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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728212/men-s-information-seeking-behaviour-regarding-cancer-risk-and-screening-a-meta-narrative-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Mohamad M Saab, Mary Reidy, Josephine Hegarty, Mairin O'Mahony, Mike Murphy, Christian Von Wagner, Frances J Drummond
OBJECTIVE: Preventive strategies are known to reduce cancer risk and incidence and improve prognosis. Men seldom seek medical information about cancer prevention and risk reduction. The aim of this meta-narrative systematic review was to critically appraise evidence from qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies that explored men's information-seeking behaviours in relation to cancer prevention and risk reduction. METHODS: MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Education Full Text, and ERIC were systematically searched for studies published in English between January 1(st) 2006 and May 30(th) 2016...
July 20, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727968/do-you-believe-the-field-of-psychological-science-is-headed-in-the-right-direction
#2
Robert W Levenson
The state of psychological science is considered in terms of current issues and suggestions for the future.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727967/whither-psychology
#3
Diane F Halpern
Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727966/mountain-climbing-in-the-dark-introduction-to-the-special-symposium-on-the-future-direction-of-psychological-science
#4
Robert J Sternberg
This special symposium in Perspectives on Psychological Science answers the question, "Do you believe the field of psychological science is headed in the right direction?" Respondents are a sampling of Association for Psychological Science award winners over the past 5 years dating back from publication of this symposium.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727965/is-psychology-headed-in-the-right-direction-yes-no-and-maybe
#5
Carol S Dweck
In this piece, I first celebrate the growing contribution of psychology to the understanding and solution of pressing social issues. Then, despite these exciting developments, I worry about whether we have created a field that our students want to spend their lives in, and I suggest concerns that might fruitfully be addressed. Finally, I worry about the potential fragmentation of psychology and applaud programs of research that have shown the unique and important contributions to be made when the methods and perspectives of neuroscience, cognitive science, and computational modeling are integrated with those of social, personality, and developmental psychology...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727964/psychological-science-as-a-complex-system-report-card
#6
Douglas L Medin
Psychological science is increasingly diverse in the tools available for research and the questions it is able to ask. But this potential is seriously limited by a lack of diversity in study populations, in situations and contexts explored, and in the researchers themselves. The current situation is problematic and difficult to change because of niche construction processes that favor the status quo. Systems level changes are needed to support a healthy psychological science.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727962/a-website-system-for-communicating-psychological-science
#7
Ed Diener
The peer review and journal system have shortcomings, and both computers and the Internet have made complementary or alternative systems attractive. In this article, I recommend that we implement a new platform for open communication of psychological science on a dedicated website to complement the current review and journal system, with reader reviews of the articles and with all behavioral scientists being eligible to publish and review articles. The judged merit of articles would be based on the citations and the ratings of the work by the whole scientific community...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727961/psychology-s-replication-crisis-and-the-grant-culture-righting-the-ship
#8
Scott O Lilienfeld
The past several years have been a time for soul searching in psychology, as we have gradually come to grips with the reality that some of our cherished findings are less robust than we had assumed. Nevertheless, the replication crisis highlights the operation of psychological science at its best, as it reflects our growing humility. At the same time, institutional variables, especially the growing emphasis on external funding as an expectation or de facto requirement for faculty tenure and promotion, pose largely unappreciated hazards for psychological science, including (a) incentives for engaging in questionable research practices, (b) a single-minded focus on programmatic research, (c) intellectual hyperspecialization, (d) disincentives for conducting direct replications, (e) stifling of creativity and intellectual risk taking, (f) researchers promising more than they can deliver, and (g) diminished time for thinking deeply...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727960/perspectives-on-psychological-science-right-way-wrong-way-symposium
#9
Megan R Gunnar
In unpredictable times, it is perhaps even more important to contemplate the direction different fields of science are headed. In this article, I contemplate two directions of psychological science: the increasing integration of the study of psychology with other sciences and the concern of many sciences, including ours, with improving the reproducibility of our findings. Both of these are argued to be "right ways," but these directions also have challenges that, unless carefully addressed, could detract from our ability to move the science of psychology forward...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727959/is-psychology-headed-in-the-right-direction
#10
Ethan Kross
Is psychology headed in the right direction? In this essay, I share my views on the answer to this question. I begin by describing how recent advances in technology, heightened levels of interdisciplinary collaboration, a renewed emphasis on considering the broader implications of basic psychological research, and field-wide efforts to encourage optimal research practices have combined to tilt psychology's trajectory upward. I then offer three suggestions for how to maintain the field's upward slanting course: (a) collaborate more to build cumulative knowledge, (b) improve the way we communicate contextual factors in psychological research, and (c) examine the psychological effects of technology...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727897/the-course-of-fear-of-cancer-recurrence-different-patterns-by-age-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#11
Daniëlle E J Starreveld, Sabine E Markovitz, Gerard van Breukelen, Madelon L Peters
OBJECTIVE: To examine the time course and predictors of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) in breast cancer survivors over a period of 18 months after initial surgery. METHODS: Breast cancer patients (n = 267) were followed until 18 months after primary breast surgery. Shortly after surgery, participants completed the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) to measure optimism and the Concerns about Recurrence Scale (CARS) to measure FCR. Mixed regression analysis was performed with age, optimism, marital status, education, type of surgery, with or without lymphectomy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or radiotherapy, time since surgery and all interactions with time as predictors of FCR...
July 20, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727892/end-of-life-experiences-of-family-caregivers-of-deceased-patients-with-cancer-a-nation-wide-survey
#12
Kayo Hirooka, Hiroyuki Otani, Tatsuya Morita, Tomofumi Miura, Hiroki Fukahori, Maho Aoyama, Yoshiyuki Kizawa, Yasuo Shima, Satoru Tsuneto, Mitsunori Miyashita
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was (1) to describe the end-of-life experience of family caregivers of cancer patients, (2) to describe talking about death and dying of the patient to minor children, and (3) to examine the association of family caregivers' experiences by their characteristics and talking about death and dying of the patient. METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide survey of bereaved family caregivers was conducted. In total, 968 questionnaires were sent to bereaved family caregivers, and 711 were completed and returned...
July 20, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727735/we-perceive-a-mind-in-a-robot-when-we-help-it
#13
Tetsushi Tanibe, Takaaki Hashimoto, Kaori Karasawa
People sometimes perceive a mind in inorganic entities like robots. Psychological research has shown that mind perception correlates with moral judgments and that immoral behaviors (i.e., intentional harm) facilitate mind perception toward otherwise mindless victims. We conducted a vignette experiment (N = 129; Mage = 21.8 ± 6.0 years) concerning human-robot interactions and extended previous research's results in two ways. First, mind perception toward the robot was facilitated when it received a benevolent behavior, although only when participants took the perspective of an actor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727690/demographic-and-psychological-correlates-of-satisfaction-with-healthcare-access-in-new-zealand
#14
Carol Hj Lee, Chris G Sibley
AIMS: To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' satisfaction with their healthcare access and identify various demographic and psychological factors associated with this satisfaction. METHODS: 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included questions on participants' demographic and psychological characteristics, and an item asking for their level of satisfaction with "your access to healthcare when you need it"...
July 21, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727670/effect-of-psychosocial-and-vocational-interventions-on-return-to-work-rates-post-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-systematic-review
#15
Lisa OʼBrien, Sonal Wallace, Lorena Romero
PURPOSE: To examine whether the effects of psychosocial and vocational interventions delivered in the first 3 mo post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are effective for improving work outcomes compared with other interventions. METHODS: A search was completed for English language publications up to March 2016 across 4 electronic databases and gray literature. Inclusion criteria were (1) psychosocial and/or vocational interventions; (2) adults 18 years or older with an AMI who were within the first 3 mo post-AMI; (3) randomized or clinically controlled trials; and (4) reporting of at least 1 return-to-work (RTW) outcome: including return to paid/unpaid employment, either full-time or part-time, to the previous job role or on modified duties...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727668/comprehensive-cardiac-rehabilitation-for-secondary-prevention-after-transient-ischemic-attack-or-mild-stroke-psychological-profile-and-outcomes
#16
Peter L Prior, Vladimir Hachinski, Richard Chan, Karen Unsworth, Sharon Mytka, Michael Harnadek, Christina OʼCallaghan, Neville Suskin
PURPOSE: Having previously reported that comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR) is effective for secondary prevention post-transient ischemic attack (TIA)/mild nondisabling stroke (MNDS), we present psychometric findings for the same sample that elucidate subacute TIA/MNDS psychological outcomes and test whether CCR would be independently associated with psychological improvements. METHODS: In this prospective cohort trial patients with ≥1 risk factor, recruited from a stroke prevention clinic within 12 months (mean = 11...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727631/one-year-of-baclofen-in-100-patients-with-or-without-cirrhosis-a-french-real-life-experience
#17
Camille Barrault, Hortensia Lison, Françoise Roudot-Thoraval, Armand Garioud, Charlotte Costentin, Véronique Béhar, Mourad Medmoun, Georges Pulwermacher, Hervé Hagège, Jean-François Cadranel
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested the efficacy of baclofen in reducing alcohol consumption, leading to a temporary recommendation for use in France. AIM: Our aim was to report our experience in using baclofen in alcohol-dependant patients with or without liver cirrhosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients from two liver and alcohol units were recruited over a 3-year period and received increasing doses of baclofen associated with social, psychological, and medical care...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727492/chronic-psychological-stress-seems-associated-with-elements-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-ischaemic-heart-disease
#18
Natasha Bergmann, Søren Ballegaard, Jesper Krogh, Per Bech, Åke Hjalmarson, Finn Gyntelberg, Jens Faber
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic psychological stress, the metabolic syndrome (MS) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) seem closely connected. In this study, we evaluate the association between chronic stress and elements of MS in patients with stable IHD. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. METHODS: Three hundred and fifty patients with stable IHD were included. Chronic stress was evaluated by the two questionnaires, Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the psychological wellbeing index WHO-5, as well as by Pressure Pain Sensitivity (PPS), a physiological measure of hyperalgesia at the sternum known to be associated to elements of the chronic stress syndrome...
July 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727327/-evaluation-of-psychosocial-difficulties-and-needs-of-persons-living-with-hiv-in-a-nurse-consultation
#19
Corine Courvoisier, Isabel Cobos Manuel, Jenny Gentizon, Véronique Niklas-Lyon, Frédéric Tissot
Despite the improvements in antiretroviral therapy, the psychosocial management of persons living with HIV remains complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. An auto-evaluation scale of psychosocial difficulties and needs was used by a team of nurses working in an HIV outpatient clinic. After 3 years of experience, this well-accepted tool revealed a high prevalence of psychosocial difficulties within this population, including psychological health, financial situation and sexual life. This instrument also allowed implementing a number of targeted nurse interventions to improve the management of these patients...
April 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727247/acceptability-of-a-very-low-energy-diet-in-type-2-diabetes-patient-experiences-and-behaviour-regulation
#20
L Rehackova, V Araújo-Soares, A J Adamson, S Steven, R Taylor, F F Sniehotta
AIMS: To evaluate the acceptability of an 8-week very-low-energy diet for remission of Type 2 diabetes, and to identify the barriers and facilitators of adherence and the behavioural strategies used by participants of the Counterbalance study. METHODS: Eighteen of the 30 participants in the Counterbalance study (ISRCTN88634530) took part in semi-structured interviews. Of these, 15 participants were interviewed before and after the 8-week very-low-energy diet intervention...
July 20, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
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