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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078646/mucosal-healing-in-ulcerative-colitis-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Pedro Boal Carvalho, José Cotter
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by periods of remission and periods of relapse. Patients often present with symptoms such as rectal bleeding, diarrhea and weight loss, and may require hospitalization and even colectomy. Long-term complications of UC include decreased quality of life and productivity and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Mucosal healing (MH) has gained progressive importance in the management of UC patients. In this article, we review the endoscopic findings that define both mucosal injury and MH, and the strengths and limitations of the scoring systems currently available in clinical practice...
January 11, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077799/kras-and-tp53-mutations-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#2
Lijun Du, John J Kim, Jinhua Shen, Binrui Chen, Ning Dai
Although KRAS and TP53 mutations are common in both inflammatory bowel disease-associated colorectal cancer (IBD-CRC) and sporadic colorectal cancer (S-CRC), molecular events leading to carcinogenesis may be different. Previous studies comparing the frequency of KRAS and TP53 mutations in IBD-CRC and S-CRC were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the presence of KRAS and TP53 mutations among patients with IBD-CRC, S-CRC, and IBD without dysplasia. A total of 19 publications (482 patients with IBD-CRC, 4,222 with S-CRC, 281 with IBD without dysplasia) met the study inclusion criteria...
January 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066941/surveillance-for-dysplasia-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-discrepancy-between-guidelines-and-practice
#3
Masaru Shinozaki, Kiyonori Kobayashi, Reiko Kunisaki, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, Makoto Naganuma, Kenichi Takahashi, Yasushi Iwao, Yasuo Suzuki, Mamoru Watanabe, Michio Itabashi, Akira Torii, Masakazu Takazoe, Akira Sugita
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The risk of developing colorectal cancer is higher in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) than in the general population. Guidelines recommend surveillance colonoscopy (SCS) to reduce mortality; however, few studies have assessed physicians' adherence to guidelines. This study was aimed to clarify the current status of SCS and adherence to guidelines through the characteristics of cancer/dysplasia surveillance for UC patients in Japan. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to 541 physicians who attended meetings on inflammatory bowel disease...
January 9, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035253/colon-adenoma-features-and-their-impact-on-risk-of-future-advanced-adenomas-and-colorectal-cancer
#4
Audrey H Calderwood, Karen E Lasser, Hemant K Roy
AIM: To review the evidence on the association between specific colon adenoma features and the risk of future colonic neoplasia [adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC)]. METHODS: We performed a literature search using the National Library of Medicine through PubMed from 1/1/2003 to 5/30/2015. Specific Medical Subject Headings terms (colon, colon polyps, adenomatous polyps, epidemiology, natural history, growth, cancer screening, colonoscopy, CRC) were used in conjunction with subject headings/key words (surveillance, adenoma surveillance, polypectomy surveillance, and serrated adenoma)...
December 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035250/from-traditional-serrated-adenoma-to-tubulovillous-adenoma-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Adeline Chelliah, Runjan Chetty
It is well established that colorectal cancer develops from a series of precursor epithelial polyps, including tubular adenomas, villous/tubulovillous adenomas (VA/TVA), sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSA). Of these, TSAs are least common and account for only 5% of all serrated polyps. TSAs are characterised by the presence of a "pinecone-like" architecture, granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, luminal serrations, ectopic crypt foci (ECF) and elongated, pencillate nuclei. However, the distinct slit-like luminal serrations, reminiscent of small bowel mucosa, appear to be the most unique and reproducible feature to distinguish TSAs from other polyps...
December 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024986/the-natural-history-of-diminutive-and-small-colorectal-polyps-a-systematic-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Jasper L A Vleugels, Yark Hazewinkel, Paul Fockens, Evelien Dekker
BACKGROUND: Diminutive (1-5 mm) and small (6-9 mm) polyps comprise 90% of detected lesions during colonoscopy and rarely contain advanced histology or colorectal cancer (CRC). Routine removal of these lesions results in a significant burden to colonoscopy programs. At the same time, the risk for progression of these polyps to CRC is unclear. We performed a systematic review to explore the natural history of diminutive and small colorectal polyps. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies investigating the natural history of colorectal polyps...
December 23, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018111/clinical-features-of-upper-gastrointestinal-serrated-lesions-an-endoscopy-database-analysis-of-98746-patients
#7
Hai-Long Cao, Wen-Xiao Dong, Meng-Que Xu, Yu-Jie Zhang, Si-Nan Wang, Mei-Yu Piao, Xiao-Cang Cao, Bang-Mao Wang
AIM: To analyse the clinical features of patients with the serrated lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (UPGI) tract. METHODS: Patients who underwent routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) at the Digestive Endoscopy Centre of General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University between January 2011 and December 2015 were consecutively recruited. Patients with UPGI serrated lesions were consecutively identified. The patients' demographics and histopathology were recorded...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002874/high-serum-alanine-aminotransferase-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-colorectal-adenoma-in-korean-men
#8
Chang Mo Moon, Kyung Eun Yun, Seungho Ryu, Yoosoo Chang, Dong Il Park
BACKGROUND AND AIM: An elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is frequently observed in subjects with metabolic syndrome, which is associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA). However, the relationship between ALT and CRA remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether high serum ALT is associated with the risk of CRA in a metabolically healthy population. METHODS: We conducted this cross-sectional study in 27,717 asymptomatic Korean adults who underwent a health checkup...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998883/unlocking-aspirin-s-chemopreventive-activity-role-of-irreversibly-inhibiting-platelet-cyclooxygenase-1
#9
Lenard M Lichtenberger, Dexing Fang, Roger J Bick, Brain J Poindexter, Tri Phan, Angela L Bergeron, Subhashree Pradhan, Elizabeth J Dial, K Vinod Vijayan
The mechanism by which aspirin consumption is linked to significant reductions in the incidence of multiple forms of cancer and metastatic spread to distant tissues, resulting in increased cancer patient survival is not well understood. In this study, using colon cancer as an example, we provide both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (chemically-induced mouse model of colon cancer) evidence that this profound anti-neoplastic action may be associated with aspirin's ability to irreversibly inhibit COX-1 mediated platelet activation, thereby blocking platelet-cancer cell interactions, which promote cancer cell number and invasive potential...
December 20, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992283/transanal-endoscopic-microsurgery-combined-with-laparoscopic-colectomy-for-synchronous-colorectal-tumors-a-word-of-caution
#10
Nida Issa, Yaniv Fenig, Muhammad Khatib, Mustafa Yasin, Eldad Powsner, Wisam Khoury
BACKGROUND: The incidence of malignant synchronous colorectal tumors (SCRT) is between 2% and 5%, and the association of synchronous adenomatous polyps in colon cancer has been reported to be 15%-50%. Surgical resection is the primary treatment option for SCRT not amendable to endoscopic resection. Lesions in adjacent segments are usually treated with more extensive resection; however, there is still some controversy on how to best treat synchronous lesions in separate segments, especially when the rectum is involved...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978548/vitamin-d-receptor-genotype-vitamin-d3-supplementation-and-risk-of-colorectal-adenomas-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Elizabeth L Barry, Janet L Peacock, Judy R Rees, Roberd M Bostick, Douglas J Robertson, Robert S Bresalier, John A Baron
Importance: Despite epidemiological and preclinical evidence suggesting that vitamin D and calcium inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis, daily supplementation with these nutrients for 3 to 5 years was not found to significantly reduce the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas in a recent randomized clinical trial. Objective: To investigate whether common variants in 7 vitamin D and calcium pathway genes (VDR, GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and CASR) modify the effects of vitamin D3 or calcium supplementation on colorectal adenoma recurrence...
December 15, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951611/clinical-implications-of-low-grade-dysplasia-found-during-inflammatory-bowel-disease-surveillance-a-retrospective-study-comparing-chromoendoscopy-and-white-light-endoscopy
#12
Joren R Ten Hove, Erik Mooiweer, Andrea E van der Meulen de Jong, Evelien Dekker, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Peter D Siersema, Bas Oldenburg
Background and study aims: Current guidelines recommend the use of pancolonic chromoendoscopy for surveillance of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is currently unknown whether low grade dysplasia (LGD) found using chromoendoscopy carries a similar risk of high grade dysplasia (HGD) or colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with LGD detected using white-light endoscopy (WLE). The aim of this study was to compare the risk of advanced neoplasia, a combined endpoint of HGD and CRC, during follow-up after detection of lesions containing LGD identified with either chromoendoscopy or WLE...
December 12, 2016: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941344/routine-colonoscopy-after-acute-uncomplicated-diverticulitis-challenging-a-putative-indication
#13
Patrícia Andrade, Armando Ribeiro, Rosa Ramalho, Susana Lopes, Guilherme Macedo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most international guidelines recommend performing a routine colonoscopy after the conservative management of acute diverticulitis, mainly to rule out a colorectal malignancy; however, data to support these recommendations are scarce and conflicting. This study is aimed at determining the rate of advanced colonic neoplasia (ACN) found by colonoscopy, and hence the need for routine colonoscopy after CT-diagnosed acute diverticulitis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all patients hospitalized for acute diverticulitis between July 2008 and June 2013...
December 10, 2016: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938790/surveillance-after-endoscopic-and-surgical-resection-of-colorectal-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Masau Sekiguchi, Takahisa Matsuda, Yutaka Saito
With the increase in colorectal cancer burden, surveillance following endoscopic and surgical resection is an essential issue. The aim of surveillance programs is improvement of patient survival by early detection of residual tumor tissue or local recurrence, metachronous colorectal tumors, and metastases. Appropriate surveillance should be determined according to this risk of factors. In current guidelines, only surveillance colonoscopy is recommended after endoscopic resection of polyps with high-grade dysplasia, whereas intensive, multimodality surveillance using colonoscopy, radiological imaging and tumor marker measurements is recommended following surgical resection of invasive colorectal cancer...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938789/surveillance-of-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
REVIEW
Jessica X Yu, James E East, Tonya Kaltenbach
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease involving the colon are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy surveillance is important to identify and treat IBD associated dysplasia. The SCENIC consensus provides evidence-based recommendations for optimal surveillance and management of dysplasia in IBD. Chromoendoscopy, with the surface application of dyes to enhance mucosal visualization, is the superior endoscopic surveillance strategy to detect dysplasia. Most dysplasia is visible, and can be endoscopically resected...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933386/endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-specimens-in-early-colorectal-cancer-lateral-margins-macroscopic-techniques-and-possible-pitfalls
#16
Alicia Dessain, Christophe Snauwaert, Pamela Baldin, Pierre Deprez, Louis Libbrecht, Hubert Piessevaux, Anne Jouret-Mourin
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows en-bloc resection of superficial gastrointestinal tumors, providing specimens on which lateral margin analysis can be performed reliably. Positive lateral margins have been linked to higher rates of recurrence/residual tumor. There are no guidelines for macroscopic processing of lateral margins. Currently, most institutions use parallel lateral sections, which are difficult to interpret. We use perpendicular lateral sections, hypothesizing that it decreases potential artifactually positive lateral margins...
December 8, 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926694/involvement-of-activated-cdc42-kinase1-in-colitis-and-colorectal-neoplasms
#17
Chaolan Lv, Xinmei Zhao, Hongxiang Gu, Liyun Huang, Sanxi Zhou, Fachao Zhi
BACKGROUND Activated Cdc42 kinase1 (ACK1) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is critical for cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Genomic amplification of ACK1 has been reported in multiple human cancers. We aimed to investigate ACK1 protein expression in colorectal mucosa with inflammation and neoplasm, and to evaluate its correlation with disease activity and severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 250 individuals who underwent total colonoscopy were collected randomly from January 2007 to May 2013 in Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China...
7, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926665/clinicopathological-analysis-and-risk-factors-of-advanced-colorectal-neoplasms-incidentally-detected-by-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#18
Seung Min Chung, Kyeong Ok Kim, Ihn Ho Cho, Tae Nyeun Kim
BACKGROUND: As the clinical use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-computed tomography (F-FDG PET-CT) has increased, the incidental finding of F-FDG uptake with subsequent diagnosis of advanced neoplasm at colorectum has increased. The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics and risk factors of advanced colorectal neoplasm incidentally detected by F-FDG PET-CT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent colonoscopy because of an incidental finding of F-FDG uptake at the colorectum from January 2006 to January 2015 at Yeungnam University Hospital were reviewed retrospectively...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916678/incidence-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-with-low-grade-dysplasia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Mathurin Fumery, Parambir S Dulai, Samir Gupta, Larry J Prokop, Sonia Ramamoorthy, William J Sandborn, Siddharth Singh
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about outcomes of patients with ulcerative colitis with low-grade dysplasia (UC-LGD). We estimated the incidence of and risk factors for progression to colorectal cancer (CRC) in cohorts of patients with UC-LGD who underwent surveillance (surveillance cohort), and the prevalence of dysplasia-related findings among patients who underwent colectomy for UC-LGD (surgical cohort). METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review through June 1, 2016 to identify cohort studies of adults with UC-LGD...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906680/chemopreventive-effects-of-5-aminosalicylic-acid-on-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-colorectal-cancer-and-dysplasia-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#20
Xinyun Qiu, Jingjing Ma, Kai Wang, Hongjie Zhang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The chemopreventive effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been widely studied; however, the results remain conflicting. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature and update evidence concerning effects of 5-ASA on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and dysplasia (Dys) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). RESULTS: 5-ASA showed a chemopreventive effect against CRC/Dys in IBD patients (OR = 0...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
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