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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527341/unravelling-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreaks-in-buenos-aires-argentina-molecular-basis-of-the-spatio-temporal-transmission
#1
Gabriel Lihue Rojo, Stephanie Goya, Mariana Orellana, Andrea Sancilio, Alberto Rodriguez Perez, César Montali, Carolina García, Lilian Sosa, Alejandra Musto, Daniela Alvarez, Alejandro Castello, Mariana Viegas
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main viral cause of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide. Several vaccines against RSV are under research and development, which are about to be approved. We evaluated transmission patterns in different settings to determine age-specific vaccination targets from a viral perspective. We sequenced the G glycoprotein's ectodomain of a constant clinical sampling between two epidemic outbreaks in a limited geographical region and performed phylogeographic analyses...
May 17, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526018/infection-mediated-asthma-etiology-mechanisms-and-treatment-options-with-focus-on-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-macrolides
#2
REVIEW
Wilmore C Webley, David L Hahn
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness to non-specific bronchoconstriction agonists as the primary underlying pathophysiology. The worldwide incidence of asthma has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, over 300 million children and adults worldwide currently suffer from this incurable disease and 255,000 die from the disease each year. It is now well accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome and many clinical subtypes have been described...
May 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525961/passive-and-active-immunization-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-for-the-young-and-old
#3
Tonya Villafana, Judith Falloon, M Pamela Griffin, Qing Zhu, Mark T Esser
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide and also causes significant disease in the elderly. Despite 60 years of RSV research and vaccine development, there is only one approved medicine to prevent RSV infections. Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the RSV fusion (F) protein, is indicated for preterm infants and children at high-risk for RSV infections. It is an active time in RSV vaccine and mAb development with 14 vaccines and 2 mAbs currently being tested in clinical trials as of 13 February 2017...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525878/vaccine-development-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#4
REVIEW
Barney S Graham
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important and ubiquitous respiratory pathogen for which no vaccine is available notwithstanding more than 50 years of effort. It causes the most severe disease at the extremes of age and in settings of immunodeficiency. Although RSV is susceptible to neutralizing antibody, it has evolved multiple mechanisms of immune evasion allowing it to repeatedly infect people despite relatively little genetic diversity. Recent breakthroughs in determining the structure and antigenic content of the fusion (F) glycoprotein in its metastable untriggered prefusion form (pre-F) and the stable rearranged postfusion form (post-F) have yielded vaccine strategies that can induce potent neutralizing antibody responses and effectively boost pre-existing neutralizing activity...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524109/unexpected-infection-spikes-in-a-model-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccination
#5
Robert J Smith, Alexandra B Hogan, Geoffry N Mercer
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is an acute respiratory infection that infects millions of children and infants worldwide. Recent research has shown promise for the development of a vaccine, with a range of vaccine types now in clinical trials or preclinical development. We extend an existing mathematical model with seasonal transmission to include vaccination. We model vaccination both as a continuous process, applying the vaccine during pregnancy, and as a discrete one, using impulsive differential equations, applying pulse vaccination...
May 18, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520858/rapid-tests-for-influenza-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-other-respiratory-viruses-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Ahl Bruning, Mmg Leeflang, Jmbw Vos, R Spijker, M D de Jong, K C Wolthers, D Pajkrt
Rapid diagnosis of respiratory virus infections contributes to patient care. This systematic review evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for the detection of respiratory viruses. We searched Medline and EMBASE for studies evaluating these tests against PCR as reference standard. 179 studies were included of which 134 evaluated rapid tests for influenza viruses, 32 for RSV, and 13 for other respiratory viruses. We used the bivariate random effects model for quantitative meta-analysis of the results...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518131/incidence-of-respiratory-viral-infection-in-infants-with-respiratory-symptoms-evaluated-for-late-onset-sepsis
#7
J B Cerone, R P Santos, D Tristram, D M Lamson, K A Stellrecht, K St George, M J Horgan, A Rios
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, etiology and impact of respiratory viral infection (RVI) on infants evaluated for late-onset sepsis (LOS), defined as sepsis occurring >72 h of life, in the neonatal intensive care unit. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study conducted from 6 March 2014 to 3 May 2016 on infants evaluated for LOS. PCR viral panel performed on nasopharyngeal specimens among infants with clinical suspicion for RVI. Sequence analysis was performed to determine viral subtypes...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510638/%C3%AE-asarone-suppresses-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-asmcs-through-targeting-the-lncrna-pvt1-mir-203a-e2f3-signal-pathway-in-rsv-infected-rats
#8
Xiao Yu, Zhe Zhe, Binqing Tang, Shaobin Li, Ling Tang, Yingen Wu, Xiaorong Chen, Hong Fang
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a common cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. α-Asarone presents many pharmacological effects and has been demonstrated to be useful in treating asthma. However, the functional mechanism of α-asarone in RSV-infected asthma has not been investigated. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play critical roles in many biological processes. Although many lncRNAs have been characterized, few were reported in asthma, especially in RSV-induced asthma...
May 16, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508992/palivizumab-prophylaxis-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis-does-not-delay-first-isolation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-or-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Clélia Buchs, Marie-Laure Dalphin, Stéphane Sanchez, Marie Perceval, Laurianne Coutier, Catherine Mainguy, Behrouz Kassaï-Koupaï, Philippe Reix
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections may worsen cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and favor Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) or Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) acquisition, which is of particular importance in the youngest patients. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of PVZ on microbiological outcomes in young children with CF. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to compare these outcomes in children who systematically received PVZ (PVZ+; n = 40) or not (PVZ-; n = 140). One case was matched with at least three same-gender controls born the same year and month...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508217/bac-based-recovery-of-recombinant-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv
#10
Christopher C Stobart, Anne L Hotard, Jia Meng, Martin L Moore
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped, nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus, which causes lower respiratory tract infections and is a leading cause of mortality in young infants. There is no available RSV vaccine and currently administered prophylactic antibodies are limited to high-risk populations. Current efforts to develop vaccines include development of live-attenuated RSV candidates. We describe here methods for preparation and recovery of recombinant RSV using an efficient bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based system, expansion and plaque purification of recovered virus, and generation of master and working stocks...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506664/heliox-delivered-by-high-flow-nasal-cannula-improves-oxygenation-in-infants-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-acute-bronchiolitis
#11
Wael Seliem, Amira M Sultan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that use of heliox would result in improvement of gas exchange when used with high flow nasal cannula in infants with RSV acute bronchiolitis. METHODS: All patients that met the inclusion criteria were randomized to either heliox (70:30) or air-oxygen mixture 30% via high flow nasal cannula at 8L/min for a continuous 24h. Measurements were taken at baseline, after 2h, and at the end of the 24h...
May 12, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502165/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-mucin-synthesis-and-viral-replication-by-suppression-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-via-p38-mapks-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-a549-cells
#12
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Chang-Nim Im, Sung Wan Kim, Su Jin Kim, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins aggravate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500974/ongoing-developments-in-rsv-prophylaxis-a-clinician-s-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Fariba Rezaee, Debra T Linfield, Terri J Harford, Giovanni Piedimonte
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children worldwide. Lower respiratory tract infection due to RSV is one of the most common causes of hospitalization for infants, especially those born premature or with chronic lung or heart disease. Furthermore, RSV infection is an important cause of morbidity in adults, particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The acute phase of this infection is often followed by episodes of wheezing that recur for months or years and usually lead to a physician diagnosis of asthma...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498407/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-accelerates-lung-fibrosis-through-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-a-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-animal-model
#14
Lina Wang, Wei Cheng, Zhimin Zhang
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER) is involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Viral infection often triggers a hyperinflammatory response by an expansion of the ER. The present study was designed to observe the role of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV)‑induced ER stress on lung fibrosis. In order to determine the role of ER stress on the onset and progression of pulmonary fibrosis, mice received an intratracheal combined injection of RSV and bleomycin on day 0...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489853/novel-genes-involved-in-severe-early-onset-obesity-revealed-by-rare-copy-number-and-sequence-variants
#15
Clara Serra-Juhé, Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Francesc Bou de Pieri, Raquel Flores, Juan R González, Benjamín Rodríguez-Santiago, Jesús Argente, Luis A Pérez-Jurado
Obesity is a multifactorial disorder with high heritability (50-75%), which is probably higher in early-onset and severe cases. Although rare monogenic forms and several genes and regions of susceptibility, including copy number variants (CNVs), have been described, the genetic causes underlying the disease still remain largely unknown. We searched for rare CNVs (>100kb in size, altering genes and present in <1/2000 population controls) in 157 Spanish children with non-syndromic early-onset obesity (EOO: body mass index >3 standard deviations above the mean at <3 years of age) using SNP array molecular karyotypes...
May 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481620/ifn%C3%AE-influences-epithelial-anti-viral-responses-via-histone-methylation-of-the-rig-i-promoter
#16
C Mirella Spalluto, Akul Singhania, Doriana Cellura, Christopher H Woelk, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, Karl J Staples, Tom M A Wilkinson
The asthmatic lung is prone to respiratory viral infections that exacerbate the symptoms of the underlying disease. Recent work has suggested that a deficient Th1 response in early life may lead to these aberrant anti-viral responses. We investigated whether the inflammatory environment of the airway epithelium could modulate anti-viral gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, in order to study the development of a long-term dysregulation of innate responses, which are a hallmark of asthma. We primed AALEB, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, with IFNγ and IL13 and subsequently infected cells with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and innate anti-viral genes expression and their epigenetic markers were analysed...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480848/acute-viral-bronchiolitis-in-infants-review
#17
I Chkhaidze, D Zirakishvili
Bronchiolitis is a common condition in children less than 2 years of age and is a leading cause of infant hospitalization. Acute bronchiolitis is characterized by acute wheezing in infants or children and is associated with signs or symptoms of respiratory infection; the most common etiologic agent is respiratory syncytial virus. There is a lack of consensus regarding the clinical definition of acute viral bronchiolitis in children and hence the management varies across the globe. Usually it does not require investigation, treatment is merely supportive and a conservative approach seems adequate in the majority of children, especially for the youngest ones...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480262/hospitalizations-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-among-adults-in-the-united-states-1997-2012
#18
Susan T Pastula, Judith Hackett, Jenna Coalson, Xiaohui Jiang, Tonya Villafana, Christopher Ambrose, Jon Fryzek
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an established cause of serious lower respiratory disease in children, but the burden in adults is less well studied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of hospitalizations among adults ≥20 years from the 1997-2012 National Inpatient Sample. Trends in RSV admissions were described relative to unspecified viral pneumonia admissions. Hospitalization severity indicators were compared among immunocompromised RSV, non-immunocompromised RSV, and influenza admissions...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476625/a-multi-laboratory-study-of-diverse-rsv-neutralization-assays-indicates-feasibility-for-harmonization-with-an-international-standard
#19
Nancy Hosken, Brian Plikaytis, Carrie Trujillo, Kutub Mahmood, Deborah Higgins
A current barrier to the standardized evaluation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidates is the wide variety of virus neutralization assay formats currently in use for assessing immunogenicity. Assay formats vary widely in labor intensiveness, duration, and sample throughput. Furthermore, the cell lines and virus strains used are not consistent among formats. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to assess the variability across a diverse array of assay formats that quantitate RSV neutralizing antibodies...
May 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474631/nasopharyngeal-aspirate-blood-cytokine-profile-in-infants-hospitalized-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-a-pilot-study-from-south-india
#20
Suresh Natarajan, Ganesh Ramasamy, N Pavan Kumar, S Subash Babu, Lalitha Janakiraman
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Following a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, only some infants develop serious illness, and a proportion of them develop recurrent wheeze subsequently. Studies have revealed that cytokine expression following RSV infection may influence the severity and also the risk for subsequent reactive airway disease. This present study was conducted to determine the blood, and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) cytokine profile among infants admitted for RSV bronchiolitis...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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