sensitive care to diverse childbearing persons and other essential competencies outlined by the International Confederation of Midwives...
February 15, 2018: Midwifery
Florian Ferreri, Alexis Bourla, Stephane Mouchabac, Laurent Karila
Background: New technologies can profoundly change the way we understand psychiatric pathologies and addictive disorders. New concepts are emerging with the development of more accurate means of collecting live data, computerized questionnaires, and the use of passive data. Digital phenotyping , a paradigmatic example, refers to the use of computerized measurement tools to capture the characteristics of different psychiatric disorders. Similarly, machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence-can improve the classification of patients based on patterns that clinicians have not always considered in the past...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Che-Wei Lin, Elizabeth H Chang, Daniel L Clinciu, Yun-Ting Peng, Wen-Chen Huang, Chien-Chih Wu, Jen-Chieh Wu, Yu-Chuan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been used in many areas of healthcare training over the years. However, it constantly needs to be upgraded and enhanced due to technological and teaching changes. We aim at implementing an integrative OSCE method which employs informatics via the virtual patient within the pharmacy education curriculum at Taipei Medical University to enhance the pharmacy students' competence for using and disseminating information and to also improve critical thinking and clinical reasoning...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Sarthak Ghosh, Lauren Winston, Nishant Panchal, Philippe Kimura-Thollander, Jeff Hotnog, Douglas Cheong, Gabriel Reyes, Gregory D Abowd
The proliferation of high resolution and affordable virtual reality (VR) headsets is quickly making room-scale VR experiences available in our homes. Most VR experiences strive to achieve complete immersion by creating a disconnect from the real world. However, due to the lack of a standardized notification management system and minimal context awareness in VR, an immersed user may face certain situations such as missing an important phone call (digital scenario), tripping over wandering pets (physical scenario), or losing track of time (temporal scenario)...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Ayush Bhargava, Jeffrey W Bertrand, Anand K Gramopadhye, Kapil C Madathil, Sabarish V Babu
With costs of head-mounted displays (HMDs) and tracking technology decreasing rapidly, various virtual reality applications are being widely adopted for education and training. Hardware advancements have enabled replication of real-world interactions in virtual environments to a large extent, paving the way for commercial grade applications that provide a safe and risk-free training environment at a fraction of the cost. But this also mandates the need to develop more intrinsic interaction techniques and to empirically evaluate them in a more comprehensive manner...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Justin N Wood, Samantha M W Wood
How do newborns learn to recognize objects? According to temporal learning models in computational neuroscience, the brain constructs object representations by extracting smoothly changing features from the environment. To date, however, it is unknown whether newborns depend on smoothly changing features to build invariant object representations. Here, we used an automated controlled-rearing method to examine whether visual experience with smoothly changing features facilitates the development of view-invariant object recognition in a newborn animal model-the domestic chick (Gallus gallus)...
March 14, 2018: Cognitive Science
Vasyl Kovalishyn, Julie Grouleff, Ivan Semenyuta, Vitaliy O Sinenko, Sergiy R Slivchuk, Diana Hodyna, Volodymyr Brovarets, Volodymyr Blagodatny, Gennady Poda, Igor V Tetko, Larysa Metelytsia
The problem of designing new anti-tubercular drugs against multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was addressed using advanced machine learning methods. Since there are only few published measurements against MDR-TB, we collected a large literature dataset and developed models against the non-resistant H37Rv strain. The predictive accuracy of these models had a coefficient of determination q2 = 0.7-0.8 (regression models), and balanced accuracies of about 80% (classification models) with cross-validation and independent test sets...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Amber Denomme, Rajiv Ranganathan
One of the characteristic features of the human motor system is redundancy-i.e., the ability to achieve a given task outcome using multiple coordination patterns. However, once participants settle on using a specific coordination pattern, the process of learning to use a new alternative coordination pattern to perform the same task is still poorly understood. Here, using two experiments, we examined this process of how participants shift from one coordination pattern to another using different reinforcement schedules...
March 13, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Polly R Husmann, Valerie Dean O'Loughlin
The concept and existence of learning styles has been fraught with controversy, and recent studies have thrown their existence into doubt. Yet, many students still hold to the conventional wisdom that learning styles are legitimate, and may adapt their outside of class study strategies to match these learning styles. Thus, this study aims to assess if undergraduate anatomy students are more likely to utilize study strategies that align with their hypothetical learning styles (using the VARK analysis from Fleming and Mills, , Improve Acad...
March 13, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Chia-Ling Li, M Pilar Aivar, Matthew H Tong, Mary M Hayhoe
Search is a central visual function. Most of what is known about search derives from experiments where subjects view 2D displays on computer monitors. In the natural world, however, search involves movement of the body in large-scale spatial contexts, and it is unclear how this might affect search strategies. In this experiment, we explore the nature of memory representations developed when searching in an immersive virtual environment. By manipulating target location, we demonstrate that search depends on episodic spatial memory as well as learnt spatial priors...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Viktor Riklefs, Gulmira Abakassova, Aliya Bukeyeva, Sholpan Kaliyeva, Bakhtiyar Serik, Alma Muratova, Raushan Dosmagambetova
BACKGROUND: Medical education in Kazakhstan has been literally transformed in the past 10 years. Kazakhstan inherited the Soviet-time discipline-based teacher-centered system of education when no decisions could be made independently. The curriculum was mostly governed in a traditional way, with lectures being the core, little use of e-learning tools, and assessment through oral exams and multiple-choice questions. Most of the universities still preserve the subject-based curriculum with elements of integrated learning...
March 11, 2018: Medical Teacher
Marika Demers, Daniel Chan Chun Kong, Mindy F Levin
PURPOSE: To determine user satisfaction and safety of incorporating a low-cost virtual rehabilitation intervention as an adjunctive therapeutic option for cognitive-motor upper limb rehabilitation in individuals with sub-acute stroke. METHODS: A low-cost upper limb virtual rehabilitation application incorporating realistic functionally-relevant unimanual and bimanual tasks, specifically designed for cognitive-motor rehabilitation was developed for patients with sub-acute stroke...
March 11, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
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