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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209601/the-influence-of-rosuvastatin-upon-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-host-gene-expression-profiles
#1
James A Nolan, Peter Henry Skuse, Kalaimathi Govindarajan, Elaine Patterson, Nina Konstantinidou, Patrick G Casey, John MacSharry, Fergus Shanahan, Catherine Stanton, Colin Hill, P D Cotter, Susan A Joyce, Cormac Gm Gahan
Statins are the most widely prescribed medications worldwide for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. They inhibit the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co enzyme A reductase (HMG-R) an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis in higher organisms and in isoprenoid biosynthesis in some bacteria. We hypothesized that statins may influence the microbial community in the gut through either direct inhibition or indirect mechanisms involving alterations to host responses. We therefore examined the impact of rosuvastatin (RSV) on the community structure of the murine gastrointestinal microbiota...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207861/in-vitro-anti-herpes-simplex-virus-2-activity-of-salvia-desoleana-atzei-v-picci-essential-oil
#2
Valeria Cagno, Barbara Sgorbini, Cinzia Sanna, Cecilia Cagliero, Mauro Ballero, Andrea Civra, Manuela Donalisio, Carlo Bicchi, David Lembo, Patrizia Rubiolo
Salvia desoleana Atzei & V. Picci is an indigenous species in Sardinia island used in folk medicine to treat menstrual, digestive and central nervous system diseases. Nowadays, it is widely cultivated for the pleasant smell of its essential oil (EO), whose antimicrobial and antifungal activities have already been screened. This study evaluated the in vitro anti-Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) activity of S. desoleana EO, fractions and main components: linalyl acetate, alpha terpinyl acetate, and germacrene D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204827/hepatic-hnf1-transcription-factors-control-the-induction-of-pcsk9-mediated-by-rosuvastatin-in-normolipidemic-hamsters
#3
Bin Dong, Amar Bahadur Singh, Vikram Ravindra Shende, Jingwen Liu
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) impedes low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR)-mediated LDL-cholesterol uptake and has hence emerged as a critical regulator of serum cholesterol levels and a new therapeutic target for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Statins have been shown to elevate circulating PCSK9 levels by stimulating PCSK9 gene transcription, which reduces the clinical efficacy of statin in LDL‑cholesterol reduction. The transcription of PCSK9 is partially controlled by the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) binding site embedded in the proximal region of its promoter...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199704/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infects-cd4-t-cells-the-frequency-of-circulating-cd4-rsv-t-cells-as-a-marker-of-disease-severity-in-young-children
#4
Silvina Raiden, Inés Sananez, Federico Remes-Lenicov, Julieta Pandolfi, Cecilia Romero, Leonardo De Lillo, Ana Ceballos, Jorge Geffner, Lourdes Arruvito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196762/enteric-helminth-induced-type-i-interferon-signalling-protects-against-pulmonary-virus-infection-through-interaction-with-the-microbiota
#5
Amanda J McFarlane, Henry J McSorley, Donald J Davidson, Paul M Fitch, Claire Errington, Karen J Mackenzie, Eva S Gollwitzer, Chris J C Johnston, Andrew S MacDonald, Michael R Edwards, Nicola L Harris, Benjamin J Marsland, Rick M Maizels, Jürgen Schwarze
BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites have been reported to have beneficial immune modulatory effects in allergic and autoimmune conditions and detrimental consequences in tuberculosis and some viral infections. Their role in co-infection with respiratory viruses is not clear. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the effects of strictly enteric helminth infection with Heligmosomoides polygyrus on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a mouse model. METHODS: A murine helminth/ RSV co-infection model was developed...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194013/potent-single-domain-antibodies-that-arrest-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-in-its-prefusion-state
#6
Iebe Rossey, Morgan S A Gilman, Stephanie C Kabeche, Koen Sedeyn, Daniel Wrapp, Masaru Kanekiyo, Man Chen, Vicente Mas, Jan Spitaels, José A Melero, Barney S Graham, Bert Schepens, Jason S McLellan, Xavier Saelens
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. The RSV fusion protein (F) is highly conserved and is the only viral membrane protein that is essential for infection. The prefusion conformation of RSV F is considered the most relevant target for antiviral strategies because it is the fusion-competent form of the protein and the primary target of neutralizing activity present in human serum. Here, we describe two llama-derived single-domain antibodies (VHHs) that have potent RSV-neutralizing activity and bind selectively to prefusion RSV F with picomolar affinity...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193180/viral-aetiology-of-bronchiolitis-in-hospitalised-children-in-qatar
#7
Ibrahim Janahi, Anas Abdulkayoum, Fawziya Almeshwesh, Mohamed Alkuwari, Ahmed Al Hammadi, Marwah Alameri
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is considered one of the earliest and most common causes of hospitalisation in young children. Development of molecular technologies allowed a better understanding of bronchiolitis aetiology. Results from cohort studies evaluating the association between single, multiple viral infections and clinical outcomes are conflicting. Data on viral bronchiolitis in children were found to be limited in Qatar. This study aimed to determine frequency and seasonal trends of viral pathogens causing acute bronchiolitis, and to explore association between viral pathogens, disease severity and length of stay (LOS)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187208/respiratory-virus-infection-up-regulates-trpv1-trpa1-and-asics3-receptors-on-airway-cells
#8
Shadia Omar, Rebecca Clarke, Haniah Abdullah, Clare Brady, John Corry, Hanagh Winter, Olivier Touzelet, Ultan F Power, Fionnuala Lundy, Lorcan P A McGarvey, S Louise Cosby
Receptors implicated in cough hypersensitivity are transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential cation channel, Subfamily A, Member 1 (TRPA1) and acid sensing ion channel receptor 3 (ASIC3). Respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus (MV) may interact directly and/or indirectly with these receptors on sensory nerves and epithelial cells in the airways. We used in vitro models of sensory neurones (SHSY5Y or differentiated IMR-32 cells) and human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cells) as well as primary human bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to study the effect of MV and RSV infection on receptor expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186208/preclinical-evaluation-of-bacterially-produced-rsv-g-protein-vaccine-strong-protection-against-rsv-challenge-in-cotton-rat-model
#9
Sandra Fuentes, Laura Klenow, Hana Golding, Surender Khurana
In current study, we evaluated the safety and protective efficacy of recombinant unglycosylated RSV G protein ectodomain produced in E. coli (in presence and absence of oil-in-water adjuvant) in a preclinical RSV susceptible cotton rat challenge model compared to formaldehyde inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) and live RSV experimental infection. The adjuvanted G protein vaccine induced robust neutralization antibody responses comparable to those generated by live RSV infection. Importantly, adjuvanted G protein significantly reduced viral loads in both the lungs and nose at early time points following viral challenge...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184005/a-c-terminal-tail-region-in-the-rous-sarcoma-virus-integrase-provides-high-plasticity-of-functional-integrase-oligomerization-during-intasome-assembly
#10
Krishan K Pandey, Sibes Bera, Ke Shi, Hideki Aihara, Duane P Grandgenett
The retrovirus integrase (IN) inserts the viral cDNA into the host DNA genome. Atomic structures of five different retrovirus INs complexed with their respective viral DNA or branched viral/target DNA substrates have indicated these intasomes are composed of IN subunits ranging from tetramers, to octamers or to hexadecamers. IN precursors are monomers, dimers or tetramers in solution. But, how intasome assembly is controlled remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to unravel the functional mechanisms in different intasomes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183291/rapid-and-sensitive-real-time-assay-for-the-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-using-rt-siba%C3%A2
#11
Kevin E Eboigbodin, Kirsi Moilanen, Sonja Elf, Mark Hoser
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common causes of respiratory tract infections among young children and the elderly. Timely and accurate diagnosis of respiratory tract infections improves patient care and minimizes unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics. We sought to develop a rapid nucleic acid tests for the detection of RSV within minutes, while retaining the high sensitivity achieved with RT-PCR. METHODS: We developed and evaluated a reverse transcription isothermal nucleic acid amplification method, reverse transcription strand invasion based amplification (RT-SIBA), for the rapid detection of RSV...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182741/etiology-of-severe-pneumonia-in-ecuadorian-children
#12
Sivani Jonnalagadda, Oswaldo Rodríguez, Bertha Estrella, Lora L Sabin, Fernando Sempértegui, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador. METHODS: This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181554/analysis-of-influenza-and-rsv-dynamics-in-the-community-using-a-local-transmission-zone-approach
#13
Gal Almogy, Lewi Stone, B Andrei Bernevig, Dana G Wolf, Marina Dorozko, Allon E Moses, Ran Nir-Paz
Understanding the dynamics of pathogen spread within urban areas is critical for the effective prevention and containment of communicable diseases. At these relatively small geographic scales, short-distance interactions and tightly knit sub-networks dominate the dynamics of pathogen transmission; yet, the effective boundaries of these micro-scale groups are generally not known and often ignored. Using clinical test results from hospital admitted patients we analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of Influenza Like Illness (ILI) in the city of Jerusalem over a period of three winter seasons...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179378/the-human-immune-response-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#14
REVIEW
Clark D Russell, Stefan A Unger, Marc Walton, Jürgen Schwarze
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important etiological agent of respiratory infections, particularly in children. Much information regarding the immune response to RSV comes from animal models and in vitro studies. Here, we provide a comprehensive description of the human immune response to RSV infection, based on a systematic literature review of research on infected humans. There is an initial strong neutrophil response to RSV infection in humans, which is positively correlated with disease severity and mediated by interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178290/prenatal-exposure-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-alters-postnatal-immunity-and-airway-smooth-muscle-contractility-during-early-life-reinfections
#15
Paul M Brown, Terri J Harford, Vandana Agrawal, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, Fariba Rezaee, Giovanni Piedimonte
Maternal viral infections can have pathological effects on the developing fetus which last long after birth. Recently, maternal-fetal transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was shown to cause postnatal airway hyperreactivity (AHR) during primary early-life reinfection; however, the influence of prenatal exposure to RSV on offspring airway immunity and smooth muscle contractility during recurrent postnatal reinfections remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine whether maternal RSV infection impairs specific aspects of cell-mediated offspring immunity during early-life reinfections and the mechanisms leading to AHR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176624/vitamin-d-combined-with-resveratrol-prevents-cognitive-decline-in-samp8-mice
#16
Jinbo Cheng, Yehua Rui, Liqiang Qin, Jiaying Xu, Shufen Han, Linxi Yuan, Xuebin Yin, Zhongxiao Wan
Background Vitamin D (VD) and resveratrol (RSV) are two nutritional molecules that have reported neuroprotective effects, and findings from cellular models suggest that resveratrol could potentiate vitamin D's effects. The senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) is a useful model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related memory impairment. Objective We aimed to explore how the combination of vitamin D with resveratrol would affect memory impairments shown by SAMP8 mice, as well as the potential mechanisms...
February 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173654/-clinical-value-of-a-rapid-respiratory-syncytial-virus-antigen-detection-in-point-of-care-testing
#17
Y X Ding, R Tian, Y Qian, Y Sun, J Deng, F Wang, R N Zhu, L Q Zhao
Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of a rapid respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen detection in point-of-care testing (POCT). Method: A total of 209 specimens, including 78 throat swabs (TS) and 131 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs), were collected from inpatients who visited the Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics and were diagnosed as acute respiratory infection from 5 January to 7 February, 2015. These specimens were tested for RSV by a rapid antigen detection kit which was compared with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) for RSV detection...
February 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165548/enhanced-antitumor-efficacy-of-resveratrol-loaded-nanocapsules-in-colon-cancer-cells-physicochemical-and-biological-characterization
#18
M Feng, L-X Zhong, Z-Y Zhan, Z-H Huang, J-P Xiong
OBJECTIVE: The aim of present work was to prepare resveratrol-loaded lipid-core-nanocapsule (RSV-LNC) and to characterize its ability to target the colon cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The lipid-core nanocapsule was prepared by precipitation method. The nanoparticle was prepared and evaluated regarding physical, chemical and biological parameters. RESULTS: The average size of optimized nanocapsule was ~159 nm with a uniform size distribution index of 0...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163166/respiratory-syncytial-virus-hospitalizations-in-infants-of-28-weeks-gestational-age-and-less-in-the-palivizumab-era
#19
Bernhard Resch, Beatrice Egger, Stefan Kurath-Koller, Berndt Urlesberger
OBJECTIVE: To obtain data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated hospitalization rates in preterm infants of 28 weeks gestational age and less in the era of palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Retrospective single-center cohort study including all preterm infants up to 28 weeks+6days gestational age and born between 2004 and 2012 at a tertiary care university hospital. Data on RSV related hospitalizations over the first two years of life covering at least two RSV seasons (November-April) were analyzed...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159571/igg3-snitcher-of-rsv-infections-in-the-very-young
#20
Bert Schepens, Xavier Saelens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: EBioMedicine
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