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HIV Modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933461/factors-associated-with-hiv-testing-among-participants-from-substance-use-disorder-treatment-programs-in-the-us-a-machine-learning-approach
#1
Yue Pan, Hongmei Liu, Lisa R Metsch, Daniel J Feaster
HIV testing is the foundation for consolidated HIV treatment and prevention. In this study, we aim to discover the most relevant variables for predicting HIV testing uptake among substance users in substance use disorder treatment programs by applying random forest (RF), a robust multivariate statistical learning method. We also provide a descriptive introduction to this method for those who are unfamiliar with it. We used data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network HIV testing and counseling study (CTN-0032)...
December 8, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932583/inhibition-of-hiv-1-gag-membrane-interactions-by-specific-rnas
#2
Gabrielle C Todd, Alice A Duchon, Jingga Inlora, Erik D Olson, Karin Musier-Forsyth, Akira Ono
HIV-1 particle assembly, which occurs at the plasma membrane (PM) of cells, is driven by the viral polyprotein, Gag. Gag recognizes phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], a PM-specific phospholipid, via the highly basic region (HBR) in its N-terminal matrix (MA) domain. The HBR is also known to bind to RNA. We have previously shown using an in vitro liposome binding assay that RNA inhibits Gag binding to membranes that lack PI(4,5)P2. If this RNA block is removed by RNase treatment, Gag can bind non-specifically to other negatively charged membranes...
December 8, 2016: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932056/sexual-orientation-disparities-in-the-utilization-of-sexual-health-services-in-a-national-probability-sample-of-u-s-women
#3
Madina Agénor, Christina A Muzny, Vanessa Schick, Erika L Austin, Jennifer Potter
Although sexual minority women are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical cancer, few nationally representative studies have assessed sexual orientation disparities in sexual health care among women. Using data from the 2011-2013 and 2013-2015 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth, which provide a national probability sample of U.S. women aged 15-44years (N=11.300), we used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between sexual behavior and sexual identity (modeled separately) and STI testing in the past year, Pap test use in the last 3years, lifetime HIV testing, and lifetime human papillomavirus (HPV) testing...
December 5, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931519/high-prevalence-of-hiv-chlamydia-and-gonorrhoea-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-attending-trusted-community-centres-in-abuja-and-lagos-nigeria
#4
Babajide Keshinro, Trevor A Crowell, Rebecca G Nowak, Sylvia Adebajo, Sheila Peel, Charlotte A Gaydos, Cristina Rodriguez-Hart, Stefan D Baral, Melissa J Walsh, Ogbonnaya S Njoku, Sunday Odeyemi, Teclaire Ngo-Ndomb, William A Blattner, Merlin L Robb, Manhattan E Charurat, Julie Ake
INTRODUCTION: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevalence have been reported to be higher amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria than in the general population. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population using laboratory-based universal testing. METHODS: TRUST/RV368 represents a cohort of MSM and transgender women (TGW) recruited at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS)...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931507/hiv-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-efavirenz-reduces-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Jingji Jin, Bethany Grimmig, James Izzo, Lecia A M Brown, Charles Hudson, Adam J Smith, Jun Tan, Paula C Bickford, Brian Giunta
The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is evidence that neural stem cells (NSCs) can migrate to sites of brain injury such as those caused by inflammation and oxidative stress, which are pathological features of HAND. Thus, reductions in NSCs may contribute to HAND pathogenesis. Since the HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) has previously been associated with cognitive deficits and promotion of oxidative stress pathways, we examined its effect on NSCs in vitro as well as in C57BL/6J mice...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931339/mobility-patterns-of-persons-at-risk-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-mumbai-india
#6
E Conners, R S Garfein, T C Rodwell, Z F Udwadia, D G Catanzaro
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) hospital in Mumbai, India. OBJECTIVE: To describe the mobility patterns of persons with suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and to assess whether there were significant differences in demographic or risk characteristics based on mobility. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of TB clinic patients at risk for DR-TB. RESULTS: Among 602 participants, 37% had ever moved from their place of birth; 14% were local movers (within state), and 23% were distant movers, between states or countries...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931335/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-tuberculosis-in-douala-cameroon-a-7-year-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
B H Mbatchou Ngahane, F Dahirou, C Tchieche, A Wandji, C Ngni, A Nana-Metchedjin, E Nyankiy, M L Endale Mangamba, C Kuaban
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) clinic, Douala Laquintinie Hospital, Douala, Cameroon. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of TB and to investigate predictors of poor treatment outcomes. DESIGN: A registry-based, retrospective cohort study of all TB cases recorded from 2007 to 2013 was conducted. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of poor outcomes. RESULTS: Of 8902 TB cases included, 5110 (57...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930613/project-shikamana-baseline-findings-from-a-community-empowerment-based-combination-hiv-prevention-trial-among-female-sex-workers-in-iringa-tanzania
#8
Deanna Kerrigan, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Sarah Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Catherine Shembilu, Andrea Mantsios, Anna Leddy, Wendy Davis, Noya Galai
BACKGROUND: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930611/community-mobilization-for-hiv-testing-uptake-results-from-a-community-randomized-trial-of-a-theory-based-intervention-in-rural-south-africa
#9
Sheri A Lippman, Torsten B Neilands, Catherine MacPhail, Dean Peacock, Suzanne Maman, Dumisani Rebombo, Rhian Twine, Amanda Selin, Hannah H Leslie, Kathleen Kahn, Audrey Pettifor
BACKGROUND: HIV testing uptake in South Africa is below optimal levels. Community mobilization (CM) may increase and sustain demand for HIV testing, however, little rigorous evidence exists regarding the effect of CM interventions on HIV testing and the mechanisms of action. METHODS: We implemented a theory-driven CM intervention in 11 of 22 randomly-selected villages in rural Mpumalanga Province. Cross-sectional surveys including a community mobilization measure were conducted before (n = 1181) and after (n = 1175) a 2-year intervention (2012-2014)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930606/a-framework-for-health-communication-across-the-hiv-treatment-continuum
#10
Stella Babalola, Lynn M Van Lith, Elizabeth C Mallalieu, Zoe R Packman, Emily Myers, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Emily Harris, Tilly Gurman, Maria-Elena Figueroa
BACKGROUND: As test and treat rolls out, effective interventions are needed to address the determinants of outcomes across the HIV treatment continuum and ensure that people infected with HIV are promptly tested, initiate treatment early, adhere to treatment, and are virally suppressed. Communication approaches offer viable options for promoting relevant behaviors across the continuum. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: This article introduces a conceptual framework, which can guide the development of effective health communication interventions and activities that aim to impact behaviors across the HIV treatment continuum in low- and medium-income countries...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930599/the-hiv-care-cascade-among-female-sex-workers-in-zimbabwe-results-of-a-population-based-survey-from-the-sisters-antiretroviral-therapy-programme-for-prevention-of-hiv-an-integrated-response-sapph-ire-trial
#11
Frances M Cowan, Calum Davey, Elizabeth Fearon, Phillis Mushati, Jeffrey Dirawo, Valentina Cambiano, Sue Napierala Mavedzenge, Dagmar Hanisch, Ramona Wong-Gruenwald, Milton Chemhuru, Nyasha Masuka, Karin Hatzold, Owen Mugurungi, Joanna Busza, Andrew Phillips, James R Hargreaves
INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSW) in sub-Saharan Africa have a higher prevalence of HIV than other women of reproductive age. Social, legal, and structural barriers influence their access to care. Little is known about the HIV diagnosis and care cascade in most countries in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the HIV diagnosis and care cascade among FSW in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional respondent driven sampling (RDS) surveys of FSW in 14 sites across Zimbabwe as the baseline for a cluster-randomised controlled trial investigating a combination HIV prevention and care package...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930403/has-the-phasing-out-of-stavudine-in-accordance-with-changes-in-who-guidelines-led-to-a-decrease-in-single-drug-substitutions-in-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
Alana T Brennan, Mary-Ann Davies, Jacob Bor, Gilles Wandeler, Kathryn Stinson, Robin Wood, Hans Prozesky, Frank Tanser, Geoffrey Fatti, Andrew Boulle, Izukanji Sikazwe, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Valériane Leroy, Nathalie de Rekeneire, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship between phasing out stavudine in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in accordance with WHO 2010 policy and single-drug substitutions (SDS) (substituting the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in first-line ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort analysis (International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Multiregional) including ART-naive, HIV-infected patients aged at least 16 years, initiating ART between January 2005 and December 2012...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930093/kir-gene-content-diversity-in-a-zimbabwean-population-does-kir2dl2-have-a-role-in-protection-against-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#13
Kudakwashe Mhandire, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Louis-Marie Yindom, Kerina Duri, Tommy Mlambo, Mqondisi Tshabalala, Lovemore Ronald Mazengera, Doreen Zvipo Mhandire, Cuthbert Musarurwa, Collet Dandara, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Hilda Tendisa Matarira, Babill Stray-Pedersen
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) mediate natural killer cell function through interaction with their cognate human leukocyte antigen ligands. Thus, KIR gene variants have been implicated in resistance or susceptibility to viral infections. However, research on the role of these variants remains contradictory and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated KIR gene content diversity and its association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in an adult Black Zimbabwean population...
December 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928009/influence-of-plasma-cell-niche-factors-on-the-recruitment-and-maintenance-of-irf4hi-plasma-cells-and-plasmablasts-in-vaccinated-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques-with-low-and-high-viremia
#14
Julia M Shaw, Leia K Miller-Novak, Venkatramanan Mohanram, Katherine McKinnon, Thorsten Demberg, Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui, David Venzon, Marjorie Robert-Guroff
: In a recent study, we found protection following SIV exposure correlated with rectal plasma cell frequency in vaccinated female rhesus macaques. We sought to determine if these same macaques maintained high mucosal plasma cell frequencies post-infection and if this translated to reduced viremia. Although delayed SIV acquisition did not predict subsequent viral control, alterations existed in the distribution of plasma cells and plasmablasts between macaques that exhibited high or low viremia...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928002/adjuvanting-an-siv-vaccine-with-tlr-ligands-encapsulated-in-nanoparticles-induces-persistent-antibody-responses-and-enhanced-protection-in-trim5%C3%AE-restrictive-macaques
#15
Sudhir Pai Kasturi, Pamela A Kozlowski, Helder I Nakaya, Matheus C Burger, Pedro Russo, Mathew Pham, Yevgeniy Kovalenkov, Eduardo L V Silveira, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Samantha L Burton, Katie M Kilgore, Mathew J Johnson, Rafiq Nabi, Traci Legere, Zarpheen Jinnah Sher, Xuemin Chen, Rama R Amara, Eric Hunter, Steven E Bosinger, Paul Spearman, Shane Crotty, Francois Villinger, Cynthia A Derdeyn, Jens Wrammert, Bali Pulendran
: Our previous work has shown that antigens adjuvanted with specific ligands for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7/8 encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nanoparticles (NP), induced robust and durable immune responses in mice and macaques. We investigated the efficacy of these NP adjuvants in inducing protective immunity against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Rhesus macaques (RMs) were immunized with NP containing TLR4 and TLR7/8 agonists mixed with soluble recombinant SIVmac239 derived envelope (Env) gp140 and Gag p55 (Protein), or with virus like particles (VLP) containing SIVmac239 Env and Gag...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927863/longitudinal-viral-dynamics-in-semen-during-early-hiv-infection
#16
Sheldon R Morris, Mitchell Zhao, Davey R Smith, Milenka V Vargas, Susan J Little, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: Multiple viruses co-infect the male genital tract, influencing each other's replication and perhaps affecting HIV pathogenesis and disease progression. METHODS: This study included 453 longitudinal seminal samples from 195 HIV-infected men from the San Diego Primary Infection Cohort and 67 seminal samples from HIV-negative healthy controls. Seminal HIV RNA and DNA from seven human herpesviruses (HHV) were measured by RT-PCR. Longitudinal shedding rates were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927860/prediction-of-outcome-from-adult-bacterial-meningitis-in-a-high-hiv-seroprevalence-resource-poor-setting-using-the-malawi-adult-meningitis-score-mams
#17
Emma C Wall, Mavuto Mukaka, Matthew Scarborough, Katherine Ma Ajdukiewicz, Katharine E Cartwright, Mulinda Nyirenda, Brigitte Denis, Theresa J Allain, Brian Faragher, David G Lalloo, Robert S Heyderman
: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in adults residing in resource-poor countries is associated with mortality rates in excess of 50%. To improve outcome, interventional trials and standardised clinical algorithms are urgently required. To optimise these processes we developed and validated an outcome prediction tool to identify ABM patients at greatest risk of death. METHODS: We derived a nomogram using mortality predictors derived from a logistic regression model of a discovery database of adult Malawian ABM patients (n=523, 65% CSF culture positive)...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925867/psychosocial-stressors-and-alcohol-use-severity-and-treatment-receipt-across-hiv-status-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-u-s-residents
#18
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. We evaluate whether psychosocial stressors, and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of U...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925609/a-comparison-of-virological-suppression-and-rebound-between-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-persons-initiating-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-multisite-cohort-of-individuals-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#19
Anita C Benoit, Jaime Younger, Kerrigan Beaver, Randy Jackson, Mona Loutfy, Renée Masching, Tony Nobis, Earl Nowgesic, Doe O'Brien-Teengs, Wanda Whitebird, Art Zoccole, Mark Hull, Denise Jaworsky, Anita Rachlis, Sean Rourke, Ann N Burchell, Curtis Cooper, Robert Hogg, Marina B Klein, Nima Machouf, Julio Montaner, Chris Tsoukas, Janet Raboud, Building Bridges
BACKGROUND: This study compared time to virologic suppression and rebound between Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals living with HIV in Canada initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Data were from the Canadian Observational Cohort collaboration; 8 studies of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after 1/1/2000. Fine and Gray models were used to estimate the effect of ethnicity on 1) time to virologic suppression (two consecutive viral loads (VLs) <50 copies/mL at least three months apart) after adjusting for the competing risk of death and 2) time until virologic rebound (two consecutive VLs >200 copies/mL at least three months apart) following suppression...
December 7, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924729/conjugated-linoleic-acid-isomers-exert-differential-effects-on-an-adipocyte-model-of-hiv-associated-lipodystrophy
#20
Cathríona R Loonam, Sandra D O Dell, Anne Mullen
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated lipodystrophy is associated with decreased expression of PPAR-γ in adipose tissue. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers (cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12) are putative PPAR-γ agonists, but have not previously been investigated in the context of HIV-associated lipodystrophy. METHODS: 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated in the presence of ritonavir (20 μM as per previous experimental models) and 100 μM cis9,trans11, trans10,cis12 or vehicle control, DMSO...
December 7, 2016: Current HIV Research
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