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HIV Modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092934/visceral-leishmaniasis-treatment-outcome-and-its-determinants-in-northwest-ethiopia
#1
Berihun Assefa Dachew, Getachew Mebrahtu Welay, Kefyalew Addis Alene
Background: Poor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are responsible for a high mortality rate in resource limited setting like Ethiopia. This study aimed at evaluating the magnitude and identifying determinants of poor VL treatment outcome in Kahsay Abera Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital based retrospective follow up study was conducted among 595 VL patients who were admitted to Kahsay Abera Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia from October 2010 to April 2013...
December 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092646/ex-vivo-nonviral-gene-delivery-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-to-attenuate-cancer-induced-pain
#2
Seiichi Yamano, Chi T Viet, Dongmin Dang, Jisen Dai, Shigeru Hanatani, Tadahiro Takayama, Hironori Kasai, Kentaro Imamura, Ron Campbell, Yi Ye, John C Dolan, William Myung Kwon, Stefan D Schneider, Brian L Schmidt
Virus-mediated gene delivery shows promise for the treatment of chronic pain. However, viral vectors have cytotoxicity. To avoid toxicities and limitations of virus-mediated gene delivery, we developed a novel nonviral hybrid vector: HIV-1 Tat peptide sequence modified with histidine and cysteine residues combined with a cationic lipid. The vector has high transfection efficiency with little cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines including HSC-3 (human tongue squamous cell carcinoma) and exhibits differential expression in HSC-3 (∼45-fold) relative to HGF-1 (human gingival fibroblasts) cells...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092450/preintervention-profiles-of-information-motivational-and-behavioral-self-efficacy-for-methamphetamine-use-and-hiv-medication-adherence-among-gay-and-bisexual-men
#3
Tyrel J Starks, Brett M Millar, Jonathan M Lassiter, Jeffrey T Parsons
Although rates of crystal methamphetamine use in the United States have fallen from their peak in the mid-2000s, use remains a major public health concern, which disproportionately affects gay and bisexual men (GBM). It poses a particular challenge for HIV-positive men, for whom it has been linked to medication adherence problems as well as compromised immune function. Although the information, motivation, and behavioral skills (IMB) model has been widely used to conceptualize health behavior, little is known about GBM's initial levels of information, motivation, and behavioral self-efficacy to improve HIV medication adherence and to reduce crystal methamphetamine use at the outset of treatment...
January 16, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091336/who-are-the-patients-that-default-tuberculosis-treatment-space-matters
#4
C Nunes, R Duarte, A M Veiga, B Taylor
The goals of this article are: (i) to understand how individual characteristics affect the likelihood of patients defaulting their pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment regimens; (ii) to quantify the predictive capacity of these risk factors; and (iii) to quantify and map spatial variation in the risk of defaulting. We used logistic regression models and generalized additive models with a spatial component to determine the odds of default across continental Portugal. We focused on new PTB cases, diagnosed between 2000 and 2013, and included some individual information (sex, age, residence area, alcohol abuse, intravenous drug use, homelessness, HIV, imprisonment status)...
January 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090819/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-rates-with-pyrimethamine-based-therapy-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Mark P Connolly, Elizabeth Goodwin, Carina Schey, Jacqueline Zummo
Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection and can be a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. This study evaluated the rate of relapse associated with pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy (i.e. secondary prophylaxis) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDs treated prior to and after the common use (i.e. 1996) of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (pre-HAART and post-HAART, respectively). PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched to 6 June 2016 using search terms: pyrimethamine, Daraprim, Fansidar, Metakelfin, Fansimef, 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-2,4-pyrimidinediamine, encephalitis, cerebral, toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmic, and gondii...
January 16, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088237/association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Johannes G M Burgerhof
INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a challenge to global tuberculosis (TB) control and remains a major public health concern in many countries. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasingly recognized comorbidity that can both accelerate TB disease and complicate its treatment. The aim of this study is to summarize available evidence on the association of DM and MDR-TB among TB patients and to provide a pooled estimate of risks. METHODS: All studies published in English before October 2016 will be searched using comprehensive search strings through PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and WHO Global Health Library databases which have reported the association of DM and MDR-TB in adults with TB (age > =15)...
January 14, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087240/lactobacillus-deficient-cervicovaginal-bacterial-communities-are-associated-with-increased-hiv-acquisition-in-young-south-african-women
#7
Christina Gosmann, Melis N Anahtar, Scott A Handley, Mara Farcasanu, Galeb Abu-Ali, Brittany A Bowman, Nikita Padavattan, Chandni Desai, Lindsay Droit, Amber Moodley, Mary Dong, Yuezhou Chen, Nasreen Ismail, Thumbi Ndung'u, Musie S Ghebremichael, Duane R Wesemann, Caroline Mitchell, Krista L Dong, Curtis Huttenhower, Bruce D Walker, Herbert W Virgin, Douglas S Kwon
Elevated inflammation in the female genital tract is associated with increased HIV risk. Cervicovaginal bacteria modulate genital inflammation; however, their role in HIV susceptibility has not been elucidated. In a prospective cohort of young, healthy South African women, we found that individuals with diverse genital bacterial communities dominated by anaerobes other than Gardnerella were at over 4-fold higher risk of acquiring HIV and had increased numbers of activated mucosal CD4(+) T cells compared to those with Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant communities...
January 9, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086908/hiv-integration-sites-in-latently-infected-cell-lines-evidence-of-ongoing-replication
#8
Jori Symons, Abha Chopra, Eva Malantinkova, Ward De Spiegelaere, Shay Leary, Don Cooper, Chike O Abana, Ajantha Rhodes, Simin D Rezaei, Linos Vandekerckhove, Simon Mallal, Sharon R Lewin, Paul U Cameron
BACKGROUND: Assessing the location and frequency of HIV integration sites in latently infected cells can potentially inform our understanding of how HIV persists during combination antiretroviral therapy. We developed a novel high throughput sequencing method to evaluate HIV integration sites in latently infected cell lines to determine whether there was virus replication or clonal expansion in these cell lines observed as multiple integration events at the same position. RESULTS: We modified a previously reported method using random DNA shearing and PCR to allow for high throughput robotic processing to identify the site and frequency of HIV integration in latently infected cell lines...
January 13, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081037/higher-cd163-levels-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-and-hiv-infected-adults
#9
Michael Reid, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Jennifer C Price, Audrey L French, Michael W Plankey, Carl Grunfeld, Phyllis C Tien
OBJECTIVES: HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is associated with insulin resistance, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that intestinal epithelial damage and the consequent monocyte/macrophage activation and inflammation explain this perturbation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 519 adults (220 HIV+/HCV-; 64 HIV-/HCV+; 89 HIV+/HCV+; 146 HIV-/HCV-). METHODS: We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations of HIV and HCV with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and if intestinal fatty (FA) acid binding protein (I-FABP, a marker of gut epithelial integrity), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and soluble CD163 (sCD163) (markers of monocyte/macrophage activation), and IL-6 (an inflammatory cytokine) mediated this association...
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079918/dose-evaluation-of-lamivudine-in-hiv-infected-children-aged-5%C3%A2-months-18%C3%A2-years-based-on-a-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis
#10
Esther J H Janssen, Diane E T Bastiaans, Pyry A J Välitalo, Annemarie M C van Rossum, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain, Hermione Lyall, Catherijne A J Knibbe, David M Burger
AIM: The objectives of this study were to characterise age-related changes in lamivudine pharmacokinetics in children and evaluate lamivudine exposure, followed by dose recommendations for subgroups in which target steady state AUC0-24h is not reached. METHODS: Population pharmacokinetic modelling was performed in NONMEM using data from two model building datasets and two external datasets (n = 180 (age 0.4-18 years, bodyweight 3.4-60.5 kg); 2,061 samples (median 12 per child); daily oral dose 60-300 mg (3...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079818/factors-associated-with-syphilis-incidence-in-the-hiv-infected-in-the-era-of-highly-active-antiretrovirals
#11
Mohaned Shilaih, Alex Marzel, Dominique L Braun, Alexandra U Scherrer, Helen Kovari, Jim Young, Alexandra Calmy, Katharine Darling, Manuel Battegay, Matthias Hoffmann, Enos Bernasconi, Maria C Thurnheer, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger D Kouyos
After several years of steady decline, syphilis is reemerging globally as a public health hazard, especially among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Syphilis resurgence is observed mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM), yet other transmission groups are affected too. In this manuscript, we study the factors associated with syphilis incidence in the Swiss HIV cohort study in the era of highly effective antiretrovirals. Using parametric interval censored models with fixed and time-varying covariates, we studied the immunological, behavioral, and treatment-related elements associated with syphilis incidence in 3 transmission groups: MSM, heterosexuals, and intravenous drug users...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079723/toward-automating-hiv-identification-machine-learning-for-rapid-identification-of-hiv-related-social-media-data
#12
Sean D Young, Wenchao Yu, Wei Wang
INTRODUCTION: "Social big data" from technologies such as social media, wearable devices, and online searches continue to grow and can be used as tools for HIV research. Although researchers can uncover patterns and insights associated with HIV trends and transmission, the review process is time consuming and resource intensive. Machine learning methods derived from computer science might be used to assist HIV domain experts by learning how to rapidly and accurately identify patterns associated with HIV from a large set of social data...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079718/longitudinal-hiv-care-trajectories-in-north-carolina
#13
Kimberly A Powers, Erika Samoff, Mark A Weaver, Lynne A Sampson, William C Miller, Peter A Leone, Heidi Swygard
BACKGROUND: Long-term HIV care and treatment engagement is required for maximal clinical and prevention benefits, but longitudinal care patterns are poorly understood. We used the last 10 years' worth of HIV surveillance data from North Carolina to describe longitudinal HIV care trajectories from diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of all persons newly diagnosed with HIV in North Carolina between March 31, 2006 and March 31, 2015 (N = 16,207)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079645/the-role-of-patient-navigators-in-building-a-medical-home-for-multiply-diagnosed-hiv-positive-homeless-populations
#14
Mariana Sarango, Alexander de Groot, Melissa Hirschi, Chukwuemeka Anthony Umeh, Serena Rajabiun
CONTEXT: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) who are most at risk for falling out of HIV primary care and detectable viral loads include homeless and unstably housed individuals and those codiagnosed with behavioral health disorders. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a model that promotes provision of comprehensive, patient-centered, accessible, coordinated, and quality care for patients. This initiative provided patient navigation to HIV-positive homeless and unstably housed individuals codiagnosed with a mental health or substance use disorder as a means to create an adapted PCMH to meet the specific needs of this population...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077589/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-during-live-malaria-sporozoite-immunization-induces-long-lived-homologous-and-heterologous-protective-immunity-against-sporozoite-challenge
#15
Charlotte V Hobbs, Charles Anderson, Jillian Neal, Tejram Sahu, Solomon Conteh, Tatiana Voza, Jean Langhorne, William Borkowsky, Patrick E Duffy
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Despite the known effects that TMP-SMX has in reducing clinical malaria, its impact on development of malaria-specific immunity in these children remains poorly understood. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that TMP-SMX, at prophylactic doses, can arrest liver stage development of malaria parasites and speculated that TMP-SMX prophylaxis during repeated malaria exposures would induce protective long-lived sterile immunity targeting pre-erythrocytic stage parasites in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076974/topological-organization-of-whole-brain-white-matter-in-hiv-infection
#16
Laurie M Baker, Sarah Cooley, Ryan P Cabeen, David H Laidlaw, John A Joska, Jacqueline Hoare, Dan J Stein, Jodi Heaps-Woodruff, Lauren E Salminen, Robert H Paul
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with neuroimaging alterations. However, little is known about the topological organization of whole-brain networks and the corresponding association with cognition. As such, we examined structural whole-brain white matter connectivity patterns and cognitive performance in 29 HIV+ young adults (mean age = 25.9) with limited or no HIV treatment history. HIV+ participants and demographically similar HIV- controls (n = 16) residing in South Africa underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing...
January 11, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074940/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-is-required-for-amyloid-pathology-in-brain-endothelial-cells-induced-by-glycoprotein-120-methamphetamine-and-nicotine
#17
Liqun Liu, Jingyi Yu, Li Li, Bao Zhang, Lingjuan Liu, Chun-Hua Wu, Ambrose Jong, Ding-An Mao, Sheng-He Huang
One of the most challenging issues in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) caused by HIV-1 virotoxins and drug abuse is the lack of understanding the underlying mechanisms that are commonly associated with disorders of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which mainly consists of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Here, we hypothesized that Glycoprotein 120 (gp120), methamphetamine (METH) and nicotine (NT) can enhance amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation in BMEC through Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070923/the-cascade-of-hiv-care-among-refugees-and-nationals-in-nakivale-refugee-settlement-in-uganda
#18
K N O'Laughlin, J Kasozi, D J Rabideau, R A Parker, E Mulogo, Z M Faustin, K E Greenwald, S Doraiswamy, R P Walensky, I V Bassett
OBJECTIVES: Refugees living in Uganda come from HIV-endemic countries, and many remain in refugee settlements for over a decade. Our objective was to evaluate the HIV care cascade in Nakivale Refugee Settlement and to assess correlates of linkage to care. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled individuals accessing clinic-based HIV testing in Nakivale Refugee Settlement from March 2013 to July 2014. Newly HIV-diagnosed clients were followed for 3 months post-diagnosis...
January 10, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069361/dna-mva-protein-vaccination-of-rhesus-macaques-induces-hiv-specific-immunity-in-mucosal-associated-lymph-nodes-and-functional-antibodies
#19
Gerald K Chege, Wendy A Burgers, Tracey L Müller, Clive M Gray, Enid G Shephard, Susan W Barnett, Guido Ferrari, David Montefiori, Carolyn Williamson, Anna-Lise Williamson
Successful future HIV vaccines are expected to generate an effective cellular and humoral response against the virus in both the peripheral blood and mucosal compartments. We previously reported the development of DNA-C and MVA-C vaccines based on HIV-1 subtype C and demonstrated their immunogenicity when given in a DNA prime-MVA boost combination in a nonhuman primate model. In the current study, rhesus macaques previously vaccinated with a DNA-C and MVA-C vaccine regimen were re-vaccinated 3.5years later with MVA-C followed by a protein vaccine based on HIV-1 subtype C envelope formulated with MF59 adjuvant (gp140Env/MF59), and finally a concurrent boost with both vaccines...
January 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069056/determinants-of-fertility-desire-among-married-or-cohabiting-individuals-in-rakai-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Joseph K B Matovu, Fredrick Makumbi, Rhoda K Wanyenze, David Serwadda
BACKGROUND: Recent trends in fertility rates indicate declines in total fertility rate (TFR) in some sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries such as Uganda continue to have a persistently high TFR partly attributed to strong preferences for large family sizes. We explored the factors that influence fertility desire among married or cohabiting individuals in Rakai, a rural district in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of fertility desire (desire to have another child) was nested in a cluster-randomized demand-creation intervention trial for the promotion of couples' HIV counseling and testing uptake among married or cohabiting individuals that was conducted in Rakai district between March 1 and April 30, 2015...
January 10, 2017: Reproductive Health
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