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Spinal cord trauma

Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
A Craig, N A Elbers, J Jagnoor, B Gopinath, A Kifley, M Dinh, I Pozzato, R Q Ivers, M Nicholas, I D Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) with comparisons to car occupants who also have sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. METHODS: An inception cohort prospective design was used. Participants included cyclists who sustained a physical injury (n = 238) aged ≥17 years (mean age 41.7yrs), assessed within 28 days of the crash, following medical examination by a registered healthcare practitioner...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Thomas Beez, Jennifer Brown
BACKGROUND: Atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is a rare but severe sequela of high energy trauma. Children are at increased risk, due to their immature spine and biomechanical characteristics. LITERATURE REVIEW: The prevailing mechanism of injury is motor vehicle collision as passenger. AOD commonly presents with cardiorespiratory arrest, spinal cord injury or cranial nerve deficits. Concomitant injuries, such as traumatic brain injury, are frequently encountered...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Dat T Vo, George F Cravens, Robert E Germann
BACKGROUND: Intramedullary abscess is a rare neurosurgical condition that usually arises in the setting of penetrating trauma to the spinal cord, infected congenital dural sinuses, or tuberculosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 35-year-old African American male who presented with sepsis and a clinical picture of meningitis. The patient continued to have declining neurological status with decreasing sensation and worsening motor strength in all four extremities...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
N R Zembower, A Zhu, M Malczynski, C Qi
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of brain and spinal cord injury (BSCI) patients among all patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) and to evaluate clinical characteristics and duration of colonization. SETTING: Tertiary care academic medical center. METHODS: Electronic medical records of BSCI patients with KPC-KP from February 2009 to December 2014 were reviewed to determine clinical characteristics...
October 18, 2016: Spinal Cord
M Ohlmeier, P Karras, E M Suero, D Grasmücke, M Aach, R Meindl, T A Schildhauer, M Citak
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to analyze the impact of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in developing heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients following spinal cord injury. SETTING: Department of Spinal Cord Injury and Department of General and Trauma Surgery, BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2003 and December 2015, 67 patients with AS and SCI were included in the study...
October 18, 2016: Spinal Cord
Lynn Babcock, Cody S Olsen, David M Jaffe, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain potential factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children injured during sports and recreational activities. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective case-control study involving children younger than 16 years who presented to emergency departments after blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine radiography. Cases had cervical spine injury from sports or recreational activities (n = 179)...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Alan D Cook, Jeanette G Ward, Kristina M Chapple, Hassan Akinbiyi, Mark Garrett, Forrest O'Dell Moore
BACKGROUND: Representing 2 % of the general population, American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) were associated with 0.5 % (63) of the estimated 12,500 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) reported to the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistic Center in 2013. To date, the trend in health care disparities among AIs/ANs in the SCI community has not been examined. We sought to compare the rate of discharge to rehabilitation facilities (DRF) following traumatic SCI among adult AIs/ANs to other racial/ethnic groups for patients 15 to 64 years old...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Ala'a O Oteir, Karen Smith, Johannes U Stoelwinder, Shelley Cox, James W Middleton, Paul A Jennings
BACKGROUND: Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) is relatively uncommon, yet a devastating and costly condition. Despite the human and social impacts, studies describing patients with potential TSCI in the pre-hospital setting are scarce. This paper aims to describe the epidemiology of patients potentially at risk of or suspected to have a TSCI by paramedics, with a view to providing a better understanding of factors associated with potential TSCI. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients managed and transported by Ambulance Victoria (AV) between 01 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 who, based on meeting pre-hospital triage protocols and criteria for spinal clearance, paramedic suspicion or spinal immobilisation, were classified to be at risk of or suspected to have a TSCI...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Puneet Mittal, Ranjana Gupta, Amit Mittal, Kapish Mittal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Thomas Broggini, Lisa Schnell, Ali Ghoochani, José María Mateos, Michael Buchfelder, Kurt Wiendieck, Michael K Schäfer, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai E Savaskan
The Plasticity Related Gene family covers five, brain-specific, transmembrane proteins (PRG1-5, also termed LPPR1-5) that operate in neuronal plasticity during development, aging and brain trauma. Here we investigated the role of the PRG family on axonal and filopodia outgrowth. Comparative analysis revealed the strongest outgrowth induced by PRG3 (LPPR1). During development, PRG3 is ubiquitously located at the tip of neuronal processes and at the plasma membrane and declines with age. In utero electroporation of PRG3 induced dendritic protrusions and accelerated spine formations in cortical pyramidal neurons...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Ashley E Mohrman, Mahmoud Farrag, He Huang, Stephan Ossowski, Stephanie Haft, Leah P Shriver, Nic D Leipzig
Syringomyelia is a condition of the spinal cord in which a syrinx, or fluid-filled cavity, forms from trauma, malformation, or general disorder. Previous work has shown that in noncanalicular syringomyelia irregular flow and pressure conditions enhance the volumetric growth of syrinxes. A better understanding of the underlying molecular pathways associated with syrinx formation will unveil targets for treatments and possibly prevention of syringomyelia in the future. In this study, we performed an established surgical induction of a syrinx using quisqualic acid and kaolin injections in rats to characterize the injury at the molecular level by RNA sequencing and metabolomics techniques at three and six weeks post-injury...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Behzad Sabit, Frederick Adam Zeiler, Neil Berrington
PURPOSE: To perform a scoping systematic review on the literature surrounding mean arterial pressure (MAP) and functional outcomes post traumatic acute spinal cord injury (ASCI). METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature via searching MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library from inception to January 2015. We also performed a handsearch of various published meeting proceedings. Through a 2-step review process, employing 2 independent reviewers, we selected articles for the final review based on predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Andrea Tedeschi, Sebastian Dupraz, Claudia J Laskowski, Jia Xue, Thomas Ulas, Marc Beyer, Joachim L Schultze, Frank Bradke
Injuries to the adult CNS often result in permanent disabilities because neurons lose the ability to regenerate their axon during development. Here, whole transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis followed by gain- and loss-of-function experiments identified Cacna2d2, the gene encoding the Alpha2delta2 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), as a developmental switch that limits axon growth and regeneration. Cacna2d2 gene deletion or silencing promoted axon growth in vitro. In vivo, Alpha2delta2 pharmacological blockade through Pregabalin (PGB) administration enhanced axon regeneration in adult mice after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
September 27, 2016: Neuron
Hideki Shigematsu, Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Kin-Cheung Mak, Mauro Bruzzone, Keith D K Luk
PURPOSE: Patients with pre-existing cervical spinal canal stenosis (CSCS) may have minimal or no symptoms. However, performing preventive decompression is controversial as the incidence of CSCS leading to severe cord injury is unknown. Hence, this study aims to revisit the threshold for surgery in "silent" CSCS by reviewing the neurologic outcomes of patients with undiagnosed CSCS who sustained a cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). METHODS: Two groups of subjects were recruited for analysis...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Matthew Pritam Taylor, Paul Wrenn, Andrew David O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Injury to the spinal cord can result in loss of sympathetic innervation causing a drop in BP and HR, this condition is known as neurogenic shock. There is debate among the literature on how and when neurogenic shock presents and what values of HR and BP should be used to define it. Previous studies do not take into account multiple prehospital and emergency department recordings. OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of how neurogenic shock presents in humans, allowing better identification and treatment...
October 3, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Masataka Fukuoka, Ichiro Kuki, Hisashi Kawawaki, Kiyohiro Kim, Yuka Hattori, Hitomi Tsuji, Asako Horino, Megumi Nukui, Shin Okazaki
An 11-year-old boy presented with progressive leg hypesthesia but no history of trauma. Dysuria and constipation appeared subsequent to gait difficulty. He was admitted 8days after onset. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed longitudinal hyperintensity with cord swelling and hypointensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting severe inflammation and microbleeding change, respectively. Gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI demonstrated mild enhancement in the lesions. Platelet count and coagulation findings were normal, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no pleocytosis...
September 26, 2016: Brain & Development
I Paterniti, M Campolo, M Cordaro, D Impellizzeri, R Siracusa, R Crupi, E Esposito, S Cuzzocrea
Melatonin is the principal secretory product of the pineal gland, and its role as an immunomodulator is well established. Recent evidence shows that melatonin is a scavenger of oxyradicals and peroxynitrite and reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury events associated with spinal cord trauma. Previous results suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor activated by fatty acids, plays a role in control of secondary inflammatory process associated with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Masanari Takami, Motohiro Okada, Yoshio Enyo, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Hiroshi Yamada, Munehito Yoshida
PURPOSE: Noncontiguous double-level unstable spinal injuries (NDUSI) are uncommon and have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to better understand the patterns of NDUSI, in order to recommend proper diagnostic and treatment methods, as well as to raise awareness among traumatologists about the possibility of these uncommon injuries. METHODS: A total of 710 consecutive patients with spine fractures were treated for >9 years since 2007 at a single regional trauma center...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Elizabeth B Almon, Erich O Richter, Dennis W Ashley, D Benjamin Christie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Surgeon
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