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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775073/diffuse-gliomas-for-nonneuropathologists-the-new-integrated-molecular-diagnostics
#1
Sunhee C Lee
Diffuse gliomas comprise the bulk of "brain cancer" in adults. The recent update to the 4th edition of the World Health Organization's classification of tumors of the central nervous system reflects an unprecedented change in the landscape of the diagnosis and management of diffuse gliomas that will affect all those involved in the management and care of patients. Of the recently discovered gene alterations, mutations in the Krebs cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) 1 and 2 have fundamentally changed the way the gliomas are understood and classified...
May 18, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769460/circulating-surfactant-protein-d-is-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-in-peripheral-artery-disease-patients-following-endovascular-therapy
#2
Yoichiro Otaki, Tetsu Watanabe, Hiroki Takahashi, Takayuki Sugai, Miyuki Yokoyama, Satoshi Nishiyama, Takanori Arimoto, Tetsuro Shishido, Takuya Miyamoto, Tamon Yamanaka, Isao Kubota, Masafumi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and death. Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) is a 43-kDa protein secreted from type II pneumocytes in the lungs. Recent studies have demonstrated that circulating SP-D plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and is related to clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic heart disease. However, it remains unclear whether circulating SP-D is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with PAD...
May 17, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769442/distinct-biomarker-signatures-in-hiv-acute-infection-associate-with-viral-dynamics-and-reservoir-size
#3
Jeffrey E Teigler, Louise Leyre, Nicolas Chomont, Bonnie Slike, Ningbo Jian, Michael A Eller, Nittaya Phanuphak, Eugène Kroon, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Leigh Anne Eller, Merlin L Robb, Jintanat Ananworanich, Nelson L Michael, Hendrik Streeck, Shelly J Krebs
Estimating the size of the viral reservoir is critical for HIV cure strategies. Biomarkers in peripheral circulation may give insights into the establishment of the viral reservoir in compartments not easily accessible. We therefore measured systemic levels of 84 soluble biomarkers belonging to a broad array of immune pathways in acute HIV infection in both antiretroviral therapy-naive (ART-naive) individuals as well as individuals who began ART upon early detection of HIV infection. These biomarkers were measured longitudinally during acute and chronic infection and their relationship to viral reservoir establishment and persistence was assessed...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769248/targeting-tumor-cell-plasticity-by-combined-inhibition-of-notch-and-mapk-signaling-in-colon-cancer
#4
Eva Marina Schmidt, Sebastian Lamprecht, Cristina Blaj, Christian Schaaf, Stefan Krebs, Helmut Blum, Heiko Hermeking, Andreas Jung, Thomas Kirchner, David Horst
In colorectal cancer, signaling pathways driving tumor progression are promising targets for systemic therapy. Besides WNT and MAPK signaling, activation of NOTCH signaling is found in most tumors. Here, we demonstrate that high NOTCH activity marks a distinct colon cancer cell subpopulation with low levels of WNT and MAPK activity and with a pronounced epithelial phenotype. Therapeutic targeting of MAPK signaling had limited effects on tumor growth and caused expansion of tumor cells with high NOTCH activity, whereas upon targeting NOTCH signaling, tumor cells with high MAPK activity prevailed...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765449/effects-of-single-and-combined-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-and-simulated-microgravity-on-gene-expression-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-during-chondrogenesis
#5
Susanne Mayer-Wagner, Florian Hammerschmid, Helmut Blum, Stefan Krebs, Julia I Redeker, Boris M Holzapfel, Volkmar Jansson, Peter E Müller
Introduction: Low frequency electromagnetic fields (LF-EMF) and simulated microgravity (SMG) have been observed to affect chondrogenesis. A controlled bioreactor system was developed to apply LF-EMF and SMG singly or combined during chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in 3D culture. Material and methods: An external motor gear SMG bioreactor was combined with magnetic Helmholtz coils for EMF (5 mT; 15 Hz). Pellets of hMSCs (±TGF-β3) were cultured (P5) under SMG, LF-EMF, LF-EMF/SMG and control (1 g) conditions for 3 weeks...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760786/ultrasound-criteria-for-risk-stratification-of-thyroid-nodules-in-the-previously-iodine-deficient-area-of-austria-a-single-centre-retrospective-analysis
#6
Christina Tugendsam, Veronika Petz, Wolfgang Buchinger, Brigitta Schmoll-Hauer, Iris Pia Schenk, Karin Rudolph, Michael Krebs, Georg Zettinig
Background: We aimed to study the validity of six published ultrasound criteria for risk stratification of thyroid nodules in the former severely iodine deficient population of Austria. Methods: Retrospective, single centre, observer blinded study design. All patients with a history of thyroidectomy due to nodules seen in the centre between 2004 and 2014 with preoperative in-house sonography and documented postoperative histology were analyzed ( n  = 195). A board of five experienced thyroidologists evaluated the images of 45 papillary carcinomas, 8 follicular carcinomas, and 142 benign nodules regarding the following criteria: mild hypoechogenicity, marked hypoechogenicity, microlobulated or irregular margins, microcalcifications, taller than wide shape, missing thin halo...
2018: Thyroid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751692/brain-mitochondria-aging-and-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Mario Rango, Nereo Bresolin
This paper reconsiders the role of mitochondria in aging and in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The most important risk factor for PD is aging. Alterations in mitochondrial activity are typical of aging. Mitochondrial aging is characterized by decreased oxidative phosphorylation, proteasome activity decrease, altered autophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Beyond declined oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction consists of a decline of beta-oxidation as well as of the Krebs cycle. Not inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are acquired over time and parallel the decrease in oxidative phosphorylation...
May 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750149/the-antioxidative-function-of-alpha-ketoglutarate-and-its-applications
#8
REVIEW
Shaojuan Liu, Liuqin He, Kang Yao
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a crucial intermediate of the Krebs cycle and plays a critical role in multiple metabolic processes in animals and humans. Of note, AKG contributes to the oxidation of nutrients (i.e., amino acids, glucose, fatty acids) and then provides energy for cell processes. As a precursor of glutamate and glutamine, AKG acts as an antioxidant agent as it directly reacts with hydrogen peroxide with formation of succinate, water, and carbon dioxide; meanwhile, it discharges plenty of ATP by oxidative decarboxylation...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748369/calcium-signaling-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-mitochondria
#9
REVIEW
Edoardo Bertero, Christoph Maack
In heart failure, alterations of Na+ and Ca2+ handling, energetic deficit, and oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes are important pathophysiological hallmarks. Mitochondria are central to these processes because they are the main source for ATP, but also reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their function is critically controlled by Ca2+ During physiological variations of workload, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is required to match energy supply to demand but also to keep the antioxidative capacity in a reduced state to prevent excessive emission of ROS...
May 11, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746783/physical-and-nutritional-conditions-for-optimized-production-of-bacteriocins-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-a-review
#10
Thiago Sidooski, Adriano Brandelli, Sávio Leandro Bertoli, Carolina Krebs de Souza, Lisiane Fernandes de Carvalho
There has been an increasing debate about the use of synthetic chemical compounds and the consequences of their use in food preservation. In this context, the utilization of some natural compounds produced by bacteria, showing an inhibitory effect against microorganisms associated with food contamination, have gained attention as preservation technology. In order to improve the production and yield costs of bacteriocins, detailed studies are necessary to determine the conditions that allow an optimized production and extraction of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB)...
May 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745322/metabolic-routes-in-inflammation-the-citrate-pathway-and-its-potential-as-therapeutic-target
#11
Vittoria Infantino, Ciro Leonardo Pierri, Vito Iacobazzi
Significant metabolic changes occur in inflammation to respond to the new energetic needs of cells. Mitochondria are addressed not only to produce ATP, but also to supply substrates, such citrate, to produce pro-inflammatory molecules. In this context most of citrate is diverted from Krebs cycle and channeled into the "citrate pathway" consisting in the increase of the export of citrate into cytosol by the mitochondrial citrate carrier followed by its cleavage into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate by ATP citrate lyase...
May 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741638/distribution-of-hiv-rna-in-csf-and-blood-is-linked-to-cd4-cd8-ratio-during-acute-hiv
#12
Phillip Chan, Payal Patel, Joanna Hellmuth, Donn J Colby, Eugène Kroon, Carlo Sacdalan, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Linda Jagodzinski, Shelly Krebs, Jintanat Ananworanich, Victor Valcour, Serena Spudich
Background: HIV RNA levels in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are correlated in chronic HIV infection but their dynamics have not been characterized during acute infection. Methods: This study analyzed predictors of CSF HIV RNA and relative degree of CNS viral transmigration expressed as plasma minus CSF HIV log10 RNA (PCratio) during untreated acute HIV infection. CSF immune markers were compared between groups with different PCratio. Results: 117 mostly male (97%) participants in the RV254 cohort in Bangkok, Thailand, had median age 28 years and an estimated median 18 days duration of infection; forty-three (37%) were Fiebig stages I/II...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736265/evaluation-of-a-clinical-implementation-of-a-respiratory-muscle-training-group-during-spinal-cord-injury-rehabilitation
#13
Anja M Raab, Jörg Krebs, Claudio Perret, Mirjam Pfister, Maria Hopman, Gabi Mueller
Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Objective: To evaluate the clinical implementation of a respiratory muscle training group during rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury. Setting: Spinal cord injury rehabilitation center. Methods: Individuals with complete or incomplete lesions during inpatient rehabilitation, level C4-T12.Ten or more training sessions of either an inspiratory or a combined in- and expiratory muscle training were performed in a group setting with respiratory function measurements before and after the training period...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735944/metabolites-identified-during-varied-doses-of-aspergillus-species-in-zea-mays-grains-and-their-correlation-with-aflatoxin-levels
#14
Titilayo D O Falade, Panagiotis K Chrysanthopoulos, Mark P Hodson, Yasmina Sultanbawa, Mary Fletcher, Ross Darnell, Sam Korie, Glen Fox
Aflatoxin contamination is associated with the development of aflatoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on food grains. This study was aimed at investigating metabolites produced during fungal development on maize and their correlation with aflatoxin levels. Maize cobs were harvested at R3 (milk), R4 (dough), and R5 (dent) stages of maturity. Individual kernels were inoculated in petri dishes with four doses of fungal spores. Fungal colonisation, metabolite profile, and aflatoxin levels were examined...
May 7, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735885/extending-methods-in-dietary-patterns-research
#15
Jill Reedy, Amy F Subar, Stephanie M George, Susan M Krebs-Smith
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Disease Prevention held a workshop titled, “Extending Methods in Dietary Patterns Research”, in May of 2016. The workshop’s goal was to articulate, refine, and prioritize methodological questions to advance the science of dietary patterns in epidemiological research. Although the focus was on how to improve methods for assessing the relationship between dietary patterns and cancer risk, many, if not all, of the discussions and conclusions are relevant for other health outcomes as well...
May 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731247/race-is-associated-with-completion-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#16
Anne T Knisely, Alex D Michaels, J Hunter Mehaffey, Taryn E Hassinger, Elizabeth D Krebs, David R Brenin, Anneke T Schroen, Shayna L Showalter
BACKGROUND: Completion of prescribed neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is paramount to patients obtaining full benefit from the treatment; however, factors affecting neoadjuvant chemotherapy completion are not known. We hypothesized that race is a predictor of completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: All patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy 2009-2016 at a single institution were stratified by completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and by race...
May 3, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729584/income-as-a-moderator-of-psychological-stress-and-nicotine-dependence-among-adult-smokers
#17
Andréa L Hobkirk, Nicolle M Krebs, Joshua E Muscat
BACKGROUND: Perceived stress and psychological distress are associated with more cigarette craving and withdrawal, higher nicotine dependence, and less success during quit attempts. Low income smokers have disproportionately higher rates of smoking and may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of stress on smoking dependence. The aim of the current study was to assess if lower income smokers have a stronger association between stress and nicotine dependence than higher income smokers...
April 27, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728888/omega-3-fatty-acids-attenuate-brain-alterations-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-model
#18
Aline Haas de Mello, Rosiane de Bona Schraiber, Mariana Pereira de Souza Goldim, Michelle Lima Garcez, Maria Luiza Gomes, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Rubya Pereira Zaccaron, Patrícia Fernanda Schuck, Josiane Budni, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira, Fabricia Petronilho, Gislaine Tezza Rezin
This study evaluated the effects of omega-3 on inflammation, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism parameters in the brain of mice subjected to high-fat diet-induced obesity model. Body weight and visceral fat weight were evaluated as well. Male Swiss mice were divided into control (purified low-fat diet) and obese (purified high-fat diet). After 6 weeks, the groups were divided into control + saline, control + omega-3, obese + saline, and obese + OMEGA-3. Fish oil (400 mg/kg/day) or saline solution was administrated orally, during 4 weeks...
May 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728177/modeling-congenital-nasal-pyriform-aperture-stenosis-using-computational-fluid-dynamics
#19
Tirth R Patel, Chengyu Li, Jillian Krebs, Kai Zhao, Prashant Malhotra
OBJECTIVES: Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) is a rare cause of airway obstruction in the neonate. Computational airway modeling has not been done in neonates and young infants to understand the impact of stenosis on functional nasal airflow. In this study, we 1) applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to the airway of a neonate with CNPAS and 2) compare airflow dynamics of a normal and CNPAS airway. METHODS: Three-dimensional models of the nasal airway of a normal neonate and a neonate with CNPAS were created using computed tomography scans of the facial bones...
June 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726423/exporting-data-from-a-clinical-data-warehouse
#20
Georg Fette, Mathias Kaspar, Leon Liman, Georg Dietrich, Maximilian Ertl, Jonathan Krebs, Stefan Störk, Frank Puppe
Data Warehouses (DW) are useful tools to support clinical studies as they can provide exports of routine care data for scientific reuse. Exported DW data is usually post-processed and integrated into study databases by study staff that is reasonably trained in specific tools like SPSS and Excel but which are no programmers or computer scientists. DW systems should therefore be configurable to satisfy export format desiderata as much as possible so that exports contain no unnecessary post-processing obstacles...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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