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Hard of hearing

Michael Argenyi
Applicants to medical schools who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHoH) or who have other disabilities face significant barriers to medical school admission. One commonly cited barrier to admission is medical schools' technical standards (TS) for admission, advancement, and graduation. Ethical values of diversity and equity support altering the technical standards to be more inclusive of people with disabilities. Incorporating these values into admissions, advancement, and graduation considerations for DHoH and other students with disabilities can contribute to the physician workforce being more representative of the diverse patients it serves and better able to care for them...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Rebecca Carroll, Verena Uslar, Thomas Brand, Esther Ruigendijk
OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to determine whether hearing impairment affects sentence comprehension beyond phoneme or word recognition (i.e., on the sentence level), and to distinguish grammatically induced processing difficulties in structurally complex sentences from perceptual difficulties associated with listening to degraded speech. Effects of hearing impairment or speech in noise were expected to reflect hearer-specific speech recognition difficulties. Any additional processing time caused by the sustained perceptual challenges across the sentence may either be independent of or interact with top-down processing mechanisms associated with grammatical sentence structure...
September 28, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Lotte Skøt, Tina Jeppesen, Angelina Isabella Mellentin, Ask Elklit
PURPOSE: This descriptive study sought to explore barriers faced by Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) individuals in Denmark when accessing medical and psychosocial services following large-scale disasters and individual traumatic experiences. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine D/HH individuals who had experienced at least one disaster or other traumatic event. RESULTS: Difficulties were encountered during interactions with first response and healthcare services, which centered on: (1) lack of Deaf awareness among professionals, (2) problems accessing interpreter services, (3) professionals relying on hearing relatives to disseminate information, and (4) professionals who were unwilling to adjust their speech or try different forms of communication...
October 17, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Christine Yoshinaga-Itano, Mallene Wiggin
Hearing is essential for the development of speech, spoken language, and listening skills. Children previously went undiagnosed with hearing loss until they were 2.5 or 3 years of age. The auditory deprivation during this critical period of development significantly impacted long-term listening and spoken language outcomes. Due to the advent of universal newborn hearing screening, the average age of diagnosis has dropped to the first few months of life, which sets the stage for outcomes that include children with speech, spoken language, and auditory skill testing in the normal range...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Inga Holube, Kristina Haeder, Christina Imbery, Reinhard Weber
Disturbing factors like reverberation or ambient noise can impair speech recognition and raise the listening effort needed for successful communication in daily life. Situations with high listening effort are thought to result in increased stress for the listener. The aim of this study was to explore possible measures to determine listening effort in situations with varying background noise and reverberation. For this purpose, subjective ratings of listening effort, speech recognition, and stress level, together with the electrodermal activity as a measure of the autonomic stress reaction, were investigated...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Hearing
Dimitrios Kloukos, Piotr Fudalej, Patrick Sequeira-Byron, Christos Katsaros
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common birth defects and can cause difficulties with feeding, speech and hearing, as well as psychosocial problems. Treatment of orofacial clefts is prolonged; it typically commences after birth and lasts until the child reaches adulthood or even into adulthood. Residual deformities, functional disturbances, or both, are frequently seen in adults with a repaired cleft. Conventional orthognathic surgery, such as Le Fort I osteotomy, is often performed for the correction of maxillary hypoplasia...
September 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rohit Ravi, Dhanshree R Gunjawate, Krishna Yerraguntla, B Rajashekhar, Leslie E Lewis
OBJECTIVE: The parents/caregivers of a newborn play a pivotal role in the process of hearing screening and intervention. The decisions taken by them depend on their knowledge and attitude. The purpose of this study was to review the literature systematically on knowledge and attitude of parents/caregivers towards infant hearing loss and newborn hearing screening. DESIGN: A systematic search was conducted using electronic databases for the periods from 1990 to March 2016...
December 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Sudipta Kar, Goutam Kundu, Shyamal Kumar Maiti, Chiranjit Ghosh, Badruddin Ahamed Bazmi, Santanu Mukhopadhyay
CONTEXT: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. AIMS: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed...
October 2016: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
Lian van Berkel-van Hoof, Daan Hermans, Harry Knoors, Ludo Verhoeven
BACKGROUND: Augmentative signs may facilitate word learning in children with vocabulary difficulties, for example, children who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing (DHH) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Despite the fact that augmentative signs may aid second language learning in populations with a typical language development, empirical evidence in favor of this claim is lacking. AIMS: We aim to investigate whether augmentative signs facilitate word learning for DHH children, children with SLI, and typically developing (TD) children...
September 23, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Robert Baumgartner, Piotr Majdak, Bernhard Laback
Listeners use monaural spectral cues to localize sound sources in sagittal planes (along the up-down and front-back directions). How sensorineural hearing loss affects the salience of monaural spectral cues is unclear. To simulate the effects of outer-hair-cell (OHC) dysfunction and the contribution of different auditory-nerve fiber types on localization performance, we incorporated a nonlinear model of the auditory periphery into a model of sagittal-plane sound localization for normal-hearing listeners. The localization model was first evaluated in its ability to predict the effects of spectral cue modifications for normal-hearing listeners...
2016: Trends in Hearing
Hideaki Suzuki, Hiroki Koizumi, Takuro Kitamura, Takahisa Tabata, Yasuhiro Kise, Koichi Hashida
Myringoplasty is one of the basic procedures in otologic surgery, and is important to achieve good hearing outcome. The temporal fascia is most widely used and considered to be a stable graft in this procedure, although 10-20% of patients develop reperforation after surgery, which is often hard to repair, even by revision surgery. We herein conducted revision myringoplasty using a cartilage graft to repair postoperative reperforation in 7 patients (8 ears) with chronic otitis media. The patients were 3 males and 4 females, aged 13-80 years with an average of 53...
September 2016: Journal of UOEH
Noboru Takahashi, Yukio Isaka, Toshikazu Yamamoto, Tomoyasu Nakamura
The present study investigated the development of literacy skills of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children in Japan. The three components of literacy, vocabulary, orthographic knowledge, and grammatical knowledge were assessed by using the subtests of the Adaptive Tests for Language Abilities (ATLAN), based on the item response theory developed by the authors). The participants consisted of 207 DHH children (first through twelfth grades) in Study 1, and 425 hearing children (first through sixth grades) in Study 2...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Heike Eschenbeck, Vera Gillé, Uwe Heim-Dreger, Alexandra Schock, Andrea Schott
This study evaluated stressors and coping strategies in 70 children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) or with auditory processing disorder (APD) attending Grades 5 and 6 of a school for deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Everyday general stressors and more hearing-specific stressors were examined in a hearing-specific modified stress and coping questionnaire. Reports were compared with normative data for hearing children. Regarding everyday general stressors, stress levels for children who are D/HH or with APD did not differ from those of hearing children...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Ann Hellström, David Ley, Ingrid Hansen-Pupp, Boubou Hallberg, Luca A Ramenghi, Chatarina Löfqvist, Lois E H Smith, Anna-Lena Hård
The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Jerker Rönnberg, Thomas Lunner, Elaine Hoi Ning Ng, Björn Lidestam, Adriana Agatha Zekveld, Patrik Sörqvist, Björn Lyxell, Ulf Träff, Wycliffe Yumba, Elisabet Classon, Mathias Hällgren, Birgitta Larsby, Carine Signoret, M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, Mary Rudner, Henrik Danielsson, Stefan Stenfelt
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. STUDY SAMPLE: Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37...
November 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Petter Kallioinen, Jonas Olofsson, Cecilia Nakeva von Mentzer, Magnus Lindgren, Marianne Ors, Birgitta S Sahlén, Björn Lyxell, Elisabet Engström, Inger Uhlén
Difficulties in auditory and phonological processing affect semantic processing in speech comprehension for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. However, little is known about brain responses related to semantic processing in this group. We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in DHH children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs), and in normally hearing controls (NH). We used a semantic priming task with spoken word primes followed by picture targets. In both DHH children and controls, cortical response differences between matching and mismatching targets revealed a typical N400 effect associated with semantic processing...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthew M Marshall, Andres L Carrano, Wendy A Dannels
Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios...
October 2016: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Scott R Smith, Vincent J Samar
Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) adults have lower health literacy compared to hearing adults, but it is unclear whether this disparity also occurs in adolescence. We used the Health Literacy Skills Instrument-Short Form (HLSI-SF), Short Form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (CHDKQ), and newly constructed interactive and critical health literacy survey items to quantify D/HH and hearing adolescents' health literacy. We adapted and translated survey materials into sign language and spoken English to reduce testing bias due to variable English language skills...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
Jennifer A Higgins, Lisa Famularo, Stephanie W Cawthon, Christopher A Kurz, Jeanne E Reis, Lori M Moers
The U.S. federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was enacted with goals of closing achievement gaps and providing all students with access to equitable and high-quality instruction. One requirement of ESSA is annual statewide testing of students in grades 3-8 and once in high school. Some students, including many deaf or hard-of-hearing (D/HH) students, are eligible to use test supports, in the form of accommodations and accessibility tools, during state testing. Although technology allows accommodations and accessibility tools to be embedded within a digital assessment system, the success of this approach depends on the ability of test developers to appropriately represent content in accommodated forms...
October 2016: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Geoffrey A Manley
Comparative auditory studies make it possible both to understand the origins of modern ears and the factors underlying the similarities and differences in their performance. After all lineages of land vertebrates had independently evolved tympanic middle ears in the early Mesozoic era, the subsequent tens of millions of years led to the hearing organ of lizards, birds, and mammals becoming larger and their upper frequency limits higher. In extant species, lizard papillae remained relatively small (<2 mm), but avian papillae attained a maximum length of 11 mm, with the highest frequencies in both groups near 12 kHz...
August 18, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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