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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911143/factors-predicting-life-threatening-infections-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-adult-patients
#1
Se Yoon Park, Taeeun Kim, Young Rock Jang, Min-Chul Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of acute respiratory illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from self-limiting upper respiratory infection to severe lower respiratory infection in elderly persons as well as young children. However, there are limited data on risk factors for life-threatening infections that could guide the appropriate use of antiviral agents in adult patients with RSV. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from October 2013 to September 2015...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908797/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-b-genotypes-circulating-in-pakistani-children
#2
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Nayab Mahmood, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Hajra Sadia, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in young children, but very little is known about its epidemiology and circulating genotypes in Pakistan. This study analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of RSV B genotypes in Pakistani children below 5years with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) during three consecutive winter seasons from 2010 to 2013. A total of 1941 samples were analyzed for RSV infection by real time PCR and 24% (472/1941) samples were found positive out of which 22...
November 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908639/animal-models-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#3
Geraldine Taylor
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905537/unique-nonstructural-proteins-of-pneumonia-virus-of-mice-pvm-promote-degradation-of-interferon-ifn-pathway-components-and-ifn-stimulated-gene-proteins
#4
Jayeeta Dhar, Sailen Barik
Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM) is the only virus that shares the Pneumovirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). A deadly mouse pathogen, PVM has the potential to serve as a robust animal model of RSV infection, since human RSV does not fully replicate the human pathology in mice. Like RSV, PVM also encodes two nonstructural proteins that have been implicated to suppress the IFN pathway, but surprisingly, they exhibit no sequence similarity with their RSV equivalents. The molecular mechanism of PVM NS function, therefore, remains unknown...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903593/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-detection-and-new-options-for-prevention-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Cameron Griffiths, Steven J Drews, David J Marchant
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a significant cause of hospitalization of children in North America and one of the leading causes of death of infants less than 1 year of age worldwide, second only to malaria. Despite its global impact on human health, there are relatively few therapeutic options available to prevent or treat RSV infection. Paradoxically, there is a very large volume of information that is constantly being refined on RSV replication, the mechanisms of RSV-induced pathology, and community transmission...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903461/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-adults-hospitalized-with-influenza-like-illness-in-france
#6
Paul Loubet, Nezha Lenzi, Martine Valette, Vincent Foulongne, Anne Krivine, Nadhira Houhou, Gisele Lagathu, Sylvie Rogez, Sophie Alain, Xavier Duval, Florence Galtier, Deborah Postil, Pierre Tattevin, Philippe Vanhems, Fabrice Carrat, Bruno Lina, Odile Launay
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze characteristics and outcome of RSV infection in adults hospitalized with influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: Patients hospitalized with ILI were included in this prospective, multicenter study carried out in six French hospitals during three consecutive influenza seasons (2012-2015). RSV and other respiratory viruses were detected by multiplex PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs. Risk factors for RSV infection were identified by backward stepwise logistic regression analysis...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898687/effects-of-chronologic-age-and-young-child-exposure-on-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-among-us-preterm-infants-born-at-32-to-35-weeks-gestation
#7
Eric A F Simões, Evan J Anderson, Xionghua Wu, Christopher S Ambrose
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease as a function of chronologic age and exposure to young children in US preterm infants. METHODS: In the RSV Respiratory Events among Preterm Infants Outcomes and Risk Tracking (REPORT) study, preterm infants born at 32-35 weeks gestational age (wGA) were enrolled from 188 US clinics and followed September-May of 2009-2010 or 2010-2011. Infants with medically-attended acute respiratory illness had nasal/pharyngeal swabs collected for viral testing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898422/national-evidence-in-israel-supporting-reevaluation-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylactic-guidelines
#8
Itai Gross, Yael Siedner-Weintraub, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Benjamin Bar-Oz, Smadar Eventov-Friedman
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recently narrowed the indications for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis, while in Israel the guidelines have not changed. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence and severity of RSV infection among preterm infants born earlier than 340/7 weeks of gestation (PI), late preterm infants born at 340/7-366/7 weeks (LPTI), and term infants born after 370/7 weeks of gestation (TI) and to determine whether the results support a change in local policy...
November 30, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895172/pulmonary-dendritic-cell-subsets-shape-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-specific-cd8-t-cell-immunodominance-hierarchy-in-neonates
#9
Allison M W Malloy, Tracy J Ruckwardt, Kaitlyn M Morabito, Annie W Lau-Kilby, Barney S Graham
Young infants are generally more susceptible to viral infections and experience more severe disease than do adults. CD8(+) T cells are important for viral clearance, and although often ineffective in neonates they can be protective when adequately stimulated. Using a murine CB6F1/J hybrid model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, we previously demonstrated that the CD8(+) T cell immunodominance hierarchy to two RSV-derived epitopes, K(d)M282-90 and D(b)M187-195, was determined by the age at infection...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894716/characterization-of-guinea-pig-t-cell-responses-elicited-after-ep-assisted-delivery-of-dna-vaccines-to-the-skin
#10
Katherine Schultheis, Hubert Schaefer, Bryan S Yung, Janet Oh, Karuppiah Muthumani, Laurent Humeau, Kate E Broderick, Trevor R F Smith
The skin is an ideal target tissue for vaccine delivery for a number of reasons. It is highly accessible, and most importantly, enriched in professional antigen presenting cells. Possessing strong similarities to human skin physiology and displaying a defined epidermis, the guinea pig is an appropriate model to study epidermal delivery of vaccine. However, whilst we have characterized the humoral responses in the guinea pig associated with skin vaccine protocols we have yet to investigate the T cell responses...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889531/sirt1-protects-cardiac-cells-against-apoptosis-induced-by-zearalenone-or-its-metabolites-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-zearalenol-through-an-autophagy-dependent-pathway
#11
Intidhar Ben Salem, Manel Boussabbeh, Julie Pires Da Silva, Arnaud Guilbert, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-Essefi, Christophe Lemaire
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. The major ZEN metabolites are α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL). In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of the toxicity induced by ZEN, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in cardiac cells (H9c2). We show that treatment with ZEN or its metabolites induces the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis as characterized by an increase in ROS generation, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and an activation of caspases...
November 23, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889321/rapid-antigen-detection-test-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-diagnosis-as-a-diagnostic-tool
#12
Flávio da Silva Mesquita, Danielle Bruna Leal de Oliveira, Daniela Crema, Célia Miranda Nunes Pinez, Thaís Cristina Colmanetti, Luciano Matsumia Thomazelli, Alfredo Elias Gilio, Sandra Elisabeth Vieira, Marina Baquião Martinez, Viviane Fongaro Botosso, Edison Luiz Durigon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue(®) RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA) as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by IFI and QuickVue(®) RSV Test kit...
November 24, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889256/controlled-human-infection-with-rsv-the-opportunities-of-experimental-challenge
#13
Maximillian S Habibi, Christopher Chiu
Despite the recent explosion in RSV vaccine development, there remain substantial hurdles to overcome before licensing of effective vaccines will allow widespread use, particularly in high-risk populations. Incomplete understanding of mechanisms and correlates of protection against RSV mean that, for the time being, successful RSV vaccines must directly demonstrate efficacy, which necessitates large and costly clinical trials in naturally infected patients. To mitigate the risks inherent in progressing to these late-stage trials, experimental human RSV infection studies have recently been re-established, representing the interface between pre-clinical models and observational studies of patients...
November 23, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888461/inhibitory-effects-of-bee-venom-and-its-components-against-viruses-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Md Bashir Uddin, Byeong-Hoon Lee, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jae-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Hyun-Cheol Lee, Choul Goo Kim, Jong-Soo Lee, Chul-Joong Kim
Bee venom (BV) from honey bee (Apis Melifera L.) contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including melittin (MLT), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and apamin etc. BV is safe for human treatments dose dependently and proven to possess different healing properties including antibacterial and antiparasitidal properties. Nevertheless, antiviral properties of BV have not well investigated. Hence, we identified the potential antiviral properties of BV and its component against a broad panel of viruses. Co-incubation of non-cytotoxic amounts of BV and MLT, the main component of BV, significantly inhibited the replication of enveloped viruses such as Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885562/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-are-the-key-viral-pathogens-in-children-2%C3%A2-years-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-islamabad-pakistan
#15
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Yasir Arshad, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Asiya Ashraf, Hajra Sadia, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883286/influenza-in-poland-in-2013-and-2013-2014-epidemic-season
#16
Katarzyna Kondratiuk, Mirosław P Czarkowski, Ewelina Hallmann-Szelińska1, Ewa Staszewska, Karolina Bednarska, Ewa Cielebąk, Lidia B Brydak
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of epidemiological situation of influenza in Poland in 2013 and 2013/14 epidemic season in reference to previous years and seasons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis was based on: 1) data collected within influenza routine surveillance system in Poland, including data published in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland” as well as unpublished data gathered in the Department of Epidemiology of the NIPH-NIH; 2) data collected within influenza system - Sentinel, and beyond this system, concerning results of virological tests carried out in 2013/14 epidemic season in the Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza Center in the NIPHNIH and/or laboratories of provincial sanitary and epidemiological stations which are gathered in the National Influenza Center...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874268/a-combination-of-resveratrol-and-quercetin-induces-browning-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-rats-fed-an-obesogenic-diet
#17
Noemí Arias, Catalina Picó, M Teresa Macarulla, Paula Oliver, Jonatan Miranda, Andreu Palou, María P Portillo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether a combination of quercetin (Q) and resveratrol (RSV) would induce a white adipose tissue (WAT) browning effect. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were fed an obesogenic diet and divided into four groups: control, treated with RSV (15 mg/kg body weight/day; RSV group), treated with Q (30 mg/kg body weight/day; Q group), or treated with both polyphenols (RSV + Q group). RESULTS: After 6 weeks, body and WAT weights were significantly reduced in the RSV + Q group...
November 22, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873511/human-coronavirus-in-the-2014-winter-season-as-a-cause-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#18
Kyu Yeun Kim, Song Yi Han, Ho Seong Kim, Hyang Min Cheong, Sung Soon Kim, Dong Soo Kim
PURPOSE: During the late autumn to winter season (October to December) in the Republic of Korea, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Interestingly, in 2014, human coronavirus (HCoV) caused not only upper respiratory infections but also LRTIs more commonly than in other years. Therefore, we sought to determine the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and severity of illnesses associated with HCoV infections at a single center in Korea...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865457/viral-carcinogenesis
#19
A J Smith, L A Smith
Cancer has been recognized for thousands of years. Egyptians believed that cancer occurred at the will of the gods. Hippocrates believed human disease resulted from an imbalance of the four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile with cancer being caused by excess black bile. The lymph theory of cancer replaced the humoral theory and the blastema theory replaced the lymph theory. Rudolph Virchow was the first to recognize that cancer cells like all cells came from other cells and believed chronic irritation caused cancer...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864751/defining-the-risk-and-associated-morbidity-and-mortality-of-severe-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-infants-with-chronic-lung-disease
#20
REVIEW
Bosco Paes, Brigitte Fauroux, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Louis Bont, Paul A Checchia, Eric A F Simões, Paolo Manzoni, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV evidence-a geographical archive of the literature) series provide a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This third publication covers the risk and burden of RSV infection in infants with chronic lung disease (CLD), formerly called bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken of publications between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015 across PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials...
November 18, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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