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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735354/transplantation-sites-for-human-and-murine-islets
#1
Rebecca A Stokes, Kim Cheng, Amit Lalwani, Michael M Swarbrick, Helen E Thomas, Thomas Loudovaris, Tom W Kay, Wayne J Hawthorne, Philip J O'Connell, Jenny E Gunton
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Beta cell replacement is a potential cure for type 1 diabetes. In humans, islet transplants are currently infused into the liver via the portal vein, although this site has disadvantages. Here, we investigated alternative transplantation sites for human and murine islets in recipient mice, comparing the portal vein with quadriceps muscle and kidney, liver and spleen capsules. METHODS: Murine islets were isolated from C57BL6/J mice and transplanted into syngeneic recipients...
July 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734962/analyzing-the-hepatoprotective-effect-of-the-swertia-cincta-burkillextract-against-anit-induced-cholestasis-in-rats-by-modulating-the-expression-of-transporters-and-metabolic-enzymes
#2
Lili Xu, Tingting Sheng, Xiaolong Liu, Tong Zhang, Zhengtao Wang, Han Han
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Swertia cincta Burkill was traditionally used for treating jaundice and various types of chronic and acute hepatitis in Yunnan and Tibet in China for hundreds of years. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of S. cincta Burkill (ESC) extract on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced hepatotoxicity and cholestasis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crude extracts were prepared using 90% ethanol and by vacuum drying...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734130/right-lobe-living-donors-ages-55-and-older-in-liver-transplantation
#3
Seong Hoon Kim, Eung Chang Lee, Jae Ryong Shim, Sang Jae Park
Insufficient is the evidence for safe use of elderly donors in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of right lobe LDLT by donor age (≥55 vs. <55 years). All living donors who underwent right hepatectomy at the authors' institution between March 2008 and December 2015 were divided into 2 groups: group A with an age ≥ 55 and group B with an age < 55. The selection criteria for elderly donor were preservation of middle hepatic vein, remnant liver volume ≥30%, and no or mild fatty liver...
July 22, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733574/metabolomic-characteristics-of-cholesterol-induced-non-obese-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#4
Lan N Tu, Megan R Showalter, Tomas Cajka, Sili Fan, Viju V Pillai, Oliver Fiehn, Vimal Selvaraj
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in non-obese patients remains a clinical condition with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. Using a metabolomics approach in a mouse model that recapitulates almost all the characteristic features of non-obese NAFLD, we aimed to advance mechanistic understanding of this disorder. Mice fed high fat, high cholesterol, cholate (HFHCC) diet for three weeks consistently developed hepatic pathology similar to NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) without changes to body weight or fat pad weights...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733227/captivity-influences-immune-responses-stress-endocrinology-and-organ-size-in-house-sparrows-passer-domesticus
#5
Ashley C Love, Matthew B Lovern, Sarah E DuRant
Studies using wild animals in laboratory-based research require bringing wild-captured organisms into a novel setting, which can have long-lasting impacts on physiology and behavior. In several species, captivity stimulates stress hormone production and can alter immune function. Despite this, there is little consensus on how captivity influences stress hormone regulation, or if captivity-induced changes in stress hormone production and regulation mediate changes in immune function. In this study, we investigate the influence of captivity on the physiology of a wild bird commonly-used in laboratory-based research, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732017/disease-severity-in-patients-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-is-not-altered-by-co-infection-with-intestinal-parasites
#6
Fitsumbrhan Tajebe, Mulusew Getahun, Emebet Adem, Asrat Hailu, Mulualem Lemma, Helina Fikre, John Raynes, Aschalew Tamiru, Zemenay Mulugeta, Ermias Diro, Frederic Toulza, Ziv Shkedy, Tadesse Ayele, Manuel Modolell, Markus Munder, Ingrid Müller, Yegnasew Takele, Pascale Kropf
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that affects the poorest communities and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of Leishmania parasites in the spleen, liver and bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, prolonged fever, systemic inflammation and low body mass index (BMI). The factors impacting on the severity of VL are poorly characterized. Here we performed a cross-sectional study to assess whether co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites influences disease severity, assessed with clinical and haematological data, inflammation, cytokine profiles and BMI...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732003/-diffuse-type-of-gastric-cancer-adenocarcinoma-in-10-years-old-boy-report-of-a-case
#7
Nery Romero, Ingrid Zegarra, Hugo Delgado
We report a rare case of diffuse type of gastric cancer with signet ring cells in 10 years old boy who was admitted with a 12 months history with weight loss, dysphagia to solids first and to liquids later, anorexia, fatigue, dizziness, vomiting and later, with pain in the left upper quadrant. On examination, he appeared pale, malnourished, with café-au- lait spots over the trunk and extremities. Laboratory tests showed; Hb 7.5 g, albumin 2.62 g, Thevenon positive on stools. Abdominal ultrasound examination showed periaortic masses and diffuse space occupying lesions in the liver...
April 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730643/differences-in-gadolinium-retention-after-repeated-injections-of-macrocyclic-mr-contrast-agents-to-rats
#8
Simona Bussi, Alessandra Coppo, Catherine Botteron, Valérie Fraimbault, Antonello Fanizzi, Elisa De Laurentiis, Sonia Colombo Serra, Miles A Kirchin, Fabio Tedoldi, Federico Maisano
PURPOSE: To compare the levels of gadolinium in the blood, cerebrum, cerebellum, liver, femur, kidneys, and skin after multiple exposure of rats to the macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) gadoterate, gadobutrol, and gadoteridol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty male Wistar Han rats were randomized to three exposure groups (n = 15 per group) and one control group (n = 5). Animals in the exposure groups received a total of 20 GBCA administrations (four administrations per week for 5 consecutive weeks) at a dose of 0...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730467/organ-retention-of-gadolinium-in-mother-and-pup-mice-effect-of-pregnancy-and-type-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents
#9
Khongorzul Erdene, Takahito Nakajima, Satomi Kameo, Miski Aghnia Khairinisa, Oyunbold Lamid-Ochir, Amartuvshin Tumenjargal, Noriyuki Koibuchi, Hiroshi Koyama, Yoshito Tsushima
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of pregnancy and type of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) on organ retention of Gd in mother and pup mice after maternal administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gd-DTPA-BMA (gadodiamide) or Gd-DOTA (gadoterate dimeglumine) was administered (2.0 mmol/kg of maternal weight) four times to pregnant Balb/c mice from gestational day 16-19, respectively. At 28 days after birth, they were euthanized and their organs (blood, brain, liver, kidney, spleen, and bone) were removed for the measurement of Gd by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
July 20, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728150/fisher-discrimination-of-metabolic-changes-in-rats-treated-with-aspirin-and-ibuprofen
#10
Jing Zhang, Huanchun Song, Shuying Jiang, Zhibin Chen, Shuhua Tong, Feiyan Lin, Congcong Wen, Xiuhua Zhang, Lufeng Hu
BACKGROUND: Aspirin and ibuprofen are the most frequently prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the world. However, both are associated with a variety of toxicities. We applied serum metabonomics and Fisher discrimination for the early diagnosis of its toxic reaction in order to help diagnose these toxicities. METHODS: A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into Control group, Aspirin group, and Ibuprofen groups. The experiment groups were given intragastric aspirin (15 mg/kg) or ibuprofen (15 mg/kg) for 3 weeks...
July 21, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727072/the-equine-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-insulin-dysregulation
#11
M H Kheder, M N Sillence, L M Bryant, M A de Laat
Metabolic disease is a significant problem that causes a range of species-specific comorbidities. Recently, a better understanding of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) biology has led to the suggestion that inhibiting its action may attenuate obesity in several species. In horses, antagonism of GIP may also reduce hyperinsulinemia, which leads to insulin-associated laminitis, a painful comorbidity unique to this species. However, little is known about GIP in horses. The aims of this study were to examine the tissue distribution of equine GIP receptors (eGIPR), to determine whether eGIPR can be blocked using a GIP antagonist not tested previously in horses, and to establish whether there is any association between GIP concentrations and body mass in this species...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725553/behavioral-physiological-and-morphological-correlates-of-parasite-intensity-in-the-wild-cururu-toad-rhinella-icterica
#12
Eduardo Hermógenes Moretti, Braz Titon, Carla Bonetti Madelaire, Raquel de Arruda, Tatiana Alvarez, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
Large numbers of parasites are found in various organs of anuran amphibians, with parasite intensities thought to modulate the host's Darwinian fitness traits. Interaction between the anuran hosts and their multiple parasites should modulate the host's phenotypic characteristic, such as those associated with high energetic demand (such as calling effort and locomotor performance), energy balance (standard metabolic rate), and morphological plasticity (as indicated by organ masses). The present study investigated the impact of parasite intensities on the behavioral, physiological, and morphological traits of wild adult male Rhinella icterica (Anura: Bufonidae)...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724577/in-situ-expansion-of-engineered-human-liver-tissue-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-liver-disease
#13
Kelly R Stevens, Margaret A Scull, Vyas Ramanan, Chelsea L Fortin, Ritika R Chaturvedi, Kristin A Knouse, Jing W Xiao, Canny Fung, Teodelinda Mirabella, Amanda X Chen, Margaret G McCue, Michael T Yang, Heather E Fleming, Kwanghun Chung, Ype P de Jong, Christopher S Chen, Charles M Rice, Sangeeta N Bhatia
Control of both tissue architecture and scale is a fundamental translational roadblock in tissue engineering. An experimental framework that enables investigation into how architecture and scaling may be coupled is needed. We fabricated a structurally organized engineered tissue unit that expanded in response to regenerative cues after implantation into mice with liver injury. Specifically, we found that tissues containing patterned human primary hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and stromal cells in a degradable hydrogel expanded more than 50-fold over the course of 11 weeks in mice with injured livers...
July 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724284/inter-alpha-inhibitor-h4-as-a-potential-biomarker-predicting-the-treatment-outcomes-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Eun-Jung Lee, Seung-Hyun Yang, Kyoung-Jin Kim, Hyejung Cha, Seo Jin Lee, Ji-Hye Kim, Junkyu Song, Kyung-Hee Chun, Jinsil Seong
Purpose: Early prediction of treatment outcomes represents an essential step towards increased treatment efficacy and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we performed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by protein profiling to identify biomarkers predictive of therapeutic outcomes in patients with HCC who received liver-directed therapy (LDTx) involving local radiotherapy (RT), and studied the underlying mechanisms of the identified proteins...
July 17, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723979/outcome-and-nutritional-assessment-of-chronic-liver-disease-patients-using-anthropometry-and-subjective-global-assessment
#15
Gonçalo Nunes, Carla Adriana Santos, Rita Barosa, Cristina Fonseca, Ana Teresa Barata, Jorge Fonseca
BACKGROUND: Protein-calorie malnutrition is common in chronic liver disease (CLD) but adequate clinical tools for nutritional assessment are not defined. OBJECTIVE: In CLD patients, it was aimed: 1. Characterize protein-calorie malnutrition; 2. Compare several clinical, anthropometric and functional tools; 3. Study the association malnutrition/CLD severity and malnutrition/outcome. METHODS: Observational, prospective study. Consecutive CLD ambulatory/hospitalised patients were recruited from 01-03-2012 to 31-08-2012, studied according with age, gender, etiology, alcohol consumption and CLD severity defined by Child-Turcotte-Pugh...
July 6, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723740/case-report-multiple-systemic-disseminated-tuberculosis-mimicking-lymphoma-on-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#16
Shasha Hou, Jie Shen, Jian Tan
RATIONALE: F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) has an important role in the diagnosis of various malignancies. However, F-18 FDG can also exhibit intense accumulation in tissues in inflammatory conditions such as active tuberculosis (TB) and sarcoidosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 52-year-old female with irritable cough. CT showed a lung mass with multiple bilateral lung nodules, and sarcoidosis was suspected...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723710/controlled-attenuation-parameter-and-mr-spectroscopy-measured-liver-steatosis-are-discordant-in-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-body-mass
#17
Jennifer C Price, Jennifer L Dodge, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Natalie Korn, Kyle Tillinghast, Marion G Peters, Susan Noworolski, Phyllis C Tien
OBJECTIVE: Hepatic steatosis (HS) is common in HIV-infected individuals. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the preferred non-invasive method for HS measurement but is expensive. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) also assesses HS and is conveniently performed concomitantly with transient elastography. We aimed to assess the accuracy of CAP in the setting of HIV infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: CAP and MRS were performed in 82 subjects (39 HIV-monoinfected;7 HCV-monoinfected;21 HIV/HCV-coinfected; 15 with neither infection)...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721347/peliosis-hepatis-complicating-pregnancy-a-rare-entity
#18
Muhammad Osama Butt, Nasir Hassan Luck, Syed Mujahid Hassan, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammed Mubarak
Peliosis hepatis (PH) is a rare, benign condition of the liver characterized by the presence of blood-filled lacunar spaces in the parenchyma. It usually has a chronic presentation and is a rare cause of portal hypertension reported in adult patients. Its etiology is diverse and ranges from infectious agents to tumors to toxic substances and anabolic steroids; however, the cause remains unclear in 25-50% of patients. Similarly, the symptomatology and imaging findings are diverse. Biopsy is the definitive test to diagnose the condition...
June 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720797/commensal-gut-microbiota-immunomodulatory-actions-in-bone-marrow-and-liver-have-catabolic-effects-on-skeletal-homeostasis-in-health
#19
Chad M Novince, Carolyn R Whittow, Johannes D Aartun, Jessica D Hathaway, Nicole Poulides, Michael B Chavez, Heidi M Steinkamp, Kaeleigh A Kirkwood, Emily Huang, Caroline Westwater, Keith L Kirkwood
Despite knowledge the gut microbiota regulates bone mass, mechanisms governing the normal gut microbiota's osteoimmunomodulatory effects on skeletal remodeling and homeostasis are unclear in the healthy adult skeleton. Young adult specific-pathogen-free and germ-free mice were used to delineate the commensal microbiota's immunoregulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, marrow T-cell hematopoiesis, and extra-skeletal endocrine organ function. We report the commensal microbiota has anti-anabolic effects suppressing osteoblastogenesis and pro-catabolic effects enhancing osteoclastogenesis, which drive bone loss in health...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720429/stable-isotope-based-flux-studies-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Arthur McCullough, Stephen Previs, Takhar Kasumov
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is associated with the worldwide epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD ranges from benign fat accumulation in the liver (steatosis) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis which can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy-coupled stable isotope-based flux studies provide new insights into the understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis and the disease progression...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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