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Management of hemoptysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666746/unusual-life-threatening-pneumothorax-complicating-a-ruptured-complex-aspergilloma-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-in-cameroon
#1
Bernadette Ngo Nonga, Bonaventure Jemea, Angele O Pondy, Daniel Handy Eone, Marie Claire Bitchong, Olivier Fola, Atems Nkolaka, Gilles Martin Londji
An aspergilloma is a well-recognized lesion of the lung caused most of the time by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus . Its main complication is hemoptysis and has been very rarely associated with tension pneumothorax. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with a history of treated and healed tuberculosis, which was successfully managed in our service for a ruptured right upper lobe complexed aspergilloma, complicated by a massive and tension pneumothorax. The patient underwent thoracotomy and lung resection with quick recovery...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630082/pulmonary-hydatid-disease-with-aspergillosis-an-unusual-association-in-an-immunocompetent-host
#2
Rahul Chanderhas Goyal, Ruchita Tyagi, Bhavna Garg, Atul Mishra, Neena Sood
Echinococcosis is a common cause of pulmonary cavities. Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprophytic fungus, can colonise pulmonary cavities caused by tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, echinococcosis, bronchiectasis and neoplasms. Infection by Aspergillus is often seen in immunosuppressed cases. However, co-infection of Aspergillus with pulmonary echinococcosis is unexpected and very unusual, especially in an immunocompetent patient. We present the case of a 45-year-old immunocompetent male who came with non-resolving pneumonia and fever for 8 months and dyspnoea since 15 days accompanied by recurrent episodes of hemoptysis since 5 days...
April 9, 2018: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607955/successful-long-term-management-of-two-cases-of-moderate-hemoptysis-due-to-chronic-cavitary-pulmonary-aspergillosis-with-bronchial-occlusion-using-silicone-spigots
#3
Naohiro Oda, Makoto Sakugawa, Shinobu Hosokawa, Nobuaki Fukamatsu, Akihiro Bessho
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a major cause of life-threatening hemoptysis. In symptomatic patients with simple aspergillomas, surgery is the main therapeutic method for preventing or treating life-threatening hemoptysis. However, the risks of both death and complications are higher in chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis than in simple aspergilloma. We herein report two patients with persistent moderate hemoptysis due to chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis who were not indicated for surgery, but were able to undergo successful long-term management with bronchial occlusion using silicone spigots...
March 30, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607415/small-cell-lung-cancer-presenting-as-fatal-pulmonary-hemorrhage
#4
Jun Hyeok Lim, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Sang Yong Cho, Hyun-Jung Kim, Sang Hoon Jeon, Jung Soo Kim, Hae-Seong Nam, Jae Hwa Cho, Seung Min Kwak, Hong Lyeol Lee
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a lung cancer histological subtype unusual in its favorable response to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Life-threatening manifestations at presentation are rarely reported and should be an important clinical concern. We report a case of a 63-year-old man presenting with rapid-onset refractory severe thrombocytopenia, development of massive hemoptysis, and death from respiratory failure. This case provides clinicians a reference for this unusual presentation and carries clinical implications for managing SCLC patients...
2018: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594190/complex-pulmonary-aspergilloma-surgical-challenges-in-a-third-world-setting
#5
Bernadette Ngo Nonga, Guy Aristide Bang, Bonaventure Jemea, Eric Savom, Perfura Yone, Ngahane Mbatchou, Jean Jacques Ze
Background: Surgery for pulmonary aspergilloma (PA), especially complex forms, is greatly challenging in a resource-poor setting such as Cameroon. We report our experience of surgical management of PA in this environment. Method: We prospectively assessed patients who underwent surgery for PA from January 2012 to May 2015, at the University Hospital Center of Yaoundé. Records were reviewed for demographics, history and physical examinations, radiological findings, surgical procedures, and outcomes...
2018: Surgery Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552943/pulmonary-artery-pseudoaneurysm-in-hyper-ige-syndrome-rare-complication-with-successful-endovascular-management
#6
Arun Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar, Priya Jagia
Hyper-IgE syndrome also known as Job syndrome is characterized by elevation of circulating immunoglobulin (IgE) levels and is usually associated with recurrent bacterial infections of the skin and sinopulmonary tract. Though bacterial pulmonary abscess and pneumatocele formation have been described, pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm in Job syndrome has not been reported in literature. Our report describes a case of large pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm in a child with Job syndrome, who presented with massive hemoptysis...
January 1, 2018: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543640/anesthesia-for-percutaneous-pulmonary-valve-implantation-a-case-series
#7
Rafael Arboleda Salazar, Jane Heggie, Piotr Wolski, Eric Horlick, Mark Osten, Massimiliano Meineri
BACKGROUND: Twenty percent of patients born with congenital heart disease present with right ventricular outflow tract abnormalities. These patients require multiple surgical procedures in their lifetime. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) has become a viable alternative to conventional pulmonary valve and right ventricular outflow tract surgery in pediatric and adult populations. In this retrospective review, we analyze the perioperative management of adult patients who underwent TPVR in our center...
March 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528824/an-interventionalist-s-guide-to-hemoptysis-in-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Eric J Monroe, David B Pierce, Christopher R Ingraham, Guy E Johnson, Giridhar M Shivaram, Karim Valji
Massive hemoptysis occurs in a minority of patients with cystic fibrosis, with an annual incidence of 1%. Although rare, massive hemoptysis can be a severe and potentially fatal complication of this disease. Beyond the acute life-threatening event, hemoptysis in patients with cystic fibrosis has been associated with faster decline in lung function, accelerated need for lung transplant, and increased mortality. The bronchial arteries are the culprit vessels in over 90% of cases of hemoptysis. This normally quiescent vascular system undergoes remarkable hypertrophy, collateralization, and angiogenesis before the onset of hemoptysis, introducing numerous pitfalls for the interventionalist...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513890/massive-hemoptysis-successfully-treated-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-and-endobronchial-thrombolysis
#9
Antônio Aurélio de Paiva Fagundes Júnior, Renato Bueno Chaves, Amanda Robassini Dos Santos, Humberto Alves de Oliveira, Marcello Henrique Paschoal
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used to treat refractory hypoxemia in numerous clinical scenarios. The fundamental principles for the management of massive hemoptysis patients include protecting the airway and healthy lung, locating the source of bleeding and controlling the hemorrhage. We report the case of a patient with acute respiratory failure associated with massive hemoptysis secondary to lung laceration during cardiac surgery. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation allowed patient survival...
March 1, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505649/endobronchial-lesions-in-patients-presenting-with-hemoptysis
#10
Amik Sodhi, Dipen Kadaria, April Practice McDonald, Adnan Khan, Krishna Gannamraj, Muthiah Muthiah
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of endobronchial lesions in patients presenting with hemoptysis. We also aimed to characterize features that would predict whether bronchoscopy would be useful. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 185 consecutive patients who presented with hemoptysis from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015 at Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare-affiliated hospitals in Memphis, Tennessee. Data collection included demographic information, description of hemoptysis, imaging results, bronchoscopy results, and the final diagnosis...
March 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477622/safety-and-efficacy-of-repeat-embolization-for-recurrent-hemoptysis-a-16-year-retrospective-study-including-223-patients
#11
Geert Maleux, Tom Matton, Annouschka Laenen, Lawrence Bonne, Sandra Cornelissen, Lieven Dupont
PURPOSE: To assess safety, efficacy, and long-term outcome of repeat bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for recurrent hemoptysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients referred for repeat BAE to manage recurrent hemoptysis after initial successful embolization. BAE was performed in 223 patients; 36 (16.1%) of these patients underwent 59 repeat BAE procedures because of recurring symptoms. The most frequent underlying lung diseases were bronchiectasis (n = 8; 22%), cystic fibrosis (n = 7; 19%), and idiopathic hemoptysis (n = 7; 19%)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465600/a-novel-endobronchial-approach-to-massive-hemoptysis-complicating-silicone-y-stent-placement-for-tracheobronchomalacia-a-case-report
#12
Changwan Ryu, Daniel Boffa, Kyle Bramley, Margaret Pisani, Jonathan Puchalski
RATIONALE: Airway stabilization for severe, symptomatic tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) may be accomplished by silicone Y-stent placement. Common complications of the Y-stent include mucus plugging and granulation tissue formation. PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe a rare case of massive hemoptysis originating from a silicone Y-stent placed for TBM. DIAGNOSES: An emergent bronchoscopy showed an actively bleeding, pulsatile vessel at the distal end of the left bronchial limb of the Y-stent...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465555/two-cases-of-dieulafoy-lesions-of-the-bronchus-with-novel-comorbid-associations-and-endobronchial-ablative-management
#13
Hardik S Sheth, Fabien Maldonado, Robert J Lentz
RATIONALE: Dieulafoy lesions are aberrantly large submucosal arteries most frequently associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. They are rarely identified in the bronchial submucosa and can cause massive hemoptysis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present three episodes of massive hemoptysis in two patients, the first with comorbid Alagille syndrome including multiple cardiac and pulmonary vascular abnormalities and the second with thyroid cancer metastatic to the mediastinum...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431404/hoarseness-in-adults
#14
Steven A House, Eric L Fisher
Hoarseness is a common presentation in primary care practices. Combined with other voice-related changes, it falls under the umbrella diagnosis of dysphonia. Hoarseness has a number of causes, ranging from simple inflammatory processes to less common psychiatric disorders to more serious systemic, neurologic, or cancerous conditions. Medication-induced hoarseness is common and should be considered. The initial evaluation begins with a targeted history and physical examination, while also looking for signs of potential systemic etiologies...
December 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369193/fibrosing-mediastinitis-with-pulmonary-hypertension-as-a-complication-of-pulmonary-vein-stenosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Yidan Li, Xiangli Meng, Yidan Wang, Yuanhua Yang, Xiuzhang Lu
INTRODUCTION: Fibrosingmediastinitis (FM) is caused by a proliferation of fibrous tissue in the mediastinum encasing the mediastinal viscera that results in compression of mediastinal bronchovascular structures. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe complication of FM caused by extrinsic compression of pulmonary blood vessels. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with a 10-year history of progressive hemoptysis and a 2-year history of shortness of breath, in whom a diagnosis of FM was made...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357402/sudden-death-from-cardiopulmonary-arrest-on-arrival-of-a-patient-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-case-diagnosed-by-postmortem-ct-and-autopsy
#16
Daizo Yaguchi, Motoshi Ichikawa, Noriko Inoue, Daisuke Kobayashi, Masato Shizu, Naoyuki Imai, Kazuko Watanabe
Sudden death due to massive hemoptysis during management of tuberculosis occurs in a considerable number of patients. However, when massive airway hemorrhage occurs in a patient in whom tuberculosis has not been confirmed and a blood is not apparent externally on the face/body, it is difficult to immediately identify the cause of death as airway obstruction by tuberculous bleeding in the airway. We encountered an 83-year-old Japanese woman with her medical history included treatment of tuberculosis in her 20s who was in cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival (CPAOA), and the cause of sudden death could not initially be identified...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351111/novel-bronchoscopic-management-of-airway-bleeding-with-absorbable-gelatin-and-thrombin-slurry
#17
A Rolando Peralta, Mohit Chawla, Robert P Lee
BACKGROUND: Airway bleeding, either spontaneous or as a result of bronchoscopy, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple bronchoscopic techniques are available to achieve complete hemostasis or as a bridge to definitive therapies. METHODS: We report our experience on the feasibility of endobronchial instillation of an absorbable gelatin and thrombin slurry (GTS) for the treatment of spontaneous hemoptysis and procedure-related bleeding. RESULTS: We identified 13 cases in which GTS was used for endobronchial hemostasis when standard bronchoscopic measures like cold saline, epinephrine, and in some cases balloon occlusion were not successful...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313654/lung-cancer-clinical-presentation-and-diagnosis
#18
REVIEW
Kelly M Latimer
In the absence of screening, most patients with lung cancer are not diagnosed until later stages, when the prognosis is poor. The most common symptoms are cough and dyspnea, but the most specific symptom is hemoptysis. Digital clubbing, though rare, is highly predictive of lung cancer. Symptoms can be caused by the local tumor, intrathoracic spread, distant metastases, or paraneoplastic syndromes. Clinicians should suspect lung cancer in symptomatic patients with risk factors. The initial study should be chest x-ray, but if results are negative and suspicion remains, the clinician should obtain a computed tomography scan with contrast...
January 2018: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312703/isolated-unilateral-absence-of-pulmonary-artery-in-adulthood-a-clinical-analysis-of-65-cases-from-a-case-series-and-systematic-review
#19
Ping Wang, Ling Yuan, Juhong Shi, Zuojun Xu
Background: Isolated unilateral absence of pulmonary artery (UAPA) in adulthood is a rare congenital anomaly. Although some case reports exist, the clinical symptomatology, lung parenchymal features, collateral circulation and therapeutic approaches in adult patients with isolated UAPA remain unknown. The objectives of this study are to investigate the clinical characteristics, elucidate the correlation between clinical symptomatology and radiology, and summarize treatment of adult patients with isolated UAPA...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240016/drainage-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-blood-pressure-augmentation-as-rescue-therapies-for-ischemic-myelitis-after-bronchial-embolization-a-case-report
#20
Pierre-Alexis Lépine, Jean-François Naud, Philippe Boisvert
A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department with massive hemoptysis. After bronchial artery embolization, he developed ischemic myelitis, a rare complication in this setting for which no specific therapy is currently recommended. The symptoms were managed with lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid and blood pressure augmentation therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid and blood pressure augmentation in the treatment of anterior medullary ischemia after bronchial artery embolization for massive hemoptysis...
December 11, 2017: A & A Case Reports
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