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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325827/sessile-serrated-polyps-and-colon-cancer-prevention
#1
Shahrooz Rashtak, Rafaela Rego, Seth R Sweetser, Frank A Sinicrope
Evidence suggests that up to one fifth of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) develop from serrated polyps, named for their pattern of colonic crypts, and include the sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) that has malignant potential. SSA/Ps are typically located in the proximal colon and have molecular features of hypermethylation of CpG islands in gene promoters and activating point mutations (V600E) in the BRAF oncogene. Both of these features are seen in sporadic CRCs with microsatellite instability (MSI) which is potentially consistent with an origin of these cancers from precursor SSA/Ps...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321155/pseudopolyps-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-have-we-learned-enough
#2
REVIEW
Dimitrios S Politis, Konstantinos H Katsanos, Epameinondas V Tsianos, Dimitrios K Christodoulou
Pseudopolyps are a well described entity in the literature and even though the exact pathogenesis of their formation is not completely understood, they are considered non-neoplastic lesions originating from the mucosa after repeated periods of inflammation and ulceration associated with excessive healing processes. Their occurrence is less common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis, and their overall prevalence ranges from 4% to 74%; moreover, they are found more often in colon but have been detected in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract as well...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316214/-expression-of-tyrosine-and-threonine-protein-kinase-in-carcinogenic-process-of-colorectal-cancer-and-its-relationship-with-prognosis
#3
X L Zhang, W X Han, Y M Ma, H W Y Baohan, X H Zhao, H Y Wang
Objective: To investigate the expression of TTK (tyrosine and threonine protein kinase) in the process of colorectal cancer (CRC) development and its relationship to prognosis in CRC patients. Methods: Colitis-associated colon cancer model was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice. Mice at four different stages of colon cancer development were obtained, named AD1 (inflammation of the recovery), AD2 (mild dysplasia), AD3 (adenoma) and AD4 (adenocarcinoma), as well as negative control (no treatment)...
March 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301579/a-novel-model-of-colitis-associated-cancer-in-samp1-yitfc-mice-with-crohn-s-disease-like-ileitis
#4
Paola Menghini, Luca Di Martino, Loris R Lopetuso, Daniele Corridoni, Joshua C Webster, Wei Xin, Kristen O Arseneau, Minh Lam, Theresa T Pizarro, Fabio Cominelli
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. Evidence suggests that colonic dysplasia and colitis-associated cancer (CAC) are often linked to repeated cycles of epithelial cell injury and repair in the context of chronic production of inflammatory cytokines. Several mouse models of CAC have been proposed, including chemical induction through exposure to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) with the genotoxic agents azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dymethylhydrazine (DHM) or targeted genetic mutations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295534/mucin-rich-variant-of-traditional-serrated-adenoma-mrtsa-a-distinct-morphological-variant
#5
Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Stefano Serra, Sara Hafezi-Bakhtiari, Richard Colling, Lai Mun Wang, Runjan Chetty
Traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) account for 5% of serrated polyps, have villiform architecture, eosinophilic cells with a brush border and indented, flat-topped luminal serrations. However, some are composed of mucin-filled goblet cells (GC): a mucin-rich variant (MrTSA). The aim of this study was to determine if this variant has unique features compared to classic TSA (cTSA). 156 TSAs were retrieved from 2010-2016. Patient demographics, site of polyps, and 16 microscopic variables, were evaluated. TSAs containing 50% or more GCs were classified as MrTSAs...
March 13, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289479/colorectal-adenoma-and-carcinoma-specific-mirna-profiles-in-biopsy-and-their-expression-in-plasma-specimens
#6
Zsófia Brigitta Nagy, Barnabás Wichmann, Alexandra Kalmár, Orsolya Galamb, Barbara Kinga Barták, Sándor Spisák, Zsolt Tulassay, Béla Molnár
BACKGROUND: MiRNA expression markers are well characterized in colorectal cancer (CRC), but less is known about miRNA expression profiles in colorectal adenomas. Genome-wide miRNA and mRNA expression analyses were conducted through the colorectal adenoma dysplasia sequence. Furthermore, analysis of the expression levels of miRNAs in matched plasma samples was performed, focusing on biomarker candidates; miRNA and mRNA expression analyses were performed on colorectal biopsies and plasma samples (20 normals; 11 tubular and 9 tubulovillous adenomas; 20 colorectal carcinomas) by miRNA 3...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288169/the-mir-200-family-is-increased-in-dysplastic-lesions-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients
#7
Amy Lewis, Carla Felice, Tomoko Kumagai, Cecilia Lai, Kriti Singh, Rosemary R Jeffery, Roger Feakins, Eleni Giannoulatou, Alessandro Armuzzi, Noor Jawad, James O Lindsay, Andrew Silver
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a life-threatening complication of ulcerative colitis (UC), and patients are routinely screened for the development of precancerous lesions (dysplasia). However, rates of CRC development in patients with confirmed low-grade dysplasia vary widely between studies, suggesting a large degree of heterogeneity between these lesions that is not detectable macroscopically. A better understanding of the underlying molecular changes that occur in dysplasia will help to identify lesions at higher risk of malignancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263971/egfr-mediated-macrophage-activation-promotes-colitis-associated-tumorigenesis
#8
D M Hardbower, L A Coburn, M Asim, K Singh, J C Sierra, D P Barry, A P Gobert, M B Piazuelo, M K Washington, K T Wilson
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is a known mediator of colorectal carcinogenesis. Studies have focused on the role of EGFR signaling in epithelial cells, although the exact nature of the role of EGFR in colorectal carcinogenesis remains a topic of debate. Here, we present evidence that EGFR signaling in myeloid cells, specifically macrophages, is critical for colon tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate (AOM-DSS) model of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). In a human tissue microarray, colonic macrophages demonstrated robust EGFR activation in the pre-cancerous stages of colitis and dysplasia...
March 6, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261835/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-use-of-5-aminosalicylates-and-risk-of-colorectal-neoplasia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
S Bonovas, G Fiorino, T Lytras, G Nikolopoulos, L Peyrin-Biroulet, S Danese
BACKGROUND: The relationship of 5-aminosalicylates' use with the risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been the focus of a growing body of research. AIM: To investigate this association through an updated meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus and major conference proceedings were searched up to December 2016. The identified studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity...
March 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257790/the-diagnostic-performance-of-jnet-classification-for-differentiation-among-noninvasive-superficially-invasive-and-deeply-invasive-colorectal-neoplasia
#10
Kyoku Sumimoto, Shinji Tanaka, Kenjiro Shigita, Nana Hayashi, Daiki Hirano, Yuzuru Tamaru, Yuki Ninomiya, Shiro Oka, Koji Arihiro, Fumio Shimamoto, Masaharu Yoshihara, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: The Japan NBI Expert Team (JNET) classification is the first universal narrow-band imaging (NBI) magnifying endoscopic classification of colorectal tumors. Considering each type in this classification, the diagnostic ability of Type 2B is the weakest. Generally, clinical behavior is thought to be different in each gross type of colorectal tumor. We evaluated the differences in the diagnostic performance of JNET classification for each gross type (polypoid and superficial) and examined whether the diagnostic performance of Type 2B could improve by subtyping...
February 28, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217374/plecanatide-mediated-activation-of-guanylate-cyclase-c-suppresses-inflammation-induced-colorectal-carcinogenesis-in-apc-min-fccc-mice
#11
Wen-Chi L Chang, Shet Masih, Anusha Thadi, Viren Patwa, Apoorva Joshi, Harry S Cooper, Vaseem A Palejwala, Margie L Clapper, Kunwar Shailubhai
AIM: To evaluate the effect of orally administered plecanatide on colorectal dysplasia in Apc(+/Min-FCCC) mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced inflammation. METHODS: Inflammation driven colorectal carcinogenesis was induced in Apc(+/Min-FCCC) mice by administering DSS in their drinking water. Mice were fed a diet supplemented with plecanatide (0-20 ppm) and its effect on the multiplicity of histopathologically confirmed polypoid, flat and indeterminate dysplasia was evaluated...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175019/p162-early-onset-of-disease-and-higher-risk-for-colorectal-dysplasia-in-ibd-patients-with-coincidental-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-evidence-from-a-large-cohort-study
#12
A F Cordes, T Laumeyer, J Gerß, T Kucharzik, D Bettenworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174420/clonal-evolution-of-colorectal-cancer-in-ibd
#13
REVIEW
Chang-Ho R Choi, Ibrahim Al Bakir, Ailsa L Hart, Trevor A Graham
Optimizing the management of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in IBD requires a fundamental understanding of the evolutionary process underpinning tumorigenesis. In IBD, clonal evolution begins long before the development of overt neoplasia, and is probably accelerated by the repeated cycles of epithelial wounding and repair that are characteristic of the condition. Here, we review the biological drivers of mutant clone selection in IBD with particular reference to the unique histological architecture of the intestinal epithelium coupled with the inflammatory microenvironment in IBD, and the unique mutation patterns seen in IBD-driven neoplasia when compared with sporadic adenomas and CRC...
February 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172531/dop069-natural-history-of-dysplasia-and-colorectal-cancer-in-ibd-patients-in-belgium-tertiary-care-centers
#14
A Cremer, C Liefferinckx, M De Vos, J-F Rahier, F Baert, T Moreels, E Macken, E Louis, J Devière, A Van Gossum, S Vermeire, D Franchimont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157706/the-level-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptors-expression-is-correlated-with-the-advancement-of-colorectal-adenoma-validation-of-a-surface-biomarker
#15
Nicolas Williet, Carmen Adina Petcu, Leslie Rinaldi, Michèle Cottier, Emilie Del Tedesco, Léa Clavel, Olivier Dumas, Camille Jarlot, Nadia Bouarioua, Xavier Roblin, Michel Peoc'h, Jean-Marc Phelip
INTRODUCTION: Data about the expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFRs) in colorectal adenomas remain scarce. RESULTS: 101 patients were enrolled including 53 controls. All adenomas (n = 38) and CRC (n = 5) were EGFR positive. Hyperplastic polyps (HP) (n = 8) and control colons (n = 53) were EGFR negative in half of cases (p < 0.0001). A well significant gradient of increased EGFR expression was observed between adjacent mucosa, hyperplastic lesions, low grade dysplasia (LGD) (n = 30), high grade dysplasia (HGD) adenomas (n = 9) and cancers (p < 0...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154273/the-features-of-colorectal-tumors-in-a-patient-with-li-fraumeni-syndrome
#16
Tsukasa Yoshida, Masahiro Tajika, Tsutomu Tanaka, Makoto Ishihara, Yutaka Hirayama, Nobumasa Mizuno, Kazuo Hara, Susumu Hijioka, Hiroshi Imaoka, Nobuhiro Hieda, Nozomi Okuno, Takashi Kinoshita, Vikram Bhatia, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Yasushi Yatabe, Kenji Yamao, Yasumasa Niwa
A young woman with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) was referred to our hospital. On examination, multiple flat neoplasms were detected in addition to semi-pedunculated polyps. Restorative proctocolectomy was performed; one submucosal invasive cancer, two mucosal cancers, and several adenomas with high-grade dysplasia were detected. On immunohistochemical staining with p53, every part of all neoplasms, even the small adenomas, showed strong positive staining. Multiple flat neoplasms may be characteristic of patients with LFS and may have a much higher risk of rapid progression to invasive carcinomas than sporadic neoplasms...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151975/colonization-with-enterotoxigenic-bacteroides-fragilis-is-associated-with-early-stage-colorectal-neoplasia
#17
Rachel V Purcell, John Pearson, Alan Aitchison, Liane Dixon, Frank A Frizelle, Jacqueline I Keenan
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is a toxin-producing bacteria thought to possibly promote colorectal carcinogenesis by modulating the mucosal immune response and inducing epithelial cell changes. Here, we aim to examine the association of colonic mucosal colonization with ETBF and the presence of a range of lesions on the colonic neoplastic spectrum. METHODS: Mucosal tissue from up to four different colonic sites was obtained from a consecutive series of 150 patients referred for colonoscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148261/dclk1-a-tumor-stem-cell-marker-regulates-pro-survival-signaling-and-self-renewal-of-intestinal-tumor-cells
#18
Parthasarathy Chandrakesan, Jiannan Yao, Dongfeng Qu, Randal May, Nathaniel Weygant, Yang Ge, Naushad Ali, Sripathi M Sureban, Modhi Gude, Kenneth Vega, Eddie Bannerman-Menson, Lijun Xia, Michael Bronze, Guangyu An, Courtney W Houchen
BACKGROUND: More than 80% of intestinal neoplasia is associated with the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation. Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1), a kinase protein, is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and specifically marks tumor stem cells (TSCs) that self-renew and increased the tumor progeny in Apc (Min/+) mice. However, the role of Dclk1 expression and its contribution to regulating pro-survival signaling for tumor progression in Apc mutant cancer is poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed DCLK1 and pro-survival signaling gene expression datasets of 329 specimens from TCGA Colon Adenocarcinoma Cancer Data...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126350/peptostreptococcus-anaerobius-induces-intracellular-cholesterol-biosynthesis-in-colon-cells-to-induce-proliferation-and-causes-dysplasia-in-mice
#19
Ho Tsoi, Eagle Sh Chu, Xiang Zhang, Jianqiu Sheng, Daniel Nakatsu, Siew C Ng, Anthony Wh Chan, Francis Kl Chan, Joseph Jy Sung, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Stool samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a higher abundance of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius than stool from individuals without CRC, based on metagenome sequencing. We investigated whether P anaerobius contributes to colon tumor formation in mice and its possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis. METHODS: We performed quantitative PCR analyses to measure P anaerobius in 112 stool samples and 255 colon biopsies from patients with CRC or advanced adenoma and from healthy individuals (controls) undergoing colonoscopy examination at hospitals in Hong Kong and Beijing...
January 23, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126349/full-spectrum-endoscopy-improves-surveillance-for-dysplasia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#20
Rupert W Leong, Marie Ooi, Crispin Corte, Yunki Yau, Melissa Kermeen, Peter H Katelaris, Charles McDonald, Meng Ngu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Surveillance colonoscopy with chromoendoscopy is recommended, but conventional forward-viewing colonoscopy (FVC) detects dysplasia with low levels of sensitivity. Full-spectrum endoscopy (FUSE) incorporates 2 additional lateral cameras to the forward camera of the colonoscope, allowing endoscopists to view behind folds and in blind spots, which might increase dysplasia detection. We compared FUSE vs FVC in the detection of dysplasia in patients with IBD...
January 23, 2017: Gastroenterology
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