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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449277/expertise-shapes-domain-specific-functional-cerebral-asymmetry-during-mental-imagery-the-case-of-culinary-arts-and-music
#1
Moustafa Bensafi, Arnaud Fournel, Pauline Joussain, Johan Poncelet, Lauranne Przybylski
Mental imagery in experts has been documented in visual arts, music and dance. Here, we examined this issue in an understudied art domain, namely culinary arts. Previous research investigating mental imagery in experts has reported either a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere or bilateral brain activation. The first aim of our study was to examine whether culinary arts also recruit such a hemispheric pattern specifically during odor mental imagery. In a second aim, we investigated whether expertise effects observed in a given sensory domain transfer to another modality...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449242/resting-sympathetic-arousal-moderates-the-association-between-parasympathetic-reactivity-and-working-memory-performance-in-adults-reporting-high-levels-of-life-stress
#2
Ryan J Giuliano, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Leslie E Roos, Elizabeth A Skowron
The neurovisceral integration model stipulates that autonomic function plays a critical role in the regulation of higher-order cognitive processes, yet most work to date has examined parasympathetic function in isolation from sympathetic function. Furthermore, the majority of work has been conducted on normative samples, which typically demonstrate parasympathetic withdrawal to increase arousal needed to complete cognitive tasks. Little is known about how autonomic regulation supports cognitive function in populations exposed to high levels of stress, which is critical given that chronic stress exposure alters autonomic function...
April 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449134/characterizing-exogenous-mrna-delivery-trafficking-cytoplasmic-release-and-rna-protein-correlations-at-the-level-of-single-cells
#3
Jonathan L Kirschman, Sushma Bhosle, Daryll Vanover, Emmeline L Blanchard, Kristin H Loomis, Chiara Zurla, Kathryn Murray, Blaine C Lam, Philip J Santangelo
The use of synthetic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) to express specific proteins is a highly promising therapeutic and vaccine approach that avoids many safety issues associated with viral or DNA-based systems. However, in order to optimize mRNA designs and delivery, technology advancements are required to study fundamental mechanisms of mRNA uptake and localization at the single-cell and tissue level. Here, we present a single RNA sensitive fluorescent labeling method which allows us to label and visualize synthetic mRNA without significantly affecting function...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449116/the-iconography-of-mourning-and-its-neural-correlates-a-functional-neuroimaging-study
#4
Karin Labek, Samantha Berger, Anna Buchheim, Julia Bosch, Jennifer Spohrs, Lisa Dommes, Petra Beschoner, Julia C Stingl, Roberto Viviani
The present functional neuroimaging study focuses on the iconography of mourning. A culture-specific pattern of body postures of mourning individuals, mostly suggesting withdrawal, emerged from a survey of visual material. When used in different combinations in stylized drawings in our neuroimaging study, this material activated cortical areas commonly seen in studies of social cognition (temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal lobe), empathy for pain (somatosensory cortex), and loss (precuneus, middle/posterior cingular gyrus)...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449106/microbiomeanalyst-a-web-based-tool-for-comprehensive-statistical-visual-and-meta-analysis-of-microbiome-data
#5
Achal Dhariwal, Jasmine Chong, Salam Habib, Irah L King, Luis B Agellon, Jianguo Xia
The widespread application of next-generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized microbiome research by enabling high-throughput profiling of the genetic contents of microbial communities. How to analyze the resulting large complex datasets remains a key challenge in current microbiome studies. Over the past decade, powerful computational pipelines and robust protocols have been established to enable efficient raw data processing and annotation. The focus has shifted toward downstream statistical analysis and functional interpretation...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448728/does-an-injection-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-in-fibrin-glue-influence-rotator-cuff-repair-outcomes-a-clinical-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#6
Yong Sang Kim, Chang Hun Sung, Sung Hoon Chung, Sang Joon Kwak, Yong Gon Koh
BACKGROUND: The mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based tissue engineering approach has been developed to improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to determine the effect of an injection of adipose-derived MSCs loaded in fibrin glue during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair on clinical outcomes and to evaluate its effect on structural integrity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hypothesis was that the application of adipose-derived MSCs would improve outcomes after the surgical repair of a rotator cuff tear...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448641/detecting-glaucoma-with-a-portable-brain-computer-interface-for-objective-assessment-of-visual-function-loss
#7
Masaki Nakanishi, Yu-Te Wang, Tzyy-Ping Jung, John K Zao, Yu-Yi Chien, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Fabio B Daga, Yuan-Pin Lin, Yijun Wang, Felipe A Medeiros
Importance: The current assessment of visual field loss in diseases such as glaucoma is affected by the subjectivity of patient responses and the lack of portability of standard perimeters. Objective: To describe the development and initial validation of a portable brain-computer interface (BCI) for objectively assessing visual function loss. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study involved 62 eyes of 33 patients with glaucoma and 30 eyes of 17 healthy participants...
April 27, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448293/trabeculectomy-or-transscleral-cyclophotocoagulation-as-initial-treatment-of-secondary-childhood-glaucoma-in-northern-tanzania
#8
Achim Fieß, Peter Shah, Freda Sii, Furahini Godfrey, Joe Abbott, Richard Bowman, Jacqueline Bauer, Stefan Dithmar, Heiko Philippin
PURPOSE: The purpose is to describe the outcome of trabeculectomy with transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC) as an initial intervention for secondary childhood glaucoma in Northern Tanzania. METHODS: A retrospective, consecutive case series was analyzed of all children with secondary childhood glaucoma who underwent initial trabeculectomy or TSCPC between 2000 and 2013 at a referral eye unit in Northern Tanzania. Retrospective data were collected on causes of glaucoma, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, complications, and subsequent interventions...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448021/detection-of-ligand-activated-g-protein-coupled-receptor-internalization-by-confocal-microscopy
#9
Jingwen Yang, Yunjun Yan, Xiaowei Xiang, Yuchao Xu, Naiming Zhou, Tianming Wang
Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is an optical imaging technique for high-contrast imaging. It is a powerful approach to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), to determine their expression, localization, and function. The subcellular localization of target proteins is important for identification, characterization, and functional analyses. Internalization is one of the predominant mechanisms controlling G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to ensure the appropriate cellular responses to stimuli...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448012/protocols-for-visualizing-steroidogenic-organs-and-their-interactive-organs-with-immunostaining-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Eisuke Imura, Yuto Yoshinari, Yuko Shimada-Niwa, Ryusuke Niwa
In multicellular organisms, a small group of cells is endowed with a specialized function in their biogenic activity, inducing a systemic response to growth and reproduction. In insects, the larval prothoracic gland (PG) and the adult female ovary play essential roles in biosynthesizing the principal steroid hormones called ecdysteroids. These ecdysteroidogenic organs are innervated from the nervous system, through which the timing of biosynthesis is affected by environmental cues. Here we describe a protocol for visualizing ecdysteroidogenic organs and their interactive organs in larvae and adults of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which provides a suitable model system for studying steroid hormone biosynthesis and its regulatory mechanism...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448011/turbidimetry-on-human-washed-platelets-the-effect-of-the-pannexin1-inhibitor-brilliant-blue-fcf-on-collagen-induced-aggregation
#11
Filippo Molica, Séverine Nolli, Pierre Fontana, Brenda Renata Kwak
Turbidimetry is a laboratory technique that is applied to measure the aggregation of platelets suspended in either plasma (platelet-rich plasma, PRP) or in buffer (washed platelets), by the use of one or a combination of agonists. The use of washed platelets separated from their plasma environment and in the absence of anticoagulants allows for studying intrinsic platelet properties. Among the large panel of agonists, arachidonic acid (AA), adenosine di-phosphate (ADP), thrombin and collagen are the most frequently used...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447781/artemisinin-protectes-retinal-neuronal-cells-against-oxidative-stress-and-restores-rat-retinal-physiological-function-from-light-exposed-damage
#12
Fengxia Yan, Hai-Tao Wang, Yang Gao, Jiang-Ping Xu, Wenhua Zheng
Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of severe visual loss and blindness in the aging population which lacks any effective treatments currently. In this study, artemisinin, a well-known anti-malarial drug was found to suppress hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in retinal neuronal RGC-5 cells. Artemisinin, in the therapeutically relevant dosage, concentration-dependently attenuated the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased mitochondrial mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased cell apoptosis in RGC-5 cells induced by H2O2...
April 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447622/modern-clinical-research-on-lsd
#13
REVIEW
Matthias E Liechti
All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447472/four-year-reciprocal-relationships-between-personality-and-functional-ability-in-older-adults-with-and-without-sensory-impairment-focus-on-neuroticism-and-agreeableness
#14
Markus Wettstein, Hans-Werner Wahl, Vera Heyl
OBJECTIVES: Personality traits have been found to influence health and functional ability (FA) via multiple pathways. However, personality traits may also change in reaction to constraints in FA, particularly in more vulnerable individuals with high risk of decline in independent functioning in daily life (e.g. older adults with sensory impairment). Therefore, conceptually anchored in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model), this study investigated reciprocal relationships between personality, focusing on neuroticism and agreeableness, and indicators of FA (i...
April 27, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447245/neuroanatomical-variations-as-a-function-of-experience-in-a-complex-daily-task-a-vbm-and-dti-study-on-driving-experience
#15
Alberto Megías, D Petrova, J F Navas, A Cándido, A Maldonado, A Catena
Complex tasks require the learning and integration of multiple cognitive, sensory, and psychomotor skills for correct execution. Driving-related skills are developed step by step through the increase of mileage driven and the accumulation of practice in different traffic situations. The acquisition of these skills should be reflected in the brain structure. However, no previous studies have explored brain structural variations associated with driving experience. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether driving frequency, defined as average annual driving mileage, is related to neuroanatomical variations in gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) integrity using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and DTI-based fractional anisotropy (FA), respectively...
April 26, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446838/visual-functions-of-workers-exposed-to-organic-solvents-in-petrochemical-industries
#16
R Indhushree, R Monica, K Coral, Narayanasamy Angayarkanni, R Punitham, B M Subburathinam, R Krishnakumar, P P Santanam
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual functions of workers exposed to organic solvents in petrochemical industries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty workers from the petroleum refinery and 30 age-matched controls (mean age) were recruited. Visual functions and occupational exposure levels were assessed among both the groups. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual fields were evaluated at the workplace. The biological samples, namely blood and urine, were collected at the workplace and transported to the laboratory for analysis...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446629/vitamin-d-receptor-and-megalin-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-longitudinal-cognitive-change-among-african-american-urban-adults
#17
May A Beydoun, Salman M Tajuddin, Greg A Dore, Jose-Atilio Canas, Hind A Beydoun, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
Background: The link between longitudinal cognitive change and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and MEGALIN [or LDL receptor-related protein 2 (LRP2)] genes remains unclear, particularly among African-American (AA) adults.Objectives: We aimed to evaluate associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for VDR [rs11568820 (Cdx-2:T/C), rs1544410 (BsmI:G/A), rs7975232 (ApaI:A/C), rs731236 (TaqI:G/A)] and LRP2 [rs3755166:G/A,rs2075252:C/T, rs2228171:C/T] genes with longitudinal cognitive performance change in various domains of cognition...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446222/effect-of-quantity-and-intensity-of-pulsed-light-on%C3%A2-human-non-visual-physiological-responses
#18
Qianying Dai, Yuria Uchiyama, Soomin Lee, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
BACKGROUND: Exposure to pulsed light results in non-visual physiological responses in humans. The present study aims to investigate whether such non-visual effects are influenced to a greater extent by the intensity of lighting or by the power (quantity) of lighting. METHODS: >Twelve healthy young male participants (23 ± 0.3 years, 21-24 age range) were recruited for the present study. Participants were exposed to light of varying levels of intensity and quantity whose frequency was held constant across the conditions, which consisted of exposure to blue (different intensity, constant quantity) and white (constant intensity, different quantity) LEDs...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446192/prospective-clinical-and-radiographic-evaluation-of-an-allogeneic-bone-matrix-containing-stem-cells-trinity-evolution%C3%A2-viable-cellular-bone-matrix-in-patients-undergoing-two-level-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion
#19
Timothy A Peppers, Dennis E Bullard, Jed S Vanichkachorn, Scott K Stanley, Paul M Arnold, Erik I Waldorff, Rebekah Hahn, Brent L Atkinson, James T Ryaby, Raymond J Linovitz
BACKGROUND: Trinity Evolution® (TE), a viable cellular bone allograft, previously demonstrated high fusion rates and no safety-related concerns after single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures. This prospective multicenter clinical study was performed to assess the radiographic and clinical outcomes of TE in subjects undergoing two-level ACDF procedures. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter study, 40 subjects that presented with symptomatic cervical degeneration at two adjacent vertebral levels underwent instrumented ACDF using TE autograft substitute in a polyetherethereketone (PEEK) cage...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446144/association-of-physical-activity-and-appetite-with-visual-function-related-to-driving-competence-in-older-adults
#20
Takafumi Ando, Hiroyuki Sakai, Yuji Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: Older people are at greater risk of traffic accidents, partially because of age-related declines in visual function, including reduced useful field of view (UFOV). However, lifestyle factors which cause age-related decline in UFOV remain poorly understood. We conducted a study to investigate whether physical activity and appetite status were related to UFOV test performance in healthy older adults. METHODS: Thirty community-dwelling older people (age 68...
April 26, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
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