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Immune based cancer therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930219/qigong-in-cancer-care-theory-evidence-base-and-practice
#1
Penelope Klein
Background: The purpose of this discussion is to explore the theory, evidence base, and practice of Qigong for individuals with cancer. Questions addressed are: What is qigong? How does it work? What evidence exists supporting its practice in integrative oncology? What barriers to wide-spread programming access exist? Methods: Sources for this discussion include a review of scholarly texts, the Internet, PubMed, field observations, and expert opinion. Results: Qigong is a gentle, mind/body exercise integral within Chinese medicine...
January 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928889/prognostic-significance-of-host-related-biomarkers-for-survival-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Sookyung Lee, Wankyu Eo, Hyeonjin Jeon, Sora Park, Jean Chae
OBJECTIVE: This study identified host-related prognostic biomarkers for survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: This study was based on the retrospective review of the medical records of 135 patients with pathologically confirmed advanced NSCLC. The host-related biomarkers assessed in this study that reflected patient condition included hemoglobin (Hb) levels; platelet (PLT), neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts; and ferritin concentrations...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928270/the-evolving-role-of-the-rheumatologist-in-the-management-of-immune-related-adverse-events-iraes-caused-by-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
EDITORIAL
Leonard Calabrese, Xavier Mariette
The rapid introduction of immunotherapies for cancer-targeting immunological checkpoints has led to a new class of toxicities that appear to be of autoimmune and or autoinflammatory origin. These disorders are now referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and pose considerable challenges to patient care in terms of how to optimally manage these formidable toxicities while allowing effective antitumoural therapy to continue. While rheumatologists will naturally be called on to manage those irAEs of rheumatic origin, we believe there is a need and an opportunity for rheumatologists to participate as central figures in this evolving field, in large part because of our familiarity with multiorgan autoimmune disease and our expertise in crafting and utilising both traditional and biological immune-based therapies...
September 19, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927823/t-cell-therapies-for-human-polyomavirus-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Sarah I Davies, Pawel Muranski
Rapid restoration of virus-specific T immunity via adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated T cells has been proven as a powerful therapy for patients with advanced cancers and refractory viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). BK virus (BKV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma virus (MCV) are the members of the rapidly growing human polyomavirus (hPyV) family that commonly infects most healthy humans. These viruses have a clearly established potential for causing severe end-organ damage or malignant transformation, especially in individuals with weakened immunity who are unable to mount or regain endogenous T-cell responses as a result of underlying leukemia or iatrogenic immunosuppression in autoimmunity, bone marrow and solid organ transplant settings...
September 15, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927498/drug-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-and-cancer-risk
#5
Marcus-Alexander Wörns, Peter Robert Galle, Stefan Zeuzem, Peter Schirmacher, Michael Manns, Arndt Vogel
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, a sustained virologic response (SVR) to interferon-based therapy markedly decreases the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over the long term. This is also true for patients who have hepatic cirrhosis, as well as for those with HCC-with or without cirrhosis-who have undergone resection or ablation with curative intent. Recent publications, however, have reported a higher incidence of HCC among patients in both of these subgroups who were treated with direct antiviral agents (DAA) rather than interferon-based therapy...
September 4, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927305/discovery-and-application-of-immune-biomarkers-for-hematological-malignancies
#6
Dimitrios Zafeiris, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Sarah Wagner, Alan Graham Pockley, Graham Roy Ball, Sergio Rutella
Hematological malignancies originate and progress in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, where they establish a uniquely immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment. Although high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic approaches are being employed to interrogate immune surveillance and escape mechanisms in patients with solid tumours, and to identify actionable targets for immunotherapy, our knowledge of the immunological landscape of hematological malignancies, as well as our understanding of the molecular circuits that underpin the establishment of immune tolerance, is not comprehensive...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926891/-advances-in-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#7
X R Zhu, L Z Zheng
Currently, immunotherapy is considered as the fourth major modality of cancer treatment except surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The new therapeutic approach based on immune checkpoint inhibitors is a landmark innovation. Strategies considering checkpoint inhibitors have shown good anti-tumor effect by targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Moreover, DNA mismatch repair-deficient tumors appear to be potential candidates for these therapies...
September 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923102/workshop-on-challenges-insights-and-future-directions-for-mouse-and-humanized-models-in-cancer-immunology-and-immunotherapy-a-report-from-the-associated-programs-of-the-2016-annual-meeting-for-the-society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer
#8
Andrew Zloza, A Karolina Palucka, Lisa M Coussens, Philip J Gotwals, Mark B Headley, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Amanda W Lund, Arlene H Sharpe, Mario Sznol, Derek A Wainwright, Kwok-Kin Wong, Marcus W Bosenberg
Understanding how murine models can elucidate the mechanisms underlying antitumor immune responses and advance immune-based drug development is essential to advancing the field of cancer immunotherapy. The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a workshop titled, "Challenges, Insights, and Future Directions for Mouse and Humanized Models in Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy" as part of the SITC 31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs on November 10, 2016 in National Harbor, MD. The workshop focused on key issues in optimizing models for cancer immunotherapy research, with discussions on the strengths and weaknesses of current models, approaches to improve the predictive value of mouse models, and advances in cancer modeling that are anticipated in the near future...
September 19, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921471/tlr-agonists-as-adjuvants-for-cancer-vaccines
#9
Ji-Kun Li, Jesse J Balic, Liang Yu, Brendan Jenkins
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the best characterised families of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and play a critical role in the host defence to infection. Accumulating evidence indicates that TLRs also participate in maintaining tissue homeostasis by controlling inflammation and tissue repair, as well as promoting antitumour effects via activation and modulation of adaptive immune responses. TLR agonists have successfully been exploited to ameliorate the efficacy of various cancer therapies. In this chapter, we will discuss the rationales of using TLR agonists as adjuvants to cancer treatments and summarise the recent findings of preclinical and clinical studies of TLR agonist-based cancer therapies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920587/complement-in-cancer-untangling-an-intricate-relationship
#10
REVIEW
Edimara S Reis, Dimitrios C Mastellos, Daniel Ricklin, Alberto Mantovani, John D Lambris
In tumour immunology, complement has traditionally been considered as an adjunctive component that enhances the cytolytic effects of antibody-based immunotherapies, such as rituximab. Remarkably, research in the past decade has uncovered novel molecular mechanisms linking imbalanced complement activation in the tumour microenvironment with inflammation and suppression of antitumour immune responses. These findings have prompted new interest in manipulating the complement system for cancer therapy. This Review summarizes our current understanding of complement-mediated effector functions in the tumour microenvironment, focusing on how complement activation can act as a negative or positive regulator of tumorigenesis...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919377/combination-cancer-therapy-using-chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-natural-killer-cells-as-drug-carriers
#11
Elizabeth L Siegler, Yu Jeong Kim, Xianhui Chen, Natnaree Siriwon, John Mac, Jennifer A Rohrs, Paul D Bryson, Pin Wang
The therapeutic limitations of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs include chemo-resistance, tumor recurrence, and metastasis. Numerous nanoparticle-based active targeting approaches have emerged to enhance the intracellular concentration of drugs in tumor cells; however, efficient delivery of these systems to the tumor site while sparing healthy tissue remains elusive. Recently, much attention has been given to human immune-cell-directed nanoparticle drug delivery, because immune cells can traffic to the tumor and inflammatory sites...
August 19, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917596/response-rate-to-chemotherapy-after-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-metastatic-urothelial-cancer
#12
Bernadett Szabados, Nick van Dijk, Yen Zhi Tang, Michiel van der Heijden, Akhila Wimalasingham, Alfonso Gomez de Liano, Simon Chowdhury, Simon Hughes, Sarah Rudman, Mark Linch, Thomas Powles
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are active in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (MUC). They have joined chemotherapy (CT) as a standard of care. Here, we investigate the activity of CT after progression on ICIs. Two cohorts of sequential patients with MUC were described (n=28). Cohort A received first-line ICIs followed by CT after progression. Cohort B received CT after failure of first-line platinum-based CT followed by ICIs. Response rate (RR) to CT was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST v1...
September 13, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915659/data-driven-analysis-of-immune-infiltrate-in-a-large-cohort-of-breast-cancer-and-its-association-with-disease-progression-er-activity-and-genomic-complexity
#13
Ruth Dannenfelser, Marianne Nome, Andliena Tahiri, Josie Ursini-Siegel, Hans Kristian Moen Vollan, Vilde D Haakensen, Åslaug Helland, Bjørn Naume, Carlos Caldas, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Vessela N Kristensen, Olga G Troyanskaya
The tumor microenvironment is now widely recognized for its role in tumor progression, treatment response, and clinical outcome. The intratumoral immunological landscape, in particular, has been shown to exert both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic effects. Identifying immunologically active or silent tumors may be an important indication for administration of therapy, and detecting early infiltration patterns may uncover factors that contribute to early risk. Thus far, direct detailed studies of the cell composition of tumor infiltration have been limited; with some studies giving approximate quantifications using immunohistochemistry and other small studies obtaining detailed measurements by isolating cells from excised tumors and sorting them using flow cytometry...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912897/genomic-analysis-of-tumor-microenvironment-immune-types-across-14-solid-cancer-types-immunotherapeutic-implications
#14
Yu-Pei Chen, Yu Zhang, Jia-Wei Lv, Ying-Qin Li, Ya-Qin Wang, Qing-Mei He, Xiao-Jing Yang, Ying Sun, Yan-Ping Mao, Jing-Ping Yun, Na Liu, Jun Ma
We performed a comprehensive immuno-genomic analysis of tumor microenvironment immune types (TMITs), which is classified into four groups based on PD-L1+CD8A or PD-L1+cytolytic activity (CYT) expression, across a broad spectrum of solid tumors in order to help identify patients who will benefit from anti- PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. The mRNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of 14 solid cancer types representing 6,685 tumor samples was analyzed. TMIT was classified only for those tumor types that both PD-L1 and CD8A/CYT could prefict mutation and/or neoantigen number...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912891/bioengineering-of-artificial-antigen-presenting-cells-and-lymphoid-organs
#15
REVIEW
Chao Wang, Wujin Sun, Yanqi Ye, Hunter N Bomba, Zhen Gu
The immune system protects the body against a wide range of infectious diseases and cancer by leveraging the efficiency of immune cells and lymphoid organs. Over the past decade, immune cell/organ therapies based on the manipulation, infusion, and implantation of autologous or allogeneic immune cells/organs into patients have been widely tested and have made great progress in clinical applications. Despite these advances, therapy with natural immune cells or lymphoid organs is relatively expensive and time-consuming...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912377/immune-response-in-the-thyroid-cancer-microenvironment-making-immunotherapy-a-possible-mission
#16
Robert C Mould, Jacob P van Vloten, Amanda W K AuYeung, Khalil Karimi, Byram W Bridle
The incidence of thyroid cancers has been steadily increasing worldwide over the past few decades. Although five-year survival rates for differentiated thyroid cancers are upwards of 90%, clinical outcomes for patients with undifferentiated, recurrent and/or metastatic disease are often dismal despite conventional interventions. As such, there is a demand for novel treatment options. Cancer immunotherapy represents the ultimate form of personalized medicine by leveraging the specificity and potency of a patient's immune system to kill their tumour...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904066/pd-1-status-in-cd8-t-cells-associates-with-survival-and-anti-pd-1-therapeutic-outcomes-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
Benjamin A Kansy, Fernando Concha-Benavente, Raghvendra M Srivastava, Hyun-Bae Jie, Gulidanna Shayan, Yu Lei, Jessica Moskovitz, Jennifer Moy, Jing Li, Sven Brandau, Stephan Lang, Nicole C Schmitt, Gordon J Freeman, William E Gooding, David A Clump, Robert L Ferris
Improved understanding of expression of immune checkpoint receptors (ICR) on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) may facilitate more effective immunotherapy in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. A higher frequency of PD-1(+) TIL has been reported in human papillomavirus (HPV)(+) HNC patients, despite the role of PD-1 in T cell exhaustion. This discordance led us to hypothesize that the extent of PD-1 expression more accurately defines T cell function and prognostic impact, since PD-1(high) T cells may be more exhausted than PD-1(low) T cells and may influence clinical outcome and response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900996/-clinicopathologic-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-gastric-hepatoid-adenocarcinoma
#18
Rongfei Zhao, Xinxin Wang, Xin Lan, Mingsen Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma(HAS). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data of 24 cases with gastric HAS diagnosed by surgery and pathology in Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 2013 to May 2016 were carried out. All the patients underwent preoperative serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), endoscopy and imaging examination (CT or B-mode ultrasonography), and those with elevated AFP were excluded from liver cancer, cirrhosis, endodermal sinus tumor and other diseases...
September 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900485/uncarboxylated-osteocalcin-induces-antitumor-immunity-against-mouse-melanoma-cell-growth
#19
Yoshikazu Hayashi, Tomoyo Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Akiko Mizokami, Mai Hazekawa, Tomiko Yakura, Munekazu Naito, Hiroshi Takeuchi, Seiji Nakamura, Masato Hirata
Because of the poor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy, new treatment approaches by immune-based therapy involving activated T cells are required for melanoma. We previously reported that the uncarboxylated form of osteocalcin (GluOC), derived from osteoblasts, potentially suppresses human prostate cancer cell proliferation by direct suppression of cell growth. However, the mechanisms in vivo have not been elucidated. In this study, we found that GluOC suppressed tumor growth of B16 mouse melanoma transplants in C57Bl/6N wild-type mice...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899074/thyroid-specific-t-cells-in-patients-with-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-implications-for-immune-based-therapies
#20
Jena D French, Bryan R Haugen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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