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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918007/the-effect-of-visual-spatial-ability-on-the-learning-of-robot-assisted-surgical-skills
#1
Takashige Abe, Nicholas Raison, Nobuo Shinohara, M Shamim Khan, Kamran Ahmed, Prokar Dasgupta
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of visual-spatial ability with progression along the learning curve for robotic surgical skills training. METHODS: A total of 21 novice participants were recruited. All participants completed a training program consisting of 5 training sessions of 30 minutes of virtual reality (VR) simulation and 30 minutes of dry laboratory training. The VR simulation part was the subject of the present study. During VR simulation training, participants performed the basic skill exercises of Camera Targeting 1, Pick and Place, and Peg Board 1 followed by advanced skill exercises of Suture Sponge 1 and Thread the Rings...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915871/virtual-patients-in-the-acquisition-of-clinical-reasoning-skills-does-presentation-mode-matter-a-quasi-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Fabian Schubach, Matthias Goos, Götz Fabry, Werner Vach, Martin Boeker
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to compare two different instructional methods in the curricular use of computerized virtual patients in undergraduate medical education. We aim to investigate whether using many short and focused cases - the key feature principle - is more effective for the learning of clinical reasoning skills than using few long and systematic cases. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-randomized, non-blinded, controlled parallel-group intervention trial in a large medical school in Southwestern Germany...
September 15, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915266/evaluation-of-a-conceptual-framework-for-predicting-navigation-performance-in-virtual-reality
#3
Jascha Grübel, Tyler Thrash, Christoph Hölscher, Victor R Schinazi
Previous research in spatial cognition has often relied on simple spatial tasks in static environments in order to draw inferences regarding navigation performance. These tasks are typically divided into categories (e.g., egocentric or allocentric) that reflect different two-systems theories. Unfortunately, this two-systems approach has been insufficient for reliably predicting navigation performance in virtual reality (VR). In the present experiment, participants were asked to learn and navigate towards goal locations in a virtual city and then perform eight simple spatial tasks in a separate environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912929/student-misconceptions-about-plants-a-first-step-in-building-a-teaching-resource
#4
April N Wynn, Irvin L Pan, Elizabeth E Rueschhoff, Maryann A B Herman, E Kathleen Archer
Plants are ubiquitous and found in virtually every ecosystem on Earth, but their biology is often poorly understood, and inaccurate ideas about how plants grow and function abound. Many articles have been published documenting student misconceptions about photosynthesis and respiration, but there are substantially fewer on such topics as plant cell structure and growth; plant genetics, evolution, and classification; plant physiology (beyond energy relations); and plant ecology. The available studies of misconceptions held on those topics show that many are formed at a very young age and persist throughout all educational levels...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910624/a-sensorimotor-circuit-in-mouse-cortex-for-visual-flow-predictions
#5
Marcus Leinweber, Daniel R Ward, Jan M Sobczak, Alexander Attinger, Georg B Keller
The cortex is organized as a hierarchical processing structure. Feedback from higher levels of the hierarchy, known as top-down signals, have been shown to be involved in attentional and contextual modulation of sensory responses. Here we argue that top-down input to the primary visual cortex (V1) from A24b and the adjacent secondary motor cortex (M2) signals a prediction of visual flow based on motor output. A24b/M2 sends a dense and topographically organized projection to V1 that targets most neurons in layer 2/3...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906450/obstacle-recognition-based-on-machine-learning-for-on-chip-lidar-sensors-in-a-cyber-physical-system
#6
Fernando Castaño, Gerardo Beruvides, Rodolfo E Haber, Antonio Artuñedo
Collision avoidance is an important feature in advanced driver-assistance systems, aimed at providing correct, timely and reliable warnings before an imminent collision (with objects, vehicles, pedestrians, etc.). The obstacle recognition library is designed and implemented to address the design and evaluation of obstacle detection in a transportation cyber-physical system. The library is integrated into a co-simulation framework that is supported on the interaction between SCANeR software and Matlab/Simulink...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901664/pharmacophore-based-virtual-screening-molecular-docking-molecular-dynamics-simulation-and-biological-evaluation-for-the-discovery-of-novel-brd4-inhibitors
#7
Guoyi Yan, Manzhou Hou, Jiang Luo, Chunlan Pu, Xueyan Hou, Suke Lan, Rui Li
Bromodomain is a recognition module in the signal transduction of acetylated histone. BRD4, one of the bromodomain members, is emerging as an attractive therapeutic target for several types of cancer. Therefore, in this study an attempt has been made to screen compounds from an integrated database containing 5.5 million compounds for BRD4 inhibitors by using pharmacophore based virtual screening, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulations. As a result, two molecules out of twelve hits were found to be active in bioactivity tests...
September 13, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888070/using-virtual-reality-simulation-environments-to-assess-competence-for-emergency-medicine-learners
#8
Jillian L McGrath, Jeffrey M Taekman, Parvati Dev, Douglas R Danforth, Deepika Mohan, Nicholas Kman, Amanda Crichlow, William F Bond
Immersive learning environments that use virtual simulation technology are increasingly relevant as medical learners train in an environment of restricted clinical training hours and a heightened focus on patient safety. We conducted a consensus process with a breakout group of the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change Through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes." This group examined the current uses of virtual simulation in training and assessment, including limitations and challenges in implementing virtual simulation into medical education curricula...
September 9, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887245/a-pulsatile-fresh-frozen-human-cadaver-circulation-model-for-endovascular-training-a-trial-of-face-validity
#9
Craig Nesbitt, Samuel James Tingle, Robin Williams, James McCaslin, Roger Searle, Sebastian Mafeld, Gerard Stansby
OBJECTIVES: Determine the face validity of a pulsatile fresh frozen human cadaver model (PHCM) for training endovascular practitioners. METHODS: 12 endovascular clinicians performed the same two procedures (catheterisation of the left renal artery and left subclavian artery) on PHCM, and Simbionix angiomentor virtual reality simulator (SVR). They were randomised to begin on either the PHCM or SVR. A pre-trial questionnaire determined participants' endovascular experience...
September 5, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885874/impact-of-virtual-patients-as-optional-learning-material-in-veterinary-biochemistry-education
#10
Christin Kleinsorgen, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Hassan Y Naim, Katja Branitzki-Heinemann, Marta Kankofer, Míra Mándoki, Martin Adler, Andrea Tipold, Jan P Ehlers
Biochemistry and physiology teachers from veterinary faculties in Hannover, Budapest, and Lublin prepared innovative, computer-based, integrative clinical case scenarios as optional learning materials for teaching and learning in basic sciences. These learning materials were designed to enhance attention and increase interest and intrinsic motivation for learning, thus strengthening autonomous, active, and self-directed learning. We investigated learning progress and success by administering a pre-test before exposure to the virtual patients (vetVIP) cases, offered vetVIP cases alongside regular biochemistry courses, and then administered a complementary post-test...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885871/using-the-virtual-world-of-second-life-in-veterinary-medicine-student-and-faculty-perceptions
#11
Mary M Pereira, Elpida Artemiou, Dee McGonigle, Anne Conan, Fortune Sithole, Kathleen Yvorchuk-St Jean
Virtual worlds are emerging technologies that can enhance student learning by encouraging active participation through simulation in immersive environments. At Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM), the virtual world of Second Life was piloted as an educational platform for first-semester students to practice clinical reasoning in a simulated veterinary clinical setting. Under the supervision of one facilitator, four groups of nine students met three times to process a clinical case using Second Life...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883804/the-influences-of-emotion-on-learning-and-memory
#12
REVIEW
Chai M Tyng, Hafeez U Amin, Mohamad N M Saad, Aamir S Malik
Emotion has a substantial influence on the cognitive processes in humans, including perception, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. Emotion has a particularly strong influence on attention, especially modulating the selectivity of attention as well as motivating action and behavior. This attentional and executive control is intimately linked to learning processes, as intrinsically limited attentional capacities are better focused on relevant information. Emotion also facilitates encoding and helps retrieval of information efficiently...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883801/procrastinating-behavior-in-computer-based-learning-environments-to-predict-performance-a-case-study-in-moodle
#13
Rebeca Cerezo, María Esteban, Miguel Sánchez-Santillán, José C Núñez
Introduction: Research about student performance has traditionally considered academic procrastination as a behavior that has negative effects on academic achievement. Although there is much evidence for this in class-based environments, there is a lack of research on Computer-Based Learning Environments (CBLEs). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate student behavior in a blended learning program and specifically procrastination behavior in relation to performance through Data Mining techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875474/no-advantage-for-remembering-horizontal-over-vertical-spatial-locations-learned-from-a-single-viewpoint
#14
Thomas Hinterecker, Caroline Leroy, Mintao Zhao, Martin V Butz, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Tobias Meilinger
Previous behavioral and neurophysiological research has shown better memory for horizontal than for vertical locations. In these studies, participants navigated toward these locations. In the present study we investigated whether the orientation of the spatial plane per se was responsible for this difference. We thus had participants learn locations visually from a single perspective and retrieve them from multiple viewpoints. In three experiments, participants studied colored tags on a horizontally or vertically oriented board within a virtual room and recalled these locations with different layout orientations (Exp...
September 5, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874111/the-fall-in-older-adults-physical-and-cognitive-problems
#15
Bernard Demanze Laurence, Lacour Michel
BACKGROUND: The aging of posture and balance function alters the quality of life in older people and causes serious problems in terms of public health and socio-economic costs for our modern societies. METHOD: This article reviews the various causes of imbalance and dizziness in the elderly, and considers how to prevent falls, and how to rehabilitate a faller subject in order to regain a good quality of life. Two effective ways of intervention are discussed, emphasizing the crucial role of physical activity and cognitive stimulation, classic or using the latest technical advances in virtual reality and video games...
2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870688/-what-do-virtual-reality-tools-bring-to-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#16
S Bioulac, E de Sevin, P Sagaspe, A Claret, P Philip, J A Micoulaud-Franchi, M P Bouvard
Virtual reality is a relatively new technology that enables individuals to immerse themselves in a virtual world. It offers several advantages including a more realistic, lifelike environment that may allow subjects to "forget" they are being assessed, allow a better participation and an increased generalization of learning. Moreover, the virtual reality system can provide multimodal stimuli, such as visual and auditory stimuli, and can also be used to evaluate the patient's multimodal integration and to aid rehabilitation of cognitive abilities...
September 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864400/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-neurosurgical-skill-acquisition-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Patrick Ciechanski, Adam Cheng, Steven Lopushinsky, Kent Hecker, Liu Shi Gan, Stefan Lang, Kourosh Zareinia, Adam Kirton
BACKGROUND: Recent changes in surgical training environments may have limited opportunities for trainees to gain proficiency in skill. Complex skills such as neurosurgery required extended periods of training. Methods to enhance surgical training are required to overcome duty-hour restrictions, to ensure skill proficiency is met. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance motor skill learning but is untested in surgical procedural training. We aimed to determine the effects of tDCS on simulation-based neurosurgical skill acquisition...
August 29, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861850/novel-simulator-for-robotic-surgery
#18
Francisco Schlottmann, Marco G Patti
Surgical simulation avoids practicing skills in patients, allowing trainees to learn in a safe, controlled, and standardized environment. Current robotic surgical simulators available include virtual reality simulators, human cadavers, and live animals. The use of cadavers has the highest possible fidelity available to practice entire operations. Nevertheless, their cost, availability, tissue compliance, and infection risk outweigh the advantages of cadaver models. Drawbacks of using live animals include anatomical differences with humans, high costs due to their housing and handling requirements, and ethical concerns...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860986/classification-of-movement-and-inhibition-using-a-hybrid-bci
#19
Jennifer Chmura, Joshua Rosing, Steven Collazos, Shikha J Goodwin
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are an emerging technology that are capable of turning brain electrical activity into commands for an external device. Motor imagery (MI)-when a person imagines a motion without executing it-is widely employed in BCI devices for motor control because of the endogenous origin of its neural control mechanisms, and the similarity in brain activation to actual movements. Challenges with translating a MI-BCI into a practical device used outside laboratories include the extensive training required, often due to poor user engagement and visual feedback response delays; poor user flexibility/freedom to time the execution/inhibition of their movements, and to control the movement type (right arm vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860778/improvements-in-motor-tasks-through-the-use-of-smartphone-technology-for-individuals-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#20
Camila Miliani Capelini, Talita Dias da Silva, James Tonks, Suzanna Watson, Mayra Priscila Boscolo Alvarez, Lilian Del Ciello de Menezes, Francis Meire Favero, Fátima Aparecida Caromano, Thais Massetti, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro
BACKGROUND: In individuals severely affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), virtual reality has recently been used as a tool to enhance community interaction. Smartphones offer the exciting potential to improve communication, access, and participation, and present the unique opportunity to directly deliver functionality to people with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether individuals with DMD improve their motor performance when undertaking a visual motor task using a smartphone game...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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