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Colorectal dysplasia

Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
Tianyu Liu, Duochen Jin, Samiullah Khan, Xue Chen, Tao Shi, Wenxiao Dong, Yanrong Qi, Zixuan Guo, Bangmao Wang, Hailong Cao
OBJECTIVE: A growing body of evidence indicates that patients with colorectal serrated lesions especially advanced serrated lesions (ASLs) are at risk of subsequent malignancy. This study aimed to provide more information for endoscopists for the management of ASLs by analyzing the clinicopathological features of ASLs, and the association between the presence of ASL and synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia (sACN) in China. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of data from 38,981 symptomatic patients who underwent colonoscopy between January 2010 and March 2016...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Yohei Kojima, Kouki Ohtsuka, Hiroaki Ohnishi, Nobutsugu Abe, Junji Furuse, Takashi Watanabe, Masanori Sugiyama
PURPOSE: Duodenal adenoma and adenocarcinoma (AC) are rare tumors, and few studies have examined their genetic features. We aimed to determine the key genetic changes in duodenal adenoma and AC, and to clarify the possible involvement of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in duodenal tumor carcinogenesis. METHODS: Nineteen duodenal tumors collected by endoscopic mucosal resection or surgical resection were classified as AC, adenoma with high-grade dysplasia (HGD), or adenoma with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) per the World Health Organization tumor classification...
March 10, 2018: Surgery Today
Gregory S Cooper, Sanford D Markowitz, Zhengyi Chen, Missy Tuck, Joseph E Willis, Barry M Berger, Dean E Brenner, Li Li
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty as to the appropriate follow-up of patients who test positive on multimarker stool DNA (sDNA) testing and have a colonoscopy without neoplasia. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of missed colonic or occult upper gastrointestinal neoplasia in patients with an apparent false positive sDNA. METHODS: We prospectively identified 30 patients who tested positive with a commercially available sDNA followed by colonoscopy without neoplastic lesions...
March 7, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Jimmy K Limdi, Francis A Farraye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis have an increased risk for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Colitis-related dysplasia appears to confer the greatest risk. Colonoscopic surveillance to detect dysplasia has been advocated by gastrointestinal societies. The aim of surveillance is the reduction of mortality and morbidity of CRC through detection and resection of dysplasia or detecting CRC at an earlier and potentially curable stage. Traditional surveillance has relied on mucosal assessment with targeted biopsy of visible lesions and random biopsy sampling on the premise that dysplasia was not visible at endoscopy...
March 7, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Mohamad A Mouchli, Lidia Ouk, Marianne R Scheitel, Alisha P Chaudhry, Donna Felmlee-Devine, Diane E Grill, Shahrooz Rashtak, Panwen Wang, Junwen Wang, Rajeev Chaudhry, Thomas C Smyrk, Ann L Oberg, Brooke R Druliner, Lisa A Boardman
AIM: To determine the frequency and risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) development among individuals with resected advanced adenoma (AA)/traditional serrated adenoma (TSA)/advanced sessile serrated adenoma (ASSA). METHODS: Data was collected from medical records of 14663 subjects found to have AA, TSA, or ASSA at screening or surveillance colonoscopy. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease or known genetic predisposition for CRC were excluded from the study...
February 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Arvind J Trindade, Arvind Rishi, Robert Hirten, Sumant Inamdar, Divyesh V Sejpal, Jean-Frederic Colombel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is limited data on the use of volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) in imaging for colon polyps. Our aim was to identify VLE features of colon polyps. METHODS: A total of 45 patients were included. 43 underwent endoscopic mucosal resection of colorectal polyps 2 cm or greater. These polyps were then scanned with VLE immediately after resection. Two patients that underwent partial colonic resection served as controls. RESULTS: Forty-three polyps were included with review of matching histology: 3 intramucosal adenocarcinoma (IMCA), 5 tubular adenoma (TA)/tubulovillous adenoma (TVA) with high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 9 TVA with only low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 5 serrated adenoma (SA), and 21 TA with LGD...
February 22, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Aki Takiyama, Toshiaki Tanaka, Shinsuke Kazama, Hiroshi Nagata, Kazushige Kawai, Keisuke Hata, Kensuke Otani, Takeshi Nishikawa, Kazuhito Sasaki, Manabu Kaneko, Shigenobu Emoto, Koji Murono, Hirotoshi Takiyama, Hiroaki Nozawa
BACKGROUND: The expression of doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) has been investigated in cancer; however not in precancerous adenomatous polyps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistological expression of DCLK1 was evaluated in various grades of adenomas, cancerous polyps, and hyperplastic polyps in resected human tissue specimens. RESULTS: Ninety-two specimens were positive for DCLK1 and 134 were negative. Cancerous polyps showed a high DCLK1 positivity rate compared to adenomas (68...
March 2018: In Vivo
Stefanie Schmidt, Neele Schumacher, Jeanette Schwarz, Simone Tangermann, Lukas Kenner, Michaela Schlederer, Maria Sibilia, Markus Linder, Annelore Altendorf-Hofmann, Thomas Knösel, Elisabeth S Gruber, Georg Oberhuber, Julia Bolik, Ateequr Rehman, Anupam Sinha, Juliane Lokau, Philipp Arnold, Anne-Sophie Cabron, Friederike Zunke, Christoph Becker-Pauly, Adele Preaudet, Paul Nguyen, Jennifer Huynh, Shoukat Afshar-Sterle, Ashwini L Chand, Jürgen Westermann, Peter J Dempsey, Christoph Garbers, Dirk Schmidt-Arras, Philip Rosenstiel, Tracy Putoczki, Matthias Ernst, Stefan Rose-John
Colorectal cancer is treated with antibodies blocking epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), but therapeutic success is limited. EGF-R is stimulated by soluble ligands, which are derived from transmembrane precursors by ADAM17-mediated proteolytic cleavage. In mouse intestinal cancer models in the absence of ADAM17, tumorigenesis was almost completely inhibited, and the few remaining tumors were of low-grade dysplasia. RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated down-regulation of STAT3 and Wnt pathway components...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Eugene Kligman, Wenfang Li, George J Eckert, Charles Kahi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a powerful measure of screening colonoscopy quality. Patients who undergo colonoscopy for the evaluation of a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) have increased prevalence of colorectal neoplasia, but it is not known whether separate quality benchmarks are required. The aim of this study was to compare the conventional ADR to the ADR of colonoscopies performed for the evaluation of positive FIT, in asymptomatic average-risk patients...
February 22, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Annefleur E M Berkel, Bart C Bongers, Marie-Janne S van Kamp, Hayke Kotte, Paul Weltevreden, Frans H C de Jongh, Michiel M M Eijsvogel, A N Machteld Wymenga, Marloes Bigirwamungu-Bargeman, Job van der Palen, Marc J van Det, Nico L U van Meeteren, Joost M Klaase
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Kycler Witold, Kubiak Anna, Trojanowski Maciej, Janowski Jakub
Colorectal cancer is the second most common type of cancer both in Europe and Poland. During the last 30 years more than a 3-fold increase has been observed in Poland due to environmental and genetic factors. Almost all colorectal malignancies are related to the formation and malignant transformation of colorectal dysplasia and adenoma. Efforts aiming to decrease the number of colorectal cancer deaths are focused on the disease early detection. Genetic diagnosis for hereditary syndromes predisposing to colorectal cancer has been developed and is a part of the routine treatment...
March 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Paula M De Angelis, Aasa R Schjølberg, Juliana B Hughes, Henrik S Huitfeldt, Solveig Norheim Andersen, Anne Carine Østvold
Background: The colon and rectum are continuously exposed to oxidative stress that generates reactive oxygen species, which are a major cause of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Furthermore, chronic inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by an excess of reactive nitrogen species that can also lead to DNA double-strand breakage and genomic instability. We investigated the expression of the nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1 (NUCKS1) protein in UC and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) due to its involvement in both DNA double-strand break repair and inflammatory signaling...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Carlo Arévalo, Natalia Chunga, Steven Alarcón, Omar Rodríguez, Fernando Arévalo, Pedro Montes, Eduardo Monge
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether localization and size are related to the presence of high-grade dysplasia of colon adenomas in patients of a Peruvian hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive transversal study. We checked colonoscopyreports of 2014-2015 years of Hospital Daniel Alcides Carrion, we included the polyps found in patients older than 18 years old, and excluded reports from patients with colorectal cancer, an antecedent of oncological surgery, inflammatory bowel disease and polyposis (6 or more)...
October 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Brooke R Druliner, Panwen Wang, Taejeong Bae, Saurabh Baheti, Seth Slettedahl, Douglas Mahoney, Nikolaos Vasmatzis, Hang Xu, Minsoo Kim, Matthew Bockol, Daniel O'Brien, Diane Grill, Nathaniel Warner, Miguel Munoz-Gomez, Kimberlee Kossick, Ruth Johnson, Mohamad Mouchli, Donna Felmlee-Devine, Jill Washechek-Aletto, Thomas Smyrk, Ann Oberg, Junwen Wang, Nicholas Chia, Alexej Abyzov, David Ahlquist, Lisa A Boardman
The majority of colorectal cancer (CRC) arises from precursor lesions known as polyps. The molecular determinants that distinguish benign from malignant polyps remain unclear. To molecularly characterize polyps, we utilized Cancer Adjacent Polyp (CAP) and Cancer Free Polyp (CFP) patients. CAPs had tissues from the residual polyp of origin and contiguous cancer; CFPs had polyp tissues matched to CAPs based on polyp size, histology and dysplasia. To determine whether molecular features distinguish CAPs and CFPs, we conducted Whole Genome Sequencing, RNA-seq, and RRBS on over 90 tissues from 31 patients...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
David Ullman, Erin Baumgartner, Nicholas Wnukowski, Gabe Koenig, Fady M Mikhail, Peter Pavlidakey, Deniz Peker
Muir-Torre Syndrome (MTS) is a rare hereditary autosomal dominant cancer syndrome and is linked to hereditary non-polyposis colorectal carcinoma (Lynch Syndrome). Individuals develop various skin neoplasms in addition to colorectal, endometrial and upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Therapy-associated myelodysplastic syndrome (T-MDS) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy and is considered a pre-leukemic phase. T-MDS is associated with prior exposure to chemo- and radiotherapy that potentially results in DNA damage...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
I O Gordon, N Agrawal, E Willis, J R Goldblum, R Lopez, D Allende, X Liu, D Y Patil, L Yerian, F El-Khider, C Fiocchi, F Rieder
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis in ulcerative colitis has remained largely unexplored despite its clinical implications. AIMS: This cross-sectional study was aimed at characterising the presence, anatomical location and degree of ulcerative colitis-associated fibrosis and its possible link to clinical parameters. METHODS: Seven hundred and six individual tissue cross-sections derived every 10 cm along the length of 89 consecutive Ulcerative colitis colectomy specimens were examined and compared to Crohn's disease colitis, diverticular disease and uninvolved areas from colorectal cancer patients...
February 6, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Edris Wedi, Beatrice Orlandini, Mark Gromski, Carlo Felix Maria Jung, Irina Tchoumak, Stephanie Boucher, Volker Ellenrieder, Jürgen Hochberger
The full-thickness resection device (FTRD) is a novel endoscopic device approved for the resection of colorectal lesions. This case-series describes the device and its use in high-risk patients with colorectal lesions and provides an overview of the potential indications in recently published data. Between December 2014 and September 2015, 3 patients underwent endoscopic full thickness resection using the FTRD for colorectal lesions: 1 case for a T1 adenocarcinoma in the region of a surgical anastomosis after recto-sigmoidectomy, 1 case for a non-lifting colonic adenoma with low-grade dysplasia in an 89-year old patient and 1 for a recurrent adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in a young patient with ulcerative rectocolitis who was under immunosuppression after renal transplantation...
January 2018: Clinical Endoscopy
Shailja C Shah, Joren R Ten Hove, Daniel Castaneda, Carolina Palmela, Erik Mooiweer, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Noam Harpaz, Thomas A Ullman, Ad A van Bodegraven, Jeroen M Jansen, Nofel Mahmmod, Andrea E van der Meulen-de Jong, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Christine J van der Woude, Bas Oldenburg, Steven H Itzkowitz, Joana Torres
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, termed PSC-IBD) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), but their risk following a diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is not well described. We aimed to determine the rate of advanced colorectal neoplasia (aCRN), defined as high-grade dysplasia and/or colorectal cancer, following a diagnosis of indefinite dysplasia or LGD in this population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, longitudinal study of 1911 patients with colonic IBD (293 with PSC and 1618 without PSC) who underwent more than 2 surveillance colonoscopies from 2000 through 2015 in the Netherlands or the United States (9265 patient-years of follow up)...
January 25, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Y Li, H Z Liu, Y R Liang, G Z Lin, K Li, H Dong, H Xu, M Wang
Objective: To analyze the effect of colorectal cancer screening in the general population in Guangzhou, and provide evidence for the for development of colorectal cancer screening policy and strategy. Methods: The data of colorectal cancer screening in Guangzhou during 2015- 2016 were collected. The participation, the positive rate of fecal occult blood test, the detection rate of colonoscopy and screening effect of colonoscopy were evaluated. Results: A total of 220 834 residents aged 50-74 years received the screening, and the positive rate of the screening was 16...
January 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
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