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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922766/altered-accumulation-of-osa-mir171b-contributes-to-rice-stripe-virus-infection-by-regulating-disease-symptoms
#1
Aizi Tong, Quan Yuan, Shu Wang, Jiejun Peng, Yuwen Lu, Hongying Zheng, Lin Lin, Hairu Chen, Yifu Gong, Jianping Chen, Fei Yan
Viral infection affects the pattern of plant miRNA expression. It has been presumed that reduction of miR171 and several other miRNAs influences viral symptoms in plants. We here experimentally demonstrate the association of osa-miR171b with rice stripe virus (RSV) symptoms in rice. Inhibition of osa-miR171b caused stunting with reduced chlorophyll content in leaves similar to viral symptoms. Overexpression of osa-miR171b by an artificial miRNA extended vegetative growth and enhanced chlorophyll accumulation in leaves...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#2
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916773/functional-organization-of-cytoplasmic-inclusion-bodies-in-cells-infected-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#3
Vincent Rincheval, Mickael Lelek, Elyanne Gault, Camille Bouillier, Delphine Sitterlin, Sabine Blouquit-Laye, Marie Galloux, Christophe Zimmer, Jean-François Eleouet, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti
Infection of cells by respiratory syncytial virus induces the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) where all the components of the viral RNA polymerase complex are concentrated. However, the exact organization and function of these IBs remain unclear. In this study, we use conventional and super-resolution imaging to dissect the internal structure of IBs. We observe that newly synthetized viral mRNA and the viral transcription anti-terminator M2-1 concentrate in IB sub-compartments, which we term "IB-associated granules" (IBAGs)...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913988/prevalence-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-korean-adult-asthmatics-with-acute-exacerbations-comparison-with-those-with-stable-state
#4
Ki Hyun Seo, Da Jeong Bae, Ji Na Kim, Ho Sung Lee, Yong Hoon Kim, Jong Sook Park, Myung Shin Kim, Hun Soo Chang, Ji Hye Son, Dong Gyu Baek, Jun Suk Lee, Choon Sik Park
PURPOSE: Viral infections are involved in ~50% of exacerbations among Caucasian adult asthmatics. However, there have been few reports on the causative virus of exacerbations in Korean adult asthmatics. Thus, we compared frequencies and types of viruses between lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) with exacerbations (exacerbated LRTIs) and those without exacerbations (stable LRTIs) to evaluate contribution of respiratory viruses to exacerbations. METHODS: Viral RNA was extracted from sputum using the Viral Gene-spin™ Kit...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913912/streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-of-the-nasopharynx-is-associated-with-increased-severity-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-young-children
#5
Jaelle C Brealey, Keith J Chappell, Sally Galbraith, Emmanuelle Fantino, Jane Gaydon, Sarah Tozer, Paul R Young, Patrick G Holt, Peter D Sly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in early life. RSV and other respiratory viruses are known to stimulate substantial outgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the upper airways of young children. However, the clinical significance of interactions between viruses and bacteria is currently unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of viral and bacterial co-detections on disease severity during paediatric ARI...
September 15, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911812/relationships-between-residue-voronoi-volume-and-sequence-conservation-in-proteins
#6
Jen-Wei Liu, Chih-Wen Cheng, Yu-Feng Lin, Shao-Yu Chen, Jenn-Kang Hwang, Shih-Chung Yen
BACKGROUND: Functional and biophysical constraints can cause different levels of sequence conservation in proteins. Previously, structural properties, e.g., relative solvent accessibility (RSA) and packing density of the weighted contact number (WCN), have been found to be related to protein sequence conservation (CS). The Voronoi volume has recently been recognized as a new structural property of the local protein structural environment reflecting CS. However, for surface residues, it is sensitive to water molecules surrounding the protein structure...
September 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911764/global-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-mortality-in-young-children-rsv-gold-a-retrospective-case-series
#7
Nienke M Scheltema, Angela Gentile, Florencia Lucion, D James Nokes, Patrick K Munywoki, Shabir A Madhi, Michelle J Groome, Cheryl Cohen, Jocelyn Moyes, Kentigern Thorburn, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Hitoshi Oshitani, Socorro P Lupisan, Aubree Gordon, José F Sánchez, Katherine L O'Brien, Bradford D Gessner, Agustinus Sutanto, Asuncion Mejias, Octavio Ramilo, Najwa Khuri-Bulos, Natasha Halasa, Fernanda de-Paris, Márcia Rosane Pires, Michael C Spaeder, Bosco A Paes, Eric A F Simões, Ting F Leung, Maria Tereza da Costa Oliveira, Carla Cecília de Freitas Lázaro Emediato, Quique Bassat, Warwick Butt, Hsin Chi, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Asad Ali, Marilla G Lucero, Rodrigo A Fasce, Olga Lopez, Barbara A Rath, Fernando P Polack, Jesse Papenburg, Srđan Roglić, Hisato Ito, Edward A Goka, Diederick E Grobbee, Harish Nair, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of pneumonia mortality in young children. However, clinical data for fatal RSV infection are scarce. We aimed to identify clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years with RSV-related mortality using individual patient data. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, we developed an online questionnaire to obtain individual patient data for clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years who died with community-acquired RSV infection between Jan 1, 1995, and Oct 31, 2015, through leading research groups for child pneumonia identified through a comprehensive literature search and existing research networks...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903503/identifying-gaps-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-epidemiology-in-the-united-states-prior-to-the-introduction-of-vaccines
#8
Lindsay Kim, Brian Rha, Jon S Abramson, Larry J Anderson, Carrie L Byington, Grace L Chen, John DeVincenzo, Kathryn M Edwards, Janet A Englund, Ann R Falsey, Marie R Griffin, Ruth A Karron, Karen G Martin, H Cody Meissner, Flor M Munoz, Andrew T Pavia, Pedro A Piedra, William Schaffner, Eric A F Simões, Rosalyn Singleton, H Keipp Talbot, Edward E Walsh, Jane R Zucker, Susan I Gerber
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract illness frequently. No effective antivirals or vaccines for RSV are approved for use in the United States; however, there are at least 50 vaccines and monoclonal antibody products in development, with those targeting older adults and pregnant women (to protect young infants) in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. Unanswered questions regarding RSV epidemiology need to be identified and addressed prior to RSV vaccine introduction to guide the measurement of impact and future recommendations...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903080/transplacental-transfer-of-maternal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-antibody-and-protection-against-rsv-disease-in-infants-in-rural-nepal
#9
Helen Y Chu, James Tielsch, Joanne Katz, Amalia S Magaret, Subarna Khatry, Stephen C LeClerq, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Mark C Steinhoff, Janet A Englund
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral cause of pneumonia in children. RSV-specific antibody (ab) protects infants from disease, and may be increased by a potential strategy of maternal RSV vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of RSV antibody on RSV infection risk in infants in a resource-limited setting. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study in Nepal, women were enrolled during pregnancy and maternal and infant cord blood were collected at birth...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901900/persistence-of-rsv-promotes-proliferation-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-bronchial-epithelial-cells-through-nodal-signaling
#10
Zhao Xiang, Zhang Liang, Huang Yanfeng, Kang Leitao
PURPOSE: Nodal may play an important role in the development of cancers. The present study was designed to determine the effects of Nodal induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the occurrence and development of lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms. METHODOLOGY: After verification of RSV infection by observation of cytopathic effect and indirect immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, Western blot and methylation assays were used to verify the influence of RSV on Nodal expression...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895096/palivizumab-prophylaxis-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children-with-immunocompromised-conditions-or-down-syndrome-a-multicenter-post-marketing-surveillance-in-japan
#11
Tomoko Kashiwagi, Yukiko Okada, Ken Nomoto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of palivizumab for the prevention of lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children with immunocompromised conditions or Down syndrome. METHODS: In this multicenter, post-marketing surveillance study (December 2013 to December 2015), children aged ≤24 months with immunocompromised conditions or Down syndrome (without hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease) receiving palivizumab immunoprophylaxis during two RSV seasons were observed until 30 days after the final palivizumab injection...
September 11, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894111/induction-of-high-titred-non-neutralising-antibodies-by-self-adjuvanting-peptide-epitopes-derived-from-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein
#12
Noushin Jaberolansar, Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Imogen M Bermingham, Istvan Toth, Paul R Young, Mariusz Skwarczynski
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. The significant morbidity and mortality rates associated with RSV infection make an effective RSV vaccine development a priority. Two neutralising antibody binding sites, Ø and II, located on the pre-fusion RSV F glycoprotein are prime candidates for epitope-focused vaccine design. We report on a vaccine strategy that utilises a lipid core peptide (LCP) delivery system with self-adjuvanting properties in conjunction with either the antigenic site Ø or II (B cell epitopes) along with PADRE as a T helper cell epitope...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892765/the-performance-of-luminex-aries-%C3%A2-flu-a-b-rsv-and-cepheid-xpert-%C3%A2-flu-rsv-xc-for-the-detection-of-influenza-a-influenza-b-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-prospective-patient-samples
#13
Phillip McMullen, Sue Boonlayangoor, Angella Charnot-Katsikas, Kathleen G Beavis, Vera Tesic
BACKGROUND: The demand for rapid, accurate viral testing has increased the number of assays available for the detection of viral pathogens. One of the newest FDA cleared platforms is the Luminex ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV, which is a fully automated, real-time PCR-based assay used for detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare the performance of Luminex ARIES(®) Flu A/B & RSV assay to the Cepheid Xpert(®) Flu/RSV XC assay for rapid Flu and RSV testing...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891024/resveratrol-supplementation-improves-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-blunt-snout-bream
#14
Dingdong Zhang, Yanan Yan, Hongyan Tian, Guangzhen Jiang, Xiangfei Li, Wenbin Liu
Here, we aimed to investigate whether resveratrol (RSV) can ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorder in fish. Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with average weight 27.99 ± 0.56 g were fed a normal fat diet (NFD, 5% fat, w/w), a HFD (11% fat), or a HFD supplemented with 0.04, 0.36, or 1.08% RSV for 10 weeks. As expected, fish fed a HFD developed hepatic steatosis, as shown by elevated hepatic and plasma triglycerides, raised whole body fat, intraperitoneal fat ratio and hepatosomatic index, and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
September 10, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887119/respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-hospitalizations-in-children-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#15
Bernhard Resch, Krisztina Liziczai, Friedrich Reiterer, Thomas Freidl, Michaela Haim, Berndt Urlesberger
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of RSV infection in infants and children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) over two consecutive RSV seasons. METHODS: Retrospective, single-center cohort study from southern Austria including infants with CDH born between 1993 and 2012. Infants were retrieved by searching via ICD-10 codes Q79.0 and Q79.1 and by using a local electronic database. Children were followed over 2 years of life including at least two consecutive RSV seasons (November to April)...
August 16, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883651/the-role-of-transcriptional-factor-p63-in-regulation-of-epithelial-barrier-and-ciliogenesis-of-human-nasal-epithelial-cells
#16
Yakuto Kaneko, Takayuki Kohno, Takuya Kakuki, Ken-Ichi Takano, Noriko Ogasawara, Ryo Miyata, Shin Kikuchi, Takumi Konno, Tsuyoshi Ohkuni, Ryoto Yajima, Akito Kakiuchi, Shin-Ichi Yokota, Tetsuo Himi, Takashi Kojima
Disruption of nasal epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and ciliary dysfunction are found in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and nasal polyps (NPs), along with an increase of p63-positive basal cells and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. To investigate these mechanisms, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were transfected with siRNAs of TAp63 and ΔNp63, treated with the NF-kB inhibitor curucumin and inhibitors of HDACs, and infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881156/nucleic-acid-based-vaccines-targeting-respiratory-syncytial-virus-delivering-the-goods
#17
Trevor R F Smith, Katherine Schultheis, Kate E Broderick
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a massive medical burden on a global scale. Infants, children and the elderly represent the vulnerable populations. Currently there is no approved vaccine to protect against the disease. Vaccine development has been hindered by several factors including vaccine enhanced disease (VED) associated with formalin-inactivated RSV vaccines, inability of target populations to raise protective immune responses after vaccination or natural viral infection, and a lack of consensus concerning the most appropriate virus-associated target antigen...
September 7, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878760/respiratory-commensal-bacteria-corynebacterium-pseudodiphtheriticum-improves-resistance-of-infant-mice-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-superinfection
#18
Paulraj Kanmani, Patricia Clua, Maria G Vizoso-Pinto, Cecilia Rodriguez, Susana Alvarez, Vyacheslav Melnikov, Hideki Takahashi, Haruki Kitazawa, Julio Villena
Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a Gram-positive bacterium found as a member of the normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract. It was suggested that C. pseudodiphtheriticum may be potentially used as a next-generation probiotic for nasal application, although no deep studies were performed in this regard. We hypothesized that human isolate C. pseudodiphtheriticum strain 090104 is able to modulate the respiratory innate immune response and beneficially influence the resistance to viral and bacterial infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878128/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-of-newborn-cx3cr1-deficent-mice-induces-a-pathogenic-pulmonary-innate-immune-response
#19
Sudipta Das, Mahesh Raundhal, Jie Chen, Timothy B Oriss, Rachael Huff, John V Williams, Anuradha Ray, Prabir Ray
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects almost all infants by 2 years of age, and severe bronchiolitis resulting from RSV infection is the primary cause of hospitalization in the first year of life. Among infants hospitalized due to RSV-induced bronchiolitis, those with a specific mutation in the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which severely compromises binding of its ligand CX3CL1, were at a higher risk for more severe viral bronchiolitis than those without the mutation. Here, we show that RSV infection of newborn mice deficient in CX3CR1 leads to significantly greater neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs, accompanied by an increase in mucus production compared with that induced in WT mice...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877226/distinct-patterns-of-innate-immune-activation-by-clinical-isolates-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#20
Ruth Levitz, Yajing Gao, Igor Dozmorov, Ran Song, Edward K Wakeland, Jeffrey S Kahn
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major respiratory pathogen of infants and young children. Multiple strains of both subgroup A and B viruses circulate during each seasonal epidemic. Genetic heterogeneity among RSV genomes, in large part due to the error prone RNA-dependent, RNA polymerase, could mediate variations in pathogenicity. We evaluated clinical strains of RSV for their ability to induce the innate immune response. Subgroup B viruses were used to infect human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) and primary monocyte-derived human macrophages (MDM) from a variety of donors...
2017: PloS One
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