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Colorectal dysplasia

Fernando Velayos, Priya Kathpalia, Emily Finlayson
This review chronicles the evolution of dysplasia detection and management in IBD since 1925, the year the first case report of colitis-related colorectal cancer was published. We have grouped advances in colorectal cancer research, endoscopic techniques, surgery, and technology into 4 unequally timed eras, before colonoscopy, early era of colonoscopy, new century, and 2017 and beyond. We conclude that colorectal cancer prevention and dysplasia management for patients with IBD has changed over these periods, from somewhat hopeless to hopeful...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Hai-Long Cao, Xue Chen, Shao-Chun Du, Wen-Jing Song, Wei-Qiang Wang, Meng-Que Xu, Si-Nan Wang, Mei-Yu Piao, Xiao-Cang Cao, Bang-Mao Wang
BACKGROUND: Colorectal serrated polyp is considered as histologically heterogeneous lesions with malignant potential in western countries. However, few Asian studies have investigated the comprehensive clinical features of serrated polyps in symptomatic populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the features of colorectal serrated polyps in a Chinese symptomatic population. METHODS: Data from all consecutive symptomatic patients were documented from a large colonoscopy database and were analyzed...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Anna-Katharina Wernicke, Yuri Churin, Diana Sheridan, Anita Windhorst, Annette Tschuschner, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Martin Roderfeld, Elke Roeb
An exact classification of precancerous stages of colorectal polyps might improve therapy and patients' outcome. Here we investigate the association between grade of dysplasia and Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression in 137 biopsies from patients with cancerous and non-cancerous colorectal adenomas. A reproducible staining procedure for histologic MMP-13 analysis in routinely fixed colorectal biopsy specimens has been established. A newly adopted immunoreactive scoring system for MMP-13 was demonstrated as reliable readout...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Yara Backes, Leon Mg Moons, Marco R Novelli, Jeroen D van Bergeijk, John N Groen, Tom Cj Seerden, Matthijs P Schwartz, Wouter H de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, Bernhard Wm Spanier, Joost Mj Geesing, Koen Kessels, Marjon Kerkhof, Peter D Siersema, G Johan A Offerhaus, Anya N Milne, Miangela M Lacle
T1 colorectal cancer can be mimicked by pseudo-invasion in pedunculated polyps. British guidelines are currently one of the few which recommend diagnostic confirmation of T1 colorectal cancer by a second pathologist. The aim of this study was to provide insights into the accuracy of histological diagnosis of pedunculated T1 colorectal cancer in daily clinical practice. A sample of 128 cases diagnosed as pedunculated T1 colorectal cancer between 2000 and 2014 from 10 Dutch hospitals was selected for histological review...
October 7, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Parambir S Dulai, William J Sandborn, Samir Gupta
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) characterized by recurrent episodes of mucosal inflammation. This chronic mucosal inflammation has several potential consequences, one of which is the occurrence of colitis associated colorectal cancer (CRC). Over the past decade our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and overall approach to diagnosing and managing colitis associated CRC, has grown considerably. In the current review article, we outline these advancements and highlight areas in need of further research...
September 27, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Sun-Hye Ko, Myong Ki Baeg, Woong Jin Bae, Pumsoo Kim, Myung-Gyu Choi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients being treated for prostate cancer (PCa) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, whether PCa patients are inherently at a higher risk of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs) is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of CRNs in PCa patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had been diagnosed with PCa at a tertiary medical center and had colonoscopy within 1 year of the PCa diagnosis were investigated. Patients were propensity-matched 1:2 by age and body mass index to asymptomatic control subjects who had undergone colonoscopy for routine health screening...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Ru Chen, Lisa A Lai, Teresa A Brentnall, Sheng Pan
Patients with extensive ulcerative colitis (UC) of more than eight years duration have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Molecular biomarkers for dysplasia and cancer could have a great clinical value in managing cancer risk in these UC patients. Using a wide range of molecular techniques - including cutting-edge OMICS technologies - recent studies have identified clinically relevant biomarker candidates from a variety of biosamples, including colonic biopsies, blood, stool, and urine. While the challenge remains to validate these candidate biomarkers in multi-center studies and with larger patient cohorts, it is certain that accurate biomarkers of colitis-associated neoplasia would improve clinical management of neoplastic risk in UC patients...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Xiaoming Yuan, Guangrong Zhou, Yan He, Aiwen Feng
BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysplasia and adenomatous polyps of colorectum are precancerous lesions. Surgical removal is still one of the important treatment approaches for colorectal polyps. CASE PRESENTATION: A male patient over 78 years was admitted due to bloody stool and abdominal pain. Colonoscopic biopsy showed a high-grade epithelial dysplasia in an adenomatous polyp of sigmoid colon. Anemia, COPD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), arrhythmias, and hypoproteinemia were comorbidities...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Jayson X Chen, Hong Wang, Anna Liu, Lanjing Zhang, Kenneth Reuhl, Chung S Yang
In the past decades, experimental rodent models developed to study the pathogenesis of human colorectal cancer (CRC) generally employed synthetic chemical carcinogens or genetic manipulation. Our lab, in order to establish a more physiologically relevant CRC model, recently developed a colon carcinogenesis model induced by the meat-derived dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and promoted by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in the cytochrome P450 1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice...
September 23, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Takashi Murakami, Naoto Sakamoto, Hideaki Ritsuno, Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Taro Osada, Hiroyuki Mitomi, Takashi Yao, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is a colorectal polyp that possesses malignant potential. However, the dysplastic components within a SSA/P can be difficult to detect. This study aimed to clarify the endoscopic characteristics of SSA/P with advanced histology. METHODS: We examined 462 endoscopically or surgically resected lesions that were pathologically diagnosed as SSA/P, including 414 without and 41 with cytological dysplasia, and 7 with invasive carcinoma...
September 20, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Alexander Semaan, Anne van Ellen, Sebastian Meller, Dominik Bergheim, Vittorio Branchi, Philipp Lingohr, Diane Goltz, Jörg C Kalff, Glen Kristiansen, Hanno Matthaei, Dimitrios Pantelis, Dimo Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) appear to arise from precursor lesions in a well-characterized adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Significant efforts have been invested to develop biomarkers that identify early adenocarcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia, since these are believed to harbor a particularly high risk for malignant transition and thus require resection. Promoter methylation of SEPT9 and SHOX2 has been suggested as a biomarker for various solid malignant tumors. Hence, the present study aimed to test their biomarker potential in CRC and precursor lesions...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Vassiliki L Tsikitis, Aimee Potter, Motomi Mori, Julie A Buckmeier, Christina R Preece, Chris A Harrington, Angela N Bartley, Achyut Bhattacharyya, Stanley R Hamilton, Peter Lance, Patricia A Thompson
Colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenoma adjacent to cancer exhibit distinct microRNA (miR) alterations in an apparent mucosa-to-adenocarcinoma sequence. The pattern of microRNAs in screen-detected polyps in relation to histologic features and cancer risk has not been investigated. miR expression analysis was performed on normal mucosa (NM), hyperplastic polyps (HPs), tubular adenomas (TAs), tubulovillous adenomas or high-grade dysplasia (TVHGs), and serrated polyps (sessile serrated adenoma/polyps, SSA/Ps, and traditional serrated adenomas, TSAs) in biopsy specimens from 109 patients undergoing screening/surveillance colonoscopy...
September 22, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Yiwei Wang, Dan Huang, Kai-Yuan Chen, Min Cui, Weihuan Wang, Xiaoran Huang, Amad Awadellah, Qing Li, Ann Friedman, William W Xin, Luca Di Martino, Fabio Cominelli, Alex Miron, Ricky Chan, James Fox, Yan Xu, Xiling Shen, Mathew F Kalady, Sanford Markowitz, Ivan Maillard, John B Lowe, Wei Xin, Lan Zhou
BACKGROUND & AIMS: De novo synthesis of GDP-fucose, a substrate for fucosylglycans, requires sequential reactions mediated by GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMDS) and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose 3,5-epimerase-4-reductase (FX or TSTA3). GMDS deletions and mutations are found in 6%-13% of colorectal cancers; these mostly affect ascending and transverse colon. We investigated whether lack of fucosylation consequent to loss of GDP-fucose synthesis contributes to colon carcinogenesis. METHODS: FX deficiency and GMDS deletion produce the same biochemical phenotype of GDP-fucose deficiency...
September 14, 2016: Gastroenterology
Sarah K McGill, Roy Soetikno, Robert V Rouse, Hobart Lai, Tonya Kaltenbach
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms (NP-CRNs) are more likely to contain high-grade dysplasia or early-stage cancer than polypoid neoplasms. We aimed to determine the long-term outcomes of patients with at least 1 NP-CRN. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of 4454 patients at a Veterans' Affairs hospital who underwent colonoscopy from 2000 through 2005; 341 were found to have 1 or more NP-CRNs and were matched (3:1) with patients found to have 1 or more polypoid neoplasms (controls, n = 1025)...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
T Rau
The pathogenesis of precursor lesions of gastrointestinal tumors is manifested in many ways. In the esophagus an aberrant genetic expression of intestinal transcription factors, such as CDX2 is initiated by local environment factors. During the subsequent dysplasia to carcinoma sequence, chromosomal gain and loss of genes occurs. A 4-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay can be applied in dysplasia as well as in Barrett's adenocarcinoma to define prognostic marker combinations. In the gastric carcinogenesis sequence the gene expression of CDX1 is regulatively dependent on an interplay between inflammation and promotor methylation...
September 14, 2016: Der Pathologe
J R Ten Hove, E Mooiweer, E Dekker, A E van der Meulen-de Jong, G J A Offerhaus, C Y Ponsioen, P D Siersema, B Oldenburg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: When dysplastic lesions are encountered during surveillance colonoscopy of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), guidelines recommend collection of additional biopsies from the surrounding mucosa, to ensure the lesion has been adequately circumscribed. We aimed to determine the rate of dysplasia in mucosa biopsies collected from tissues surrounding dysplastic lesions during IBD surveillance. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we collected endoscopy and pathology reports from 1065 patients undergoing colonoscopic surveillance for IBD, from 2000 through 2015, at 3 centers in the Netherlands...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Byung Wook Choi, Hae Won Kim, Kyoung Sook Won, Bong-Il Song, Kwang Bum Cho, Sung Uk Bae
Preoperative screening for synchronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been recommended in patients with gastric cancer because patients with gastric cancer are at increased risk for synchronous CRN. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer.A total of 256 patients who underwent colonoscopy and F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging were enrolled in this study...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Thomas F Imperiale, Menggang Yu, Patrick O Monahan, Timothy E Stump, Rebeka Tabbey, Elizabeth Glowinski, David F Ransohoff
BACKGROUND: There is no validated, discriminating, and easy-to-apply tool for estimating risk of colorectal neoplasia. We studied whether the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Risk Assessment Tool, which estimates future CRC risk, could estimate current risk for advanced colorectal neoplasia among average-risk persons. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved individuals age 50 to 80 years undergoing first-time screening colonoscopy...
January 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Cristiana Popp, Luciana Nichita, Theodor Voiosu, Alexandra Bastian, Mirela Cioplea, Gianina Micu, Gabriel Pop, Liana Sticlaru, Andreea Bengus, Andrei Voiosu, Radu Bogdan Mateescu
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory bowel disease that slightly increases the risk of colorectal cancer in patients with long-standing extended disease. Overexpression of p53 and p21 in colonic epithelia is usually detected in UC patients when no dysplasia is histologically seen and it is used by pathologists as a discriminator between regenerative changes and intraepithelial neoplasia, as well as a tissue biomarker useful to predict the risk of evolution toward malignancy. We present a one-year prospective observational study including a cohort of 45 patients with UC; p53 and p21 were evaluated in epithelial cells...
2016: Disease Markers
Aman M Abraha, Ezra B Ketema
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among adults. The disease begins as a benign adenomatous polyp, which develops into an advanced adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and then progresses to an invasive cancer. Appropriate apoptotic signaling is fundamentally important to preserve a healthy balance between cell death and cell survival and in maintaining genome integrity. Evasion of apoptotic pathway has been established as a prominent hallmark of several cancers. During colorectal cancer development, the balance between the rates of cell growth and apoptosis that maintains intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis gets progressively disturbed...
August 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
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