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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335547/genomic-loads-and-genotypes-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-viral-factors-during-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chilean-hospitalized-infants
#1
Yazmín Espinosa, Camila San Martín, Alejandro A Torres, Mauricio J Farfán, Juan P Torres, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Pedro A Piedra, Lorena I Tapia
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334924/throat-swabs-in-children-with-respiratory-tract-infection-associations-with-clinical-presentation-and-potential-targets-for-point-of-care-testing
#2
Hannah V Thornton, Alastair D Hay, Niamh M Redmond, Sophie L Turnbull, Hannah Christensen, Tim J Peters, John P Leeming, Andrew Lovering, Barry Vipond, Peter Muir, Peter S Blair
Background and objectives.: Diagnostic uncertainty over respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care contributes to over-prescribing of antibiotics and drives antibiotic resistance. If symptoms and signs predict respiratory tract microbiology, they could help clinicians target antibiotics to bacterial infection. This study aimed to determine relationships between symptoms and signs in children presenting to primary care and microbes from throat swabs. Methods.: Cross-sectional study of children ≥3 months to <16 years presenting with acute cough and RTI, with subset follow-up...
February 18, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330443/influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-infants-study-iris-of-hospitalized-and-non-ill-infants-aged-1-year-in-four-countries-study-design-and-methods
#3
Mark G Thompson, Danielle R Hunt, Ali K Arbaji, Artan Simaku, Veronica L Tallo, Holly M Biggs, Carolyn Kulb, Aubree Gordon, Ilham Abu Khader, Silvia Bino, Marilla G Lucero, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Pat Shifflett, Felix Sanchez, Basima I Marar, Ilirjana Bakalli, Eric A F Simões, Min Z Levine, Jennifer K Meece, Angel Balmaseda, Tareq M Al-Sanouri, Majlinda Dhimolea, Joanne N de Jesus, Natalie J Thornburg, Susan I Gerber, Lionel Gresh
BACKGROUND: This multi-country prospective study of infants aged <1 year aims to assess the frequency of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections associated with hospitalizations, to describe clinical features and antibody response to infection, and to examine predictors of very severe disease requiring intensive care. METHODS/DESIGN: We are enrolling a hospital-based cohort and a sample of non-ill infants in four countries (Albania, Jordan, Nicaragua, and the Philippines) using a common protocol...
March 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329354/clinical-significance-of-human-coronavirus-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-samples-from-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-and-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#4
Chikara Ogimi, Alpana A Waghmare, Jane M Kuypers, Hu Xie, Cecilia C Yeung, Wendy M Leisenring, Sachiko Seo, Su-Mi Choi, Keith R Jerome, Janet A Englund, Michael Boeckh
Background: The possible role of human coronaviruses (HCoV) in lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) has not been well studied. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of HCT/HM patients with HCoV detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). HCoV strains were identified in BAL samples using strain-specific PCR. Mortality rates were compared among HCT recipients with LRTD caused by HCoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza or parainfluenza virus (PIV) by multivariable Cox regression analysis...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329304/cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-exacerbations-attributable-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-a-population-based-study
#5
Ranjani Somayaji, Christopher H Goss, Umer Khan, Moni Neradilek, Kathleen M Neuzil, Justin R Ortiz
Background: Characterization of the role of respiratory viral pathogens on cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease is needed. We aimed to determine the association of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity with risk of pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) in persons with CF in the United States. Methods: We conducted a cohort study from January 2003 - March 2009 using the CF Foundation Patient Registry merged with CDC respiratory virus surveillance data...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328944/respiratory-viruses-in-patients-with-influenza-like-illness-in-senegal-focus-on-human-respiratory-adenoviruses
#6
Mbayame Ndiaye Niang, Ndeye Sokhna Diop, Amary Fall, Davy E Kiori, Fatoumata Diene Sarr, Sara Sy, Déborah Goudiaby, Mamadou Aliou Barry, Malick Fall, Ndongo Dia
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens that are associated with a wide spectrum of human illnesses involving the respiratory tract. In the present study, we investigate the epidemiologic and viral molecular features of HAdVs circulating in Senegal after 4 consecutive years of sentinel surveillance of influenza-like Illness cases. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: From January 2012 to December 2015 swabs were collected from consenting ILI outpatients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324595/recent-advances-in-developing-antiviral-therapies-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#7
REVIEW
Brian C Shook, Kai Lin
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection presents a significant health challenge in small children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. There is still a high unmet medical need among patients with RSV infection, and no specific antiviral therapy is available. The only approved agents are palivizumab, which has to be given prophylactically, mainly in high-risk infants, and ribavirin, which is rarely used due to toxicity concerns and questionable benefits. Efforts to develop new antiviral agents have been hampered by the perceived need for high safety hurdles in pediatric patient populations use and the lack of well-characterized druggable targets...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322346/resveratrol-mitigates-lipopolysaccharide-mediated-acute-inflammation-in-rats-by-inhibiting-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAbp65-mapks-signaling-cascade
#8
Guangxi Wang, Zhiqiang Hu, Qiuting Fu, Xu Song, Qiankun Cui, Renyong Jia, Yuanfeng Zou, Changliang He, Lixia Li, Zhongqiong Yin
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural compound exhibiting anti-inflammatory effect, but the anti-inflammatory mechanism has not been fully understood. This study is aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of RSV in lipopolysaccharides-induced rats' model. The visceral wet/dry weight ratios and the changes of hematologic and biochemical indices indicated that LPS- stimulation mainly caused damages to liver and lung, while pretreatment with RSV could alleviate the lesions. The cytokine assays showed that RSV could markedly decrease the production of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines (IL-1, IL-1β, IL-6, NO, iNOS and COX-2), and increase the expression of anti-inflammatory mediator (IL-10)...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320361/estimates-of-hospitalization-attributable-to-influenza-and-rsv-in-the-us-during-1997-2009-by-age-and-risk-status
#9
Gonçalo Matias, Robert Taylor, François Haguinet, Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Roger Lustig, Vivek Shinde
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) burden must be periodically updated to inform public health strategies. We estimated seasonal influenza- and RSV-attributable hospitalizations in the US from 1997 to 2009 according to age and risk status (NCT01599390). METHODS: Multiple linear regression modelling was used to attribute hospitalizations to influenza or RSV using virological surveillance and hospitalization data. Hospitalization data were obtained from the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample and virology data were obtained from FluView (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)...
March 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303835/trends-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-sub-types-in-children-hospitalised-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-jaipur-during-2012-2014
#10
M Anjaneya Swamy, Bharti Malhotra, P V Janardhan Reddy, Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, Neeraj Kumar, Manohar Lal Gupta
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes high mortality and morbidity in infants. The study was planned to determine the trends of RSV sub-types in hospitalised children. Nasopharyngeal aspirate and throat swabs were collected from the hospitalised children up to 5 years of age. Viral nucleic acid was extracted using easyMAG automated extraction system, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed. Total positivity for RSV was found to be 25.40%, predominantly for RSV B (20.03%), followed by RSV A (2...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303009/resveratrol-sequentially-induces-replication-and-oxidative-stresses-to-drive-p53-cxcr2-mediated-cellular-senescence-in-cancer-cells
#11
Boxuan Li, Dong Hou, Haiyang Guo, Haibin Zhou, Shouji Zhang, Xiuhua Xu, Qiao Liu, Xiyu Zhang, Yongxin Zou, Yaoqin Gong, Changshun Shao
Resveratrol (RSV) acts either as an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant depending on contexts. RSV-treated cancer cells may experience replication stress that can lead to cellular senescence or apoptosis. While both oxidative and replication stresses may mediate the anti-proliferation effect of RSV, to what extent each contributes to the impaired proliferation in response to RSV remains uncharacterized. We here report the study of the roles of replication and oxidative stresses in mediating cellular senescence in cancer cells treated with RSV...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302410/meeting-report-who-consultation-on-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-development-geneva-25-26-april-2016
#12
Birgitte K Giersing, Ruth A Karron, Johan Vekemans, David C Kaslow, Vasee S Moorthy
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading viral cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality in infants and young children worldwide. Low and middle income countries (LMICs) account for approximately 99% of the global mortality estimates in this population, with up to 200,000 RSV deaths per year. The vaccine product development pipeline is diverse with the most advanced clinical candidate currently in phase III efficacy testing in pregnant women. In addition, a long-acting RSV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to be administered at birth to prevent serious RSV-related respiratory disease is in late stage clinical development, as are additional conventional mAb for use in high-risk infants...
March 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298602/a-single-dose-recombinant-piv5-expressing-respiratory-syncytial-virus-f-and-g-proteins-protected-cotton-rats-and-african-green-monkeys-from-rsv-challenge
#13
Dai Wang, Shannon Phan, Daniel J DiStefano, Michael P Citron, Cheryl L Callahan, Lani Indrawati, Sheri A Dubey, Gwendolyn J Heidecker, Dhanasekaran Govindarajan, Xiaoping Liang, Biao He, Amy S Espeseth
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of severe respiratory disease among infants, immunocompromised individuals and the elderly. No licensed vaccine is currently available. In this study, we evaluated two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored vaccines expressing RSV F (PIV5/F) or G (PIV5/G) proteins in the cotton rat and African green monkey models for their replication, immunogenicity and efficacy of protection against RSV challenge. Following a single intranasal inoculation, both animal species shed the vaccine viruses for a limited time but without noticeable clinical symptoms...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295964/respiratory-virus-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-a-tropical-center-predictive-value-of-the-immunodeficiency-scoring-index
#14
Lin Wang, John Allen, Colin Diong, Yeow-Tee Goh, Sathish Gopalakrishnan, Aloysius Ho, William Hwang, Francesca Lim, Lynette Oon, Thuan-Tong Tan, Yeh-Ching Linn, Ban-Hock Tan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory virus infection (RVI) is a prevalent infection in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Ability to assess the potential severity of RVI is important in the management of such patients. METHODS: We reviewed the cases of RVI in allo-HSCT recipients and explored the predictive value of the immunodeficiency scoring index (ISI) established for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and its applicability for RVI caused by other respiratory viruses...
March 10, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295020/lactobacillus-johnsonii-supplementation-attenuates-respiratory-viral-infection-via-metabolic-reprogramming-and-immune-cell-modulation
#15
W Fonseca, K Lucey, S Jang, K E Fujimura, A Rasky, H-A Ting, J Petersen, C C Johnson, H A Boushey, E Zoratti, D R Ownby, A M Levine, K R Bobbit, S V Lynch, N W Lukacs
Regulation of respiratory mucosal immunity by microbial-derived metabolites has been a proposed mechanism that may provide airway protection. Here we examine the effect of oral Lactobacillus johnsonii supplementation on metabolic and immune response dynamics during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. L. johnsonii supplementation reduced airway T helper type 2 cytokines and dendritic cell (DC) function, increased regulatory T cells, and was associated with a reprogrammed circulating metabolic environment, including docosahexanoic acid (DHA) enrichment...
March 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293048/differential-effects-of-resveratrol-on-the-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-and-protein-in-the-hippocampus-of-rat-brain
#16
Shahla Shojaei, Mohammad Reza Panjehshahin, Sayed Mohammad Shafiee, Zahra Khoshdel, Mohammad Borji, Ghasem Ghasempour, Ali Akbar Owji
BACKGROUND: The induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus has shown to play a role in the beneficial effects of resveratrol (RSV) on the learning and memory. The BDNF gene has a complicated structure with eight 5' noncoding exons (I-IXa), each of which can splice to a common coding exon (IX) to form a functional transcript. Estrogens increase levels of BDNF transcripts in the hippocampus of rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the phytoestrogen, RSV, on the splicing pattern of BDNF transcripts and on the pro-BDNF protein in the hippocampi of mother rats and their embryos...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290129/comparison-of-influenza-and-rsv-diagnostic-from-nasopharyngeal-swabs-by-rapid-fluorescent-immunoassay-sofia-system-and-rapid-bedside-testing-binaxnow-vs-conventional-fluorescent-immunoassay-in-a-german-university-children-s-hospital
#17
Anita L Rack-Hoch, Gudrun Laniado, Johannes Hübner
The Sofia fluorescent immunoassay showed excellent sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional fluorescent immunoassay for Influenza A (Influenza B was not detected during the study period) and RSV in patients with suspected ILI (influenza-like illness). Thus the fast and easy-to-handle Sofia FIA leads to rapid and reliable diagnosis, which can be used by clinicians to avoid unnecessary antibiotic treatment and rapidly identify patients who need to be isolated upon hospital admission.
March 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289517/retroviral-integrase-protein-and-intasome-nucleoprotein-complex-structures
#18
REVIEW
Julia Grawenhoff, Alan N Engelman
Retroviral replication proceeds through the integration of a DNA copy of the viral RNA genome into the host cellular genome, a process that is mediated by the viral integrase (IN) protein. IN catalyzes two distinct chemical reactions: 3'-processing, whereby the viral DNA is recessed by a di- or trinucleotide at its 3'-ends, and strand transfer, in which the processed viral DNA ends are inserted into host chromosomal DNA. Although IN has been studied as a recombinant protein since the 1980s, detailed structural understanding of its catalytic functions awaited high resolution structures of functional IN-DNA complexes or intasomes, initially obtained in 2010 for the spumavirus prototype foamy virus (PFV)...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288928/in%C3%A2-vitro-cytotoxicity-evaluation-of-resveratrol-loaded-nanoparticles-focus-on-the-challenges-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-methodologies
#19
V Rocha, C Marques, J L Figueiredo, A R Gaio, P C Costa, J M Sousa Lobo, I F Almeida
Assessment of toxic effects is mandatory before market placement of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Nanotoxicology is an emerging regulatory concern and still a challenging field. Topical application of resveratrol (RSV) has been extensively studied owing to its multi-mechanistic skin anti-aging effects. Nanoencapsulation has been suggested as a promising solution to overcome RSV stability issues. In this work RSV-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were prepared using a homogenization/sonication technique...
March 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287082/e3-ligase-fbxw7-is-critical-for-rig-i-stabilization-during-antiviral-responses
#20
Yinjing Song, Lihua Lai, Zhenlu Chong, Jia He, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yue Xue, Yiwei Xie, Songchang Chen, Ping Dong, Luoquan Chen, Zhimin Chen, Feng Dai, Xiaopeng Wan, Peng Xiao, Xuetao Cao, Yang Liu, Qingqing Wang
Viruses can escape from host recognition by degradation of RIG-I or interference with the RIG-I signalling to establish persistent infections. However, the mechanisms by which host cells stabilize RIG-I protein for avoiding its degradation are largely unknown. We report here that, upon virus infection, the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXW7 translocates from the nucleus into the cytoplasm and stabilizes RIG-I. FBXW7 interacts with SHP2 and mediates the degradation and ubiquitination of SHP2, thus disrupting the SHP2/c-Cbl complex, which mediates RIG-I degradation...
March 13, 2017: Nature Communications
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