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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156800/comparative-molecular-analyses-of-left-sided-colon-right-sided-colon-and-rectal-cancers
#1
Mohamed E Salem, Benjamin A Weinberg, Joanne Xiu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Jimmy J Hwang, Zoran Gatalica, Philip A Philip, Anthony F Shields, Heinz-Josef Lenz, John L Marshall
Tumor sidedness has emerged as an important prognostic and predictive factor in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Recent studies demonstrate that patients with advanced right-sided colon cancers have a worse prognosis than those with left-sided colon or rectal cancers, and these patient subgroups respond differently to biological therapies. Historically, management of patients with metastatic colon and rectal cancers has been similar, and colon and rectal cancer patients have been grouped together in large clinical trials...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155997/immune-activation-and-benefit-from-avelumab-in-ebv-positive-gastric-cancer
#2
Anshuman Panda, Janice M Mehnert, Kim M Hirshfield, Greg Riedlinger, Sherri Damare, Tracie Saunders, Michael Kane, Levi Sokol, Mark N Stein, Elizabeth Poplin, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Ann W Silk, Joseph Aisner, Nancy Chan, Jyoti Malhotra, Melissa Frankel, Howard L Kaufman, Siraj Ali, Jeffrey S Ross, Eileen P White, Gyan Bhanot, Shridar Ganesan
Response to immune checkpoint therapy can be associated with a high mutation burden, but other mechanisms are also likely to be important. We identified a patient with metastatic gastric cancer with meaningful clinical benefit from treatment with the anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody avelumab. This tumor showed no evidence of high mutation burden or mismatch repair defect but was strongly positive for presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded RNA. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas gastric cancer data (25 EBV+, 80 microsatellite-instable [MSI], 310 microsatellite-stable [MSS]) showed that EBV-positive tumors were MSS...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155933/pd-l1-antibodies-for-ebv-positive-gastric-cancer-going-beyond-pd-l1-expression-and-microsatellite-instability
#3
Khaldoun Almhanna, Scott Antonia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153096/correlations-between-microsatellite-instability-ercc1-xrcc1-polymorphism-and-clinical-characteristics-and-folfox-adjuvant-chemotherapy-effect-of-colorectal-cancer-patients
#4
Liping Zhang, Jiangman Zhao, Bin Yu, Xinjiang Song, Guogang Sun, Lijiang Han, Lu Wang, Shu Dong
Patients with MSI colorectal tumor have good prognosis and cannot benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu)-based chemotherapy reported by previous studies. While, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of ERCC1 and XRCC1 have be proved to influence clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. We aim to study the correlation between molecular status and clinical- pathological features, and their effect on CRC patients' clinical outcome treated with mFOLFOX6 adjuvant chemotherapy...
December 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148535/the-role-of-apc-in-wnt-pathway-activation-in-serrated-neoplasia
#5
Jennifer Borowsky, Troy Dumenil, Mark Bettington, Sally-Ann Pearson, Catherine Bond, Lochlan Fennell, Cheng Liu, Diane McKeone, Christophe Rosty, Ian Brown, Neal Walker, Barbara Leggett, Vicki Whitehall
Conventional adenomas are initiated by APC gene mutation that activates the WNT signal. Serrated neoplasia is commonly initiated by BRAF or KRAS mutation. WNT pathway activation may also occur, however, to what extent this is owing to APC mutation is unknown. We examined aberrant nuclear β-catenin immunolocalization as a surrogate for WNT pathway activation and analyzed the entire APC gene coding sequence in serrated and conventional pathway polyps and cancers. WNT pathway activation was a common event in conventional pathway lesions with aberrant nuclear immunolocalization of β-catenin and truncating APC mutations in 90% and 89% of conventional adenomas and 82% and 70% of BRAF wild-type cancers, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144791/is-there-a-role-for-programmed-death-ligand-1-testing-and-immunotherapy-in-colorectal-cancer-with-microsatellite-instability-part-i-colorectal-cancer-microsatellite-instability-testing-and-clinical-implications
#6
Esmeralda Celia Marginean, Barbara Melosky
CONTEXT: - Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the third most-common cancer in developed countries and is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Two recognized pathways contribute to CRC development: a more-common chromosomal instability pathway and, in 15% of cases, a deficient mismatch repair or microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) pathway. The MSI-H CRC can be associated with somatic or germline mutations. Microsatellite status has been recognized as a prognostic and predictive biomarker...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143111/correction-to-abstracts-29th-european-congress-of-pathology
#7
M Farinha, J Ribeiro, D Montezuma, A Pires-Luís, P Lopes, H Sousa, L Afonso, R Henrique
In Poster Sessions, the first-author name was missing from the authorship group originally listed for Abstract PS-13-001 (page S176), entitled "Gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma: Analysis of microsatellite instability and Epstein-Barr virus status". The correct authorship group is shown above.
November 16, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138371/-adaptation-of-anti-pd-1-anti-pd-l1-antibody-from-the-viewpoint-of-analysis-of-tumor-microenvironment
#8
Kousaku Mimura, Yuko Nakayama, Tadao Nakazawa, Koji Kono
The response rate of anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1antibody alone is about 20 to 30%and the development of biomarker for them is important to know their indication. Based on previous reports and our research results, we suggested that basic candidates of biomarker for anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1antibody are the expression of PD-L1and HLA class I on cancer cells and the invasion of CD8 positive T cells in tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, in addition to these conditions, regulatory T cells and immune cells expressing PD-L1in tumor microenvironment, and microsatellite instability of cancer cells will be considered in the future...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137623/analysis-of-factors-influencing-molecular-testing-at-diagnostic-of-colorectal-cancer
#9
Quentin Thiebault, Gautier Defossez, Lucie Karayan-Tapon, Pierre Ingrand, Christine Silvain, David Tougeron
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the current rate of molecular testing prescription (KRAS codons 12/13, BRAF and microsatellite instability (MSI)) in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and to determine which factors influence testing. METHODS: All incident CRC cases in 2010 were identified in the Poitou-Charentes General Cancer Registry. The exhaustive molecular testing performed was accessed in the French molecular genetics platform...
November 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137273/programmed-death-ligand-1-and-met-co-expression-is-a-poor-prognostic-factor-in-gastric-cancers-after-resection
#10
Mi Jung Kwon, Kab-Choong Kim, Eun Sook Nam, Seong Jin Cho, Hye-Rim Park, Soo Kee Min, Jinwon Seo, Ji-Young Choe, Hye Kyung Lee, Ho Suk Kang, Kyueng-Whan Min
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) plays an essential protein for immune evasion, contributing to tumor development and progression. Recent studies have reported MET as an upregulator for PD-L1 overexpression through an oncogenic pathway. However, an association between PD-L1 expression with MET has not been reported in gastric cancer.The prognostic significance of PD-L1 and its association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), microsatellite instability (MSI), and mucin phenotype remain controversial. We performed in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA and immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays for 394 gastric cancers...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133367/regulatory-t-cell-genes-drive-altered-immune-microenvironment-in-adult-solid-cancers-and-allow-for-immune-contextual-patient-subtyping
#11
Jurriaan Brouwer-Visser, Wei-Yi Cheng, Anna Bauer-Mehren, Daniela Maisel, Katharina Lechner, Emilia Andersson, Joel T Dudley, Francesca Milletti
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment is an important factor in cancer immunotherapy response. To further understand how a tumor affects the local immune system, we analyzed immune gene expression differences between matching normal and tumor tissue. METHODS: We analyzed public and new gene expression data from solid cancers and isolated immune cell populations. We also determined the correlation between CD8, FoxP3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and our gene signatures...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128931/universal-determination-of-microsatellite-instability-using-bat26-as-a-single-marker-in-an-argentine-colorectal-cancer-cohort
#12
María Laura González, Natalia Causada-Calo, Juan Pablo Santino, Mev Dominguez-Valentin, Fabiana Alejandra Ferro, Inés Sammartino, Pablo Germán Kalfayan, Maria Alicia Verzura, Tamara Alejandra Piñero, Andrea Romina Cajal, Walter Pavicic, Carlos Vaccaro
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hallmark tool for Lynch syndrome (LS) screening and a prognostic marker for sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). In regions with limited resources and scarce CRC molecular characterization as South America, the implementation of universal MSI screening is under debate for both its purposes. We sought to estimate the frequency of BAT26 in colorectal adenocarcinomas and to determine associated clinical and histological features. Consecutive patients from a CRC registry were included...
November 11, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126141/gastric-carcinomas-with-lymphoid-stroma-categorization-and-comparison-with-solid-type-colonic-carcinomas
#13
Raul S Gonzalez, Justin M M Cates, Frank Revetta, Loralee A McMahon, Kay Washington
Objectives: To determine whether histologic features could help identify gastric carcinomas with lymphoid stroma associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) (ie, "medullary carcinomas"), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (termed lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas in other organ systems), or neither. Methods: We identified 17 solid-type gastric carcinomas with lymphoid stroma, assessed EBV and MSI status, and compared features across groups. We also compared them with 51 solid-type colorectal adenocarcinomas...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123583/medullary-colonic-carcinoma-with-microsatellite-instability-has-lower-survival-compared-with-conventional-colonic-adenocarcinoma-with-microsatellite-instability
#14
Miguel A Gómez-Álvarez, Leonardo S Lino-Silva, Rosa A Salcedo-Hernández, Alejandro Padilla-Rosciano, Erika B Ruiz-García, Horacio N López-Basave, German Calderillo-Ruiz, José M Aguilar-Romero, Jorge A Domínguez-Rodríguez, Ángel Herrera-Gómez, Abelardo Meneses-García
Introduction: Colorectal medullary carcinoma (MC) is a rare subtype of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (PDA) with unclear prognostic significance. Microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal carcinomas have demonstrated better prognosis in clinical stage II. Aim: To analyze the survival and clinicopathological characteristics of MCs versus PDAs with MSI in clinical stage III. Material and methods: We studied 22 cases of PDAs with MSI versus 10 MCs...
2017: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121141/status-of-testing-for-high-level-microsatellite-instability-deficient-mismatch-repair-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#15
Stanley R Hamilton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121062/loss-of-function-jak1-mutations-occur-at-high-frequency-in-cancers-with-microsatellite-instability-and-are-suggestive-of-immune-evasion
#16
Lee A Albacker, Jeremy Wu, Peter Smith, Markus Warmuth, Philip J Stephens, Ping Zhu, Lihua Yu, Juliann Chmielecki
Immune evasion is a well-recognized hallmark of cancer and recent studies with immunotherapy agents have suggested that tumors with increased numbers of neoantigens elicit greater immune responses. We hypothesized that the immune system presents a common selective pressure on high mutation burden tumors and therefore immune evasion mutations would be enriched in high mutation burden tumors. The JAK family of kinases is required for the signaling of a host of immune modulators in tumor, stromal, and immune cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120224/is-there-a-role-for-programmed-death-ligand-1-testing-and-immunotherapy-in-colorectal-cancer-with-microsatellite-instability-part-ii-the-challenge-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-testing-and-its-role-in-microsatellite-instability-high-colorectal-cancer
#17
Esmeralda Celia Marginean, Barbara Melosky
CONTEXT: - The world of oncology has changed dramatically in the past few years with the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors and immunotherapy. The promising findings of a small, phase 2 clinical trial that led to the US Food and Drug Administration breakthrough designation and approval of the anti-programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck, Kenilworth, New Jersey) to treat metastatic/refractory microsatellite instability-high colorectal cancer (CRC) has significantly boosted interest in immunomodulatory therapies in microsatellite instability-high CRC...
November 9, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116623/kras-mutation-in-gastric-cancer-and-prognostication-associated-with-microsatellite-instability-status
#18
Karol Polom, Kakoli Das, Daniele Marrelli, Giandomenico Roviello, Valeria Pascale, Costantino Voglino, Henry Rho, Patrick Tan, Franco Roviello
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is one of the subgroups based on the new molecular classification of gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we analyzed the role of KRAS status in MSI GC and the impact of MSI status on KRAS mutation. We performed analysis on 595 GC patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the screening of KRAS mutation (exon 2) and 5 quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide repeats, namely, BAT-26, BAT-25, NR -24, NR-21, and NR-27 were used to determine the MSI status. The KRAS and MSI status were then compared with clinicopathologic data of the GC patients...
November 8, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113277/sequence-variations-of-mitochondrial-dna-d-loop-region-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#19
Juan Zhou, Haimei Gou, Yuanxin Ye, Yi Zhou, Xiaojun Lu, Binwu Ying
The aim of the present study was to explore variations of the displacement (D)-loop region in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and their possible associations with AML pathogenesis. Blood or bone marrow samples from 216 patients with AML (158 AML patients in the first stage, and 58 more patients with AML-M3 for further verification), and 146 healthy controls were collected. Sanger sequencing was performed for the D-loop region ranging between nucleotide (nt)15811 and nt 775. With the exception of mitochondrial microsatellite instability (mtMSI) variations, a total of 2,630 variations in 232 loci were identified with similar variation rates/person in patients with AML and controls when compared with the revised Cambridge reference sequence (8...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113157/lack-of-microsatellite-instability-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#20
Nathália C Campanella, Cristovam Scapulatempo-Neto, Lucas Faria Abrahão-Machado, Antônio Talvane Torres De Oliveira, Gustavo N Berardinelli, Denise Peixoto Guimarães, Rui M Reis
The microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype may constitute an important biomarker for patient response to immunotherapy, particularly to anti-programmed death-1 inhibitors. MSI is a type of genomic instability caused by a defect in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, which is present mainly in colorectal cancer and its hereditary form, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) development is associated with activating mutations of KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA), which are oncogenes that predict the response to imatinib mesylate...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
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