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HIV Modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811600/exploring-leishmania-secretory-proteins-to-design-b-and-t-cell-multi-epitope-subunit-vaccine-using-immunoinformatics-approach
#1
Nazia Khatoon, Rajan Kumar Pandey, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal form of leishmaniasis which affects 70 countries, worldwide. Increasing drug resistance, HIV co-infection, and poor health system require operative vaccination strategy to control the VL transmission dynamics. Therefore, a holistic approach is needed to generate T and B memory cells to mediate long-term immunity against VL infection. Consequently, immunoinformatics approach was applied to design Leishmania secretory protein based multi-epitope subunit vaccine construct consisting of B and T cell epitopes...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811349/brain-macrophages-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-antiretroviral-suppressed-macaques-a-functional-latent-reservoir
#2
Claudia R Avalos, Celina M Abreu, Suzanne E Queen, Ming Li, Sarah Price, Erin N Shirk, Elizabeth L Engle, Ellen Forsyth, Brandon T Bullock, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Ashley T Haase, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements, Lucio Gama
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811073/quality-of-life-of-people-living-with-hiv-compared-with-that-of-the-general-population-in-japan
#3
Shinichi Hikasa, Shota Shimabukuro, Kyoko Hideta, Norihiro Kuroda, Satoshi Higasa, Akihiro Sawada, Tazuko Tokugawa, Asuka Ikegami, Asuna Kotani, Takeshi Kimura
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of people living with HIV (PLWH) in Japan. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted between June and December 2016 on PLWH. HRQOL was assessed using the Japanese version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and the three-component model of SF-36 scores was used. The values from the present study were compared with the published general Japanese values. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the independent factors associated with the HRQOL of PLWH...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810840/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-in-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-western-sub-district-of-the-cape-metropole-region-south-africa-a-combined-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#4
Lauren Philips, Janicke Visser, Daan Nel, Renée Blaauw
BACKGROUND: The existence of a bi-directional relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and insulin resistance (IR)/diabetes has been alluded to in literature. Although diabetes has been linked to increased tuberculosis risk, the relationship between tuberculosis as a causative factor for IR remains unclear. The study aimed to determine if an association existed between tuberculosis and IR development in adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis at baseline. It was additionally aimed to document changes in IR status during TB follow-up periods...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810826/improving-fold-resistance-prediction-of-hiv-1-against-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-using-artificial-neural-networks
#5
Olivier Sheik Amamuddy, Nigel T Bishop, Özlem Tastan Bishop
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in HIV treatment is still a worldwide problem. Predicting resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) before starting any treatment is important. Prediction accuracy is essential, as low-accuracy predictions increase the risk of prescribing sub-optimal drug regimens leading to patients developing resistance sooner. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a powerful tool that would be able to assist in drug resistance prediction. In this study, we constrained the dataset to subtype B, sacrificing generalizability for a higher predictive performance, and demonstrated that the predictive quality of the ANN regression models have definite improvement for most ARVs...
August 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810475/hiv-symptom-management-self-efficacy-mediates-the-relationship-of-internalized-stigma-and-quality-of-life-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-china
#6
Guangyu Zhou, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Zhiyong Shen, Yuejiao Zhou
HIV-related stigma negatively influences quality of life among people living with HIV. Little is known about psychological protective factors that mitigate negative impacts. This study aims to examine the role of self-efficacy in reducing effects of stigma on quality of life. A total of 2987 people living with HIV (age: M = 42.46 years, SD = 12.83; time since diagnosis: M = 3.23 years, SD = 2.39) provided data on internalized stigma, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life, as well as covariates...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810461/a-journey-to-hiv-prevention-research-from-social-psychology-to-social-health-via-multidisciplinarity
#7
Susan Kippax
This article is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention and how and why I navigated my way from social psychology to 'social health' via multidisciplinarity. My work in HIV prevention - from 1984 to the present day - developed my understandings of epistemology, building on and expanding the ways in which I undertook research. This article describes those whose writings and research influenced me and the input of colleagues and students. It also demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810460/exploring-our-understanding-of-fatigue-among-adolescents-living-with-hiv-highlighting-the-unknown
#8
Maria Elizabeth Loades, Ashraf Kagee
Due to antiretroviral therapies, HIV is now a chronic illness rather than a terminal disease. Chronic symptoms, including fatigue, should be identified and managed to prevent or minimise their potential negative consequences. We apply a Symptom Management Model to conceptualise fatigue among adolescents with HIV. In the context of minimal research, we seek to identify a research agenda for resource-constrained contexts, where HIV prevalence remains high and treatment adherence is a significant problem. By better understanding and addressing the symptom of fatigue, treatment adherence, occupational, social and emotional functioning could be improved...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810166/humanized-mouse-models-of-latent-hiv-infection
#9
REVIEW
Maud Deruaz, Andrew M Tager
Antiretroviral therapy can efficiently control HIV viral replication, resulting in low viral loads and sustained CD4(+) T cell counts in HIV-infected persons. However, fast viral rebound occurs in most infected persons when therapy is interrupted. The principal component of persistent infection is a latent but replication-competent HIV reservoir. The long half-life of this reservoir is a major barrier to cure, and its elimination is the target of important research efforts. Animal models that can recapitulate this aspect of human infection are needed to examine the HIV reservoir in tissues in vivo, and to test eradication strategies...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809773/a-macaque-model-for-rectal-lymphogranuloma-venereum-and-non-lymphogranuloma-venereum-chlamydia-trachomatis-impact-on-rectal-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquisition
#10
Sundaram Ajay Vishwanathan, Rachael D Aubert, Monica R Morris, Chunxia Zhao, Christi Philips, George M Khalil, Frank Deyounks, Kristen Kelley, Jana M Ritter, C Y Chen, Ellen N Kersh, Janet M McNicholl
BACKGROUND: Sustained genital tract inflammation caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is known to increase risk of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections but, to our knowledge, there are no nonhuman primate studies that have evaluated its link to rectal HIV acquisition. METHODS: Rhesus macaques inoculated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (serovars LGV-L2 and CT-E; n = 7) or saline (n = 7) received up to 20 rectal challenges twice a week of simian/HIV immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162p3)...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809771/efficacy-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-sexually-transmitted-infection-trial-on-condom-use-among-heterosexual-men-patronizing-entertainment-establishments-who-engaged-in-casual-or-paid-sex-in-singapore
#11
Raymond Boon Tar Lim, Dede Kam Tyng Tham, Bee Choo Tai, P Ganesan Adaikan, Mee Lian Wong
BACKGROUND: We assessed the efficacy of a multi-component sexual health promotion program on condom use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing among heterosexual men (HSM) patronizing entertainment establishments who engaged in casual or paid sex in Singapore. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental trial with a comparison group using cross-sectional surveys at baseline and 6 months postintervention. A locality patronized by local HSM was assigned the intervention, a comparable and distant area served as the comparison site...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809439/in-silico-profiling-of-the-biological-activities-of-amaryllidaceae-alkaloids
#12
Eman Shawky
OBJECTIVES: The large number of publications about Amaryllidaceae alkaloids reflects the abundance and variety in biological activity of these alkaloids. An in-silico approach was implemented in this work to rationalize the individual alkaloids to molecular biological activity. METHODS: A database was generated containing 313 Amaryllidaceae alkaloids which were then subjected to in-silico-validated structure-based virtual screening using extra precision (XP) approach of Glide docking program...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808731/biomacromolecules-as-tools-and-objects-in-nanometrology-current-challenges-and-perspectives
#13
Payam Hashemi, Luise Luckau, Petra Mischnick, Sarah Schmidt, Rainer Stosch, Bettina Wünsch
Nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides are the most important classes of biopolymers. The inherent properties of biomacromolecules are contrary to those of well-defined small molecules consequently raising a number of specific challenges which become particularly apparent if biomacromolecules are treated as objects in quantitative analysis. At the same time, their specific functional ability of molecular recognition and self-organization (e.g., enzymes, antibodies, DNA) enables us to make biomacromolecules serving as molecular tools in biochemistry and molecular biology, or as precisely controllable dimensional platforms for nanometrological applications...
August 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807890/vulnerable-youth-as-prosumers-in-hiv-prevention-studies-using-participatory-action-research
#14
Cath Conn, Shoba Nayar, Dinar Lubis, Carol Maibvisira, Kristel Modderman
BACKGROUND: Stigma, voicelessness, and legislative and rights barriers, coupled with top-down decision making, are the common experiences of vulnerable youth populations that limit their opportunities to participate in vital health promotion efforts such as HIV prevention. OBJECTIVE: To consider new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention. METHODS: Drawing on research with vulnerable youth in Busoga, Uganda; Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; Bangkok, Thailand; and Bali, Indonesia, we explore current youth participation, in theory and practice, while considering new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention...
August 14, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807740/outcomes-of-hiv-positive-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-the-americas
#15
B Crabtree Ramírez, Y Caro Vega, B E Shepherd, C Le, M Turner, C Frola, B Grinsztejn, C Cortes, D Padgett, T R Sterling, C C McGowan, A Person
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is associated with substantial mortality in HIV-infected patients. Optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons with CM represents a clinical challenge, and the burden of CM in Latin America has not been well described. Studies suggest that early ART initiation is associated with higher mortality, but data from the Americas are scarce. METHODS: HIV-infected adults in care between 1985-2014 at participating sites in the Latin America (the Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet)) and the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (VCCC) and who had CM were included...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807605/adjuvant-hpv-vaccination-for-anal-cancer-prevention-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-time-is-now
#16
Ashish A Deshmukh, Scott B Cantor, Elisabeth Fenwick, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Alan G Nyitray, Elizabeth A Stier, Stephen E Goldstone, Timothy Wilkin, Jagpreet Chhatwal
IMPORTANCE: Outcomes of treating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), a precursor to anal cancer, remain uncertain. Emerging evidence shows that post HSIL treatment adjuvant quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccination improves the effectiveness of treatment. However, no recommendations exist regarding the use of qHPV vaccine as an adjuvant form of therapy. Our objective was to determine whether post-treatment adjuvant vaccination should be adopted in HIV-infected MSM (individuals at highest risk for anal cancer) on the basis of cost-effectiveness determined using existing evidence or whether future research is needed...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807188/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-mortality-in-children-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#17
Peter J Dodd, Courtney M Yuen, Charalambos Sismanidis, James A Seddon, Helen E Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis in children is increasingly recognised as an important component of the global tuberculosis burden, with an estimated 1 million cases in 2015. Although younger children are vulnerable to severe forms of tuberculosis disease, no age-disaggregated estimates of paediatric tuberculosis mortality exist, and tuberculosis has never been included in official estimates of under-5 child mortality. We aimed to produce a global mortality burden estimate in children using a complementary approach not dependent on vital registration data...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806197/frailty-is-strongly-associated-with-increased-risk-of-recurrent-falls-among-older-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Katherine Tassiopoulos, Mona Abdo, Kunling Wu, Susan L Koletar, Frank J Palella, Robert Kalayjian, Babafemi Taiwo, Kristine M Erlandson
OBJECTIVE: Both frailty and falls occur at earlier than expected ages among HIV-infected individuals, but the contribution of frailty to fall risk in this population is not well understood. We examined this association among participants enrolled in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5322. DESIGN: A prospective, multi-center cohort study of HIV-infected men and women ≥40 years. METHODS: Frailty assessment included a 4-meter walk, grip strength, and self-reported weight loss, exhaustion, and low physical activity...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806196/the-costs-of-hiv-treatment-and-care-in-ghana-a-longitudinal-multi-site-analysis
#19
Evelinn Mikkelsen, Jan Hontelez, Justice Nonvignon, Sam Amon, Felix A Asante, Moses K Aikins, Julie van de Haterd, Rob Baltussen
OBJECTIVE: To determine cost-functions that describe the dynamics of costs of HIV treatment and care in Ghana by CD4 cell count at treatment initiation and over time on antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: We used detailed longitudinal healthcare utilization data from clinical health records of HIV-infected patients at seven Ghanaian ART clinics to estimate cost-functions of treatment and care by CD4 cell count at treatment initiation and time on ART. METHODS: We developed two linear regression models; one with individual random effects to determine the relationship between CD4 cell count at ART initiation and costs of treatment and care, and one with individual fixed effects to determine the causal effect of time in care on costs of treatment and care...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805676/inhibitors-of-deubiquitinating-enzymes-block-hiv-1-replication-and-augment-the-presentation-of-gag-derived-mhc-i-epitopes
#20
Christian Setz, Melanie Friedrich, Pia Rauch, Kirsten Fraedrich, Alina Matthaei, Maximilian Traxdorf, Ulrich Schubert
In recent years it has been well established that two major constituent parts of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS)-the proteasome holoenzymes and a number of ubiquitin ligases-play a crucial role, not only in virus replication but also in the regulation of the immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, the role in HIV-1 replication of the third major component, the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), has remained largely unknown. In this study, we show that the DUB-inhibitors (DIs) P22077 and PR-619, specific for the DUBs USP7 and USP47, impair Gag processing and thereby reduce the infectivity of released virions without affecting viral protease activity...
August 12, 2017: Viruses
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