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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339485/elevated-d-2-hydroxyglutarate-during-colitis-drives-progression-to-colorectal-cancer
#1
Jie Han, Dakota Jackson, Janette Holm, Kevin Turner, Paula Ashcraft, Xuan Wang, Beth Cook, Erland Arning, Robert M Genta, K Venuprasad, Rhonda F Souza, Lawrence Sweetman, Arianne L Theiss
d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG) is produced in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is quickly converted to α-ketoglutarate by d-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH). In a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC), urine level of D2HG during colitis correlates positively with subsequent polyp counts and severity of dysplasia. The i.p. injection of D2HG results in delayed recovery from colitis and severe tumorigenesis. The colonic expression of D2HGDH is decreased in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients at baseline who progress to cancer...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313389/multi-target-stool-dna-test-in-the-surveillance-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#2
Pasquale Klepp, John B Kisiel, Milada Cvancarova Småstuen, Arne Røseth, Solveig N Andersen, Morten H Vatn, David A Ahlquist, Bjørn A Moum, Stephan Brackmann
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colonoscopic surveillance is recommended in patients with longstanding inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as they are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Non-invasive surveillance may improve compliance and access. Multi-target stool DNA (MT-sDNA) has been validated for screening of sporadic CRC but has not been assessed in IBD. Our aim was to assess the performance of a MT-sDNA test in a real-life surveillance setting of patients with longstanding IBD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 192 IBD patients enrolled from two prospective cohorts submitted an EDTA buffered stool sample and underwent chromo- or white light colonoscopy...
January 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309778/comparison-of-the-diagnostic-performance-between-magnifying-chromoendoscopy-and-magnifying-narrow-band-imaging-for-superficial-colorectal-neoplasm-an-online-survey
#3
Taku Sakamoto, Takeshi Nakajima, Takahisa Matsuda, Yoshitaka Murakami, Hideki Ishikawa, Kenshi Yao, Yutaka Saito
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Magnifying narrow-band imaging (mag-NBI) and magnifying chromoendoscopy using crystal violet staining for pit pattern analysis (pit pattern) is highly accurate for invasion depth diagnosis for superficial colorectal neoplasm. However, NBI and pit pattern have not been compared. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of endoscopists interested in image-enhanced endoscopy. Still images using white light, mag-NBI, and pit pattern were collected from lesions diagnosed at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan (NCCH)...
January 5, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308085/could-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-cause-crohn-s-disease-ulcerative-colitis%C3%A2-and-colorectal-cancer
#4
Ellen S Pierce
Infectious agents are known causes of human cancers. Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mansoni cause a percentage of colorectal cancers in countries where the respective Schistosoma species are prevalent. Colorectal cancer is a complication of ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease, the two main forms of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IIBD). Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of a chronic intestinal disease in domestic and wild ruminants, is one suspected cause of IIBD...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307996/association-between-white-opaque-substance-under-magnifying-colonoscopy-and-lipid-droplets-in-colorectal-epithelial-neoplasms
#5
Keisuke Kawasaki, Makoto Eizuka, Shotaro Nakamura, Masaki Endo, Shunichi Yanai, Risaburo Akasaka, Yosuke Toya, Yasuko Fujita, Noriyuki Uesugi, Kazuyuki Ishida, Tamotsu Sugai, Takayuki Matsumoto
AIM: To examine the association between white opaque substance (WOS) and histologically verified lipid droplets in colorectal epithelial neoplasms. METHODS: We reviewed colonoscopy records at our institution from 2014 to 2016 and identified cases of endoscopically or surgically resected colorectal epithelial neoplasms observed by magnifying narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) colonoscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to stain tumors with a monoclonal antibody specific to adipophilin as a marker of lipids...
December 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304767/mlh1-93%C3%A2-g-a-polymorphism-is-associated-with-mlh1-promoter-methylation-and-protein-loss-in-dysplastic-sessile-serrated-adenomas-with-brafv600e-mutation
#6
Lochlan J Fennell, Saara Jamieson, Diane McKeone, Tracie Corish, Megan Rohdmann, Tori Furner, Mark Bettington, Cheng Liu, Futoshi Kawamata, Catherine Bond, Jolieke Van De Pols, Barbara Leggett, Vicki Whitehall
BACKGROUND: Sessile serrated adenomas with BRAF mutation progress rapidly to cancer following the development of dysplasia (SSAD). Approximately 75% of SSADs methylate the mismatch repair gene MLH1, develop mismatch repair deficiency and the resultant cancers have a good prognosis. The remaining SSADs and BRAF mutant traditional serrated adenomas (TSA) develop into microsatellite stable cancers with a poor prognosis. The reason for this dichotomy is unknown. In this study, we assessed the genotypic frequency of the MLH1-93 polymorphism rs1800734 in SSADs and TSAs to determine if the uncommon variant A allele predisposes to MLH1 promoter hypermethylation...
January 5, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250055/the-microbiome-of-potentially-malignant-oral-leukoplakia-exhibits-enrichment-for-fusobacterium-leptotrichia-campylobacter-and-rothia-species
#7
Abdrazak Amer, Sheila Galvin, Claire M Healy, Gary P Moran
Oral leukoplakia presents as a white patch on the oral mucosa and is recognized as having significant malignant potential. Although colonization of these patches with Candida albicans is common, little is known about the bacterial microbiota of these patches. In the current study we analyzed the microbiome of oral leukoplakia in 36 patients compared to healthy mucosal tissue from the same patients and healthy control subjects to determine if specific microbial enrichments could be identified early in the malignant process that could play a role in the progression of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235923/oncogenic-braf-mutation-induces-dna-methylation-changes-in-a-murine-model-for-human-serrated-colorectal-neoplasia
#8
Catherine E Bond, Cheng Liu, Futoshi Kawamata, Diane M McKeone, Winnie Fernando, Saara Jamieson, Sally-Ann Pearson, Alexandra Kane, Susan L Woods, Tamsin R M Lannagan, Roshini Somashekar, Young Lee, Troy Dumenil, Gunter Hartel, Kevin J Spring, Jennifer Borowsky, Lochlan Fennell, Mark Bettington, Jason Lee, Daniel L Worthley, Barbara A Leggett, Vicki L J Whitehall
Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death and approximately 20% arises within serrated polyps, which are under-recognized and poorly understood. Human serrated colorectal polyps frequently exhibit both oncogenic BRAF mutation and widespread DNA methylation changes, which are important in silencing genes restraining neoplastic progression. Here, we investigated whether in vivo induction of mutant Braf is sufficient to result in coordinated promoter methylation changes for multiple cancer-related genes...
December 13, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233671/endoscopic-detection-rate-of-sessile-serrated-lesions-in-lynch-syndrome-patients-is-comparable-to-an-age-and-gender-matched-control-population-case-control-study-with-expert-pathology-review
#9
Jasper L A Vleugels, Husna Sahin, Yark Hazewinkel, Lianne Koens, Jose G van den Berg, Monique E van Leerdam, Evelien Dekker
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome involves fast progression of adenomas to colorectal cancer (CRC) due to microsatellite instability. The role of sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) and the serrated neoplasia pathway in these patients is unknown. The aim of this matched case-control study was to compare endoscopic detection rates and distribution of SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients to a matched control population. METHODS: We collected data of Lynch syndrome patients with a proven germline mutation who underwent colonoscopy between January 2011 and April 2016 in 2 tertiary referral hospitals...
December 9, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231190/lesions-of-all-types-exist-in-colon-polyps-of-all-sizes
#10
Kevin O Turner, Robert M Genta, Amnon Sonnenberg
OBJECTIVES: Although large polyps are known to harbor more advanced neoplasia than small polyps, the extent of the relationship between size and type is not fully known. The study aim was to establish benchmarks for the prevalence of different histologic polyp types among varying size categories. METHODS: The Miraca Life Sciences Database is an electronic repository of histopathologic patient records from private practices throughout the United States. We extracted the records of 483,998 unique patients who underwent colonoscopy with polypectomy between January 2008 and December 2014...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220829/decreased-expression-of-the-polarity-regulatory-par-complex-predicts-poor-prognosis-of-the-patients-with-colorectal-adenocarcinoma
#11
Min-Kyung Yeo, Jin-Man Kim, Kwang-Sun Suh, Seok-Hyung Kim, Ok-Jun Lee, Kyung-Hee Kim
Partitioning defective (Par) proteins regulate cell polarity and differentiation. Par3, Par6β, and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ), which are PAR complex members, have been shown to be associated with oncogenesis and progression. Herein, we report the expression pattern and clinical relevance of Par3, Par6β, and PKCζ in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRAC). A total of 393 primary CRACs, 41 primary-metastatic CRAC pairs, 41 adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, and 41 nontumor colorectal tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays for Par3, Par6β, and PKCζ protein expressions...
December 5, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218321/visual-assessment-of-colorectal-flat-and-depressed-lesions-by-using-narrow-band-imaging
#12
Hiroshi Nakamura, Hiroaki Ikematsu, Shozo Osera, Renma Ito, Daiki Sato, Tatsunori Minamide, Naoki Okamoto, Yoichi Yamamoto, Takuya Hombu, Kenji Takashima, Keiichiro Nakajo, Tomohiro Kadota, Yusuke Yoda, Keisuke Hori, Yasuhiro Oono, Tomonori Yano
Background and study aims:  Visual assessment of laterally spreading tumors non-granular type (LST-NG) and depressed lesions by narrow band imaging (NBI) without magnification has not been studied. We investigated the role of non-magnifying NBI in detecting LST-NG and type IIc lesions on colonoscopy. Patients and methods:  This retrospective study examined consecutive patients diagnosed as having LST-NG and/or type IIc lesions in our hospital between August 2011 and July 2013...
December 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208675/why-attempt-en-bloc-resection-of-non-pedunculated-colorectal-adenomas-a-systematic-review-of-the-prevalence-of-superficial-submucosal-invasive-cancer-after-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection
#13
Lorenzo Fuccio, Alessandro Repici, Cesare Hassan, Thierry Ponchon, Pradeep Bhandari, Rodrigo Jover, Konstantinos Triantafyllou, Daniele Mandolesi, Leonardo Frazzoni, Cristina Bellisario, Franco Bazzoli, Prateek Sharma, Thomas Rösch, Douglas K Rex
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) aims to achieve en bloc resection of non-pedunculated colorectal adenomas which might be indicated in cases with superficial submucosal invasive cancers (SMIC), but the procedure is time consuming and complex. The prevalence of such cancers is not known but may determine the clinical necessity for ESD as opposed to the commonly used piecemeal mucosal resection (endoscopic mucosal resection) of colorectal adenomas. The main aim was to assess the prevalence of SMIC SM1 (ie, invasion ≤1000 µm or less than one-third of the submucosa) on colorectal lesions removed by ESD...
December 5, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205426/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-thiopurines-decrease-the-risk-of-colorectal-neoplasia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
REVIEW
M J Lu, X Y Qiu, X Q Mao, X T Li, H J Zhang
BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a high risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. AIM: To investigate whether thiopurines can decrease the risk of developing colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 24 observational studies involving 76,999 participants to evaluate the risks of developing colorectal neoplasia in IBD patients receiving thiopurine treatment...
December 4, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189961/feasibility-of-endoscopic-resection-using-bipolar-snare-for-nonampullary-duodenal-tumours-in-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-patients
#15
Kazuya Inoki, Takeshi Nakajima, Satoru Nonaka, Seiichiro Abe, Haruhisa Suzuki, Shigetaka Yoshinaga, Ichiro Oda, Masayoshi Yamada, Mizuki Takatsu, Hiroshi Yoshida, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Shigeki Sekine, Yuichiro Ohe, Yutaka Saito
The management of duodenal and colorectal tumours is important in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Endoscopic resection (ER) should be carefully performed because the risk of complications during or after (ER) of nonampullary duodenal tumours is higher than that of stomach or colorectal lesions in general. Thus, we evaluated the feasibility of endoscopic resection using bipolar snare (ERB) for nonampullary duodenal tumours in FAP patients. Eleven FAP patients who underwent ERB for nonampullary duodenal tumours at our hospital between October 2013 and December 2016 were retrospectively analysed based on clinicopathological features...
November 30, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183266/faecal-immunochemical-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-symptomatic-colorectal-cancer-in-primary-care-the-benefit-of-more-than-one-sample
#16
Cecilia Högberg, Lars Söderström, Mikael Lilja
OBJECTIVE: Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are used to screen for colorectal cancer (CRC) and as diagnostic aids in symptomatic patients. However, the number of samples per FIT varies. It is unclear if there is any advantage to analyse multiple-sample FITs in symptomatic patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a post hoc analysis of a retrospective study that included all cases of CRC and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) between 2005 and 2009 in the county of Jämtland, Sweden...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158810/phosphorylated-protein-kinase-c-zeta-lambda-expression-in-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-and-its-correlation-with-clinicopathologic-characteristics-and-prognosis
#17
Min-Kyung Yeo, Ji Yeon Kim, In-Ock Seong, Jin-Man Kim, Kyung-Hee Kim
Background: Protein kinase C zeta/lambda (PKCζ/λ) is a family of protein kinase enzymes that contributes to cell proliferation and regulation, which are important for cancer development. PKCζ/λ has been shown to be an important regulator of tumorigenesis in intestinal cancer. The phosphorylated form of PKCζ/λ, p-PKCζ/λ, is suggested as an active form of PKCζ/λ. However, p-PKCζ/λ expression and its clinicopathologic implication in colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRAC) are unclear. Methods: Seven whole-tissue sections of malignant polyps containing both non-neoplastic and neoplastic mucosa, 11 adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, and 173 CRACs were examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot assay for p-PKCζ/λ protein expression...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151921/linking-gut-microbiota-to-colorectal-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Hans Raskov, Jakob Burcharth, Hans-Christian Pommergaard
Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota and probiotics on chemotherapy...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148535/the-role-of-apc-in-wnt-pathway-activation-in-serrated-neoplasia
#19
Jennifer Borowsky, Troy Dumenil, Mark Bettington, Sally-Ann Pearson, Catherine Bond, Lochlan Fennell, Cheng Liu, Diane McKeone, Christophe Rosty, Ian Brown, Neal Walker, Barbara Leggett, Vicki Whitehall
Conventional adenomas are initiated by APC gene mutation that activates the WNT signal. Serrated neoplasia is commonly initiated by BRAF or KRAS mutation. WNT pathway activation may also occur, however, to what extent this is owing to APC mutation is unknown. We examined aberrant nuclear β-catenin immunolocalization as a surrogate for WNT pathway activation and analyzed the entire APC gene coding sequence in serrated and conventional pathway polyps and cancers. WNT pathway activation was a common event in conventional pathway lesions with aberrant nuclear immunolocalization of β-catenin and truncating APC mutations in 90% and 89% of conventional adenomas and 82% and 70% of BRAF wild-type cancers, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132333/oestrogen-receptor-beta-isoform-expression-in-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-and-progressive-stages-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Paulo Roberto Stevanato Filho, Samuel Aguiar Júnior, Maria Dirlei Begnami, Hellen Kuasne, Ranyell Matheus Spencer, Wilson Toshihiko Nakagawa, Tiago Santoro Bezerra, Bruna Catin Kupper, Renata Maymi Takahashi, Mateus Barros Filho, Silvia Regina Rogatto, Ademar Lopes
BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are poorly described. METHODS: This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of the ERβ1, ERβ2, ERβ4 and ERβ5 isoform variants using quantitative RT-PCR (921 analyses) in FAP, normal mucosa, adenomatous polyps and sporadic colorectal carcinomas...
November 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
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