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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735212/externally-controlled-involuntary-cognitions-and-their-relations-with-other-representations-in-consciousness
#1
Donish Cushing, Adam Gazzaley, Ezequiel Morsella
Percepts and action-related urges often enter consciousness insuppressibly. The Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT) was developed to investigate how high-level cognitions (e.g., subvocalizations), too, can enter consciousness in this manner. Limitations of the paradigm include (a) that no data have confirmed subjects' introspections about the involuntary subvocalizations, and (b) that, in everyday life, adaptive responses to involuntary cognitions often depend on the nature of the other contents in consciousness. To address a and b, we developed an RIT in which subjects were presented with visual objects and instructed to not think of the object names...
July 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735174/tetherless-near-infrared-control-of-brain-activity-in-behaving-animals-using-fully-implantable-upconversion-microdevices
#2
Ying Wang, Xudong Lin, Xi Chen, Xian Chen, Zhen Xu, Wenchong Zhang, Qinghai Liao, Xin Duan, Xin Wang, Ming Liu, Feng Wang, Jufang He, Peng Shi
Many nanomaterials can be used as sensors or transducers in biomedical research and they form the essential components of transformative novel biotechnologies. In this study, we present an all-optical method for tetherless remote control of neural activity using fully implantable micro-devices based on upconversion technology. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were used as transducers to convert near-infrared (NIR) energy to visible light in order to stimulate neurons expressing different opsin proteins. In our setup, UCNPs were packaged in a glass micro-optrode to form an implantable device with superb long-term biocompatibility...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735160/longitudinal-assessment-of-gait-quality-in-children-with-bilateral-cerebral-palsy-following-repeated-lower-limb-intramuscular-botulinum-toxin-a-injections
#3
Felicity A Read, Roslyn N Boyd, Lee A Barber
BACKGROUND: Serial lower limb intramuscular Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) injections are administered to children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (BCP) to reduce spasticity, improve walking and functional mobility, and delay the need for orthopaedic surgery. Gait quality is clinically assessed following BoNT-A with 2D video gait assessments (2DVGA) using the Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS). AIM: To determine the effect of three consecutive treatment cycles of lower limb intramuscular BoNT-A injections on gait quality using the EVGS in children with BCP by retrospectively reviewing repeated 2DVGA measures...
July 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735013/simultaneous-intrinsic-signal-imaging-of-auditory-and-visual-cortex-reveals-profound-effects-of-acute-hearing-loss-on-visual-processing
#4
Manuel Teichert, Jürgen Bolz
It has been suggested that primary sensory cortices do not work in isolation but receive subthreshold inputs originating from other senses. However, repercussions of an acute loss of one sense on multimodal sensory processing remain elusive. Here we investigated the early effects of acute hearing loss on visual processing in adult mice. For this, we developed a method to simultaneously map the primary auditory (A1) and visual cortex (V1) using periodic intrinsic optical imaging. We found that reducing sound evoked A1 responsiveness due to the induction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) led to a concomitant increase of visually driven V1 activity...
July 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735011/assessment-and-elimination-of-the-effects-of-head-movement-on-meg-resting-state-measures-of-oscillatory-brain-activity
#5
Eirini Messaritaki, Loes Koelewijn, Diana C Dima, Gemma M Williams, Gavin Perry, Krish D Singh
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is increasingly being used to study brain function because of its excellent temporal resolution and its direct association with brain activity at the neuronal level. One possible cause of error in the analysis of MEG data comes from the fact that participants, even MEG-experienced ones, move their head in the MEG system. Head movement can cause source localization errors during the analysis of MEG data, which can result in the appearance of source variability that does not reflect brain activity...
July 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734961/radix-puerariae-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-architecture-and-potentiates-functional-synaptic-plasticity-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#6
Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Mohibbullah, Yung Kyu Kim, Il Soo Moon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734946/impaired-rhodopsin-generation-in-the-rat-model-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#7
Volha V Malechka, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Yusuke Takahashi, Younghwa Shin, Jian-Xing Ma
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients experience functional deficits in dark adaptation, contrast sensitivity, and color perception before microvascular pathologies become apparent. Here, we evaluated early changes in neural retinal function and in retinoid metabolism in the eye in diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed decreased a-wave and b-wave amplitudes of scotopic and photopic electroretinography responses four months after diabetes induction compared to nondiabetic controls...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734716/short-term-clinical-outcome-of-an-anatomic-short-stem-humeral-component-in-total-shoulder-arthroplasty
#8
Anthony A Romeo, Robert J Thorsness, Shelby A Sumner, Reuben Gobezie, Evan S Lederman, Patrick J Denard
BACKGROUND: Short-stem press-fit humeral components have recently been developed in an effort to preserve bone in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), but few studies have reported outcomes of these devices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes of an anatomic short-stem humeral component in TSA. We hypothesized that the implant would lead to significant functional improvement with low rates of radiographic loosening. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective review was performed of TSAs using an anatomic short-stem humeral component (Apex; Arthrex, Inc...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734655/cognitive-function-in-children-with-lupus-nephritis-a-cross-sectional-comparison-with-children-with-other-glomerular-chronic-kidney-diseases
#9
Andrea Knight, Amy J Kogon, Matthew B Matheson, Bradley A Warady, Susan L Furth, Stephen R Hooper
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors contributing to cognitive impairment in children with lupus nephritis. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of a large multicenter national cohort of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using standardized measures to determine baseline neuropsychiatric function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with lupus nephritis (n = 34), and to compare baseline function with that in children with other forms of glomerular CKD (gCKD; n = 171)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734627/the-impact-of-frailty-on-functional-survival-in-patients-1%C3%A2-year-after-cardiac-surgery
#10
James Lytwyn, Andrew N Stammers, D Scott Kehler, Patrick Jung, Bryce Alexander, Brett M Hiebert, Chris Dubiel, Dustin Kimber, Naomi Hamm, Mekayla Clarke, Carly Fraser, Brittany Pedreira, Todd A Duhamel, Navdeep Tangri, Rakesh C Arora
OBJECTIVE: This study determined whether frailty provides incremental value to the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II in identifying patients at risk of poor 1-year functional survival. METHODS: This prospective study in patients undergoing cardiac surgery defined frailty using 3 common definitions: (1) the Modified Fried Criteria; (2) the Short Physical Performance Battery; and (3) the Clinical Frailty Scale. The primary outcome was functional survival, defined as being alive at 1 year postsurgery with a health-related quality of life score greater than 60 on the EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734032/characterization-of-the-axon-initial-segment-of-mice-substantia-nigra-dopaminergic-neurons
#11
Cristian González-Cabrera, Rodrigo Meza, Lorena Ulloa, Paulina Merino-Sepúlveda, Valentina Luco, Ana Sanhueza, Alejandro Oñate-Ponce, J Paul Bolam, Pablo Henny
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of initiation of action potentials and also influences action potential waveform, firing pattern and rate. In view of the fundamental aspects of motor function and behavior that depend on the firing of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons, we identified and characterized their AIS in the mouse. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), sodium channels (Nav ) and ankyrin-G (Ank-G) was used to visualize the AIS of dopaminergic neurons. Reconstructions of sampled AIS of dopaminergic neurons revealed variable lengths (12 - 60 μm) and diameters (0...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733834/long-term-intensive-gymnastic-training-induced-changes-in-intra-and-inter-network-functional-connectivity-an-independent-component-analysis
#12
Huiyuan Huang, Junjing Wang, Carol Seger, Min Lu, Feng Deng, Xiaoyan Wu, Yuan He, Chen Niu, Jun Wang, Ruiwang Huang
Long-term intensive gymnastic training can induce brain structural and functional reorganization. Previous studies have identified structural and functional network differences between world class gymnasts (WCGs) and non-athletes at the whole-brain level. However, it is still unclear how interactions within and between functional networks are affected by long-term intensive gymnastic training. We examined both intra- and inter-network functional connectivity of gymnasts relative to non-athletes using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI)...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733833/neuroanatomy-of-pain-deficiency-and-cross-modal-activation-in-calcium-channel-subunit-cacn-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-3-knockout-mice
#13
Julia Landmann, Franziska Richter, Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens, N Jon Shah, Joseph Classen, G Gregory Neely, Angelika Richter, Josef M Penninger, Ingo Bechmann
The phenotype of calcium channel subunit (CACN) α2δ3 knockout (KO) mice includes sensory cross-activation and deficient pain perception. Sensory cross-activation defines the activation of a sensory cortical region by input from another modality due to reorganization in the brain such as after sensory loss. To obtain mechanistic insight into both phenomena, we employed a comprehensive battery of neuroanatomical techniques. While CACNα2δ3 was ubiquitously expressed in wild-type mice, it was absent in α2δ3 KO animals...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733679/increased-overall-cortical-connectivity-with-syndrome-specific-local-decreases-suggested-by-atypical-sleep-eeg-synchronization-in-williams-syndrome
#14
Ferenc Gombos, Róbert Bódizs, Ilona Kovács
Williams syndrome (7q11.23 microdeletion) is characterized by specific alterations in neurocognitive architecture and functioning, as well as disordered sleep. Here we analyze the region, sleep state and frequency-specific EEG synchronization of whole night sleep recordings of 21 Williams syndrome and 21 typically developing age- and gender-matched subjects by calculating weighted phase lag indexes. We found broadband increases in inter- and intrahemispheric neural connectivity for both NREM and REM sleep EEG of Williams syndrome subjects...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733594/cd56-is-a-pathogen-recognition-receptor-on-human-natural-killer-cells
#15
Sabrina Ziegler, Esther Weiss, Anna-Lena Schmitt, Jan Schlegel, Anne Burgert, Ulrich Terpitz, Markus Sauer, Lorenzo Moretta, Simona Sivori, Ines Leonhardt, Oliver Kurzai, Hermann Einsele, Juergen Loeffler
Aspergillus (A.) fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal mold inducing invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients. Although antifungal activity of human natural killer (NK) cells was shown in previous studies, the underlying cellular mechanisms and pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are still unknown. Using flow cytometry we were able to show that the fluorescence positivity of the surface receptor CD56 significantly decreased upon fungal contact. To visualize the interaction site of NK cells and A...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733246/defective-recognition-and-naming-of-famous-people-from-voice-in-patients-with-unilateral-temporal-lobe-tumours
#16
C Papagno, G Mattavelli, A Casarotti, L Bello, G Gainotti
Twenty-nine patients who underwent surgery for a temporal glioma, either in the left (16 patients) or right (13 patients) hemisphere, were administered standardized tests of unknown voice discrimination (UVD) and of famous voice recognition (VO-REC), which included tasks of familiarity evaluation, semantic identification and naming of famous voices. The UVD consisted of twenty stimuli, in which two audio files were consecutively presented; the subject was requested to judge whether the voices belonged to the same or different persons...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733100/long-term-outcomes-after-distal-scaphoid-fractures-a-10-year-follow-up
#17
Martin Clementson, Niels Thomsen, Jack Besjakov, Peter Jørgsholm, Anders Björkman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional, clinical, and radiological outcome 10 years after distal scaphoid fractures. METHODS: From a prospective epidemiological study on posttraumatic radial-sided wrist pain, we evaluated 41 cases of distal scaphoid fractures. All cases had been treated nonsurgically in a thumb spica cast. Patients were examined using radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography at the time of injury and with computed tomography after a median of 10 years (range, 8-11 years)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732134/physical-functioning-pain-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-adults-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-longitudinal-30-year-follow-up-study
#18
Anita Tollisen, Anne M Selvaag, Hanne A Aulie, Vibke Lilleby, Astrid Aasland, Anners Lerdal, Berit Flatø
OBJECTIVES: To describe physical functioning, pain, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adults with Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), investigate changes over time, and identify predictors of poorer HRQOL after 30 years of disease duration. METHODS: Patients (N=176) clinically examined after 15 years were reassessed with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Visual Analogue Scale Pain (VAS pain) and Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) after 23 and 30 years...
July 21, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731779/arthroscopic-labral-base-repair-in-the-hip-5-year-minimum-clinical-outcomes
#19
Benjamin G Domb, Leslie C Yuen, Victor Ortiz-Declet, Jody Litrenta, Itay Perets, Austin W Chen
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic labral base repair (LBR) in the hip is a previously described technique designed to restore the native functional anatomy of the labrum by reproducing its seal against the femoral head. LBR has been shown to have good short-term outcomes. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate clinical outcomes of an LBR cohort with a minimum 5-year follow-up. It was hypothesized that patients who underwent LBR would continue to have significant improvement from their preoperative scores and maintain scores similar to their 2-year outcomes...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731773/visualizing-the-efimov-correlation-in-bose-polarons
#20
Mingyuan Sun, Hui Zhai, Xiaoling Cui
The Bose polaron is a quasiparticle of an impurity dressed by surrounding bosons. In few-body physics, it is known that two identical bosons and a third distinguishable particle can form a sequence of Efimov bound states in the vicinity of interspecies scattering resonance. On the other hand, in the Bose polaron system with an impurity atom embedded in many bosons, no signature of Efimov physics has been reported in the existing spectroscopy measurements to date. In this Letter, we propose that a large mass imbalance between a light impurity and heavy bosons can help produce visible signatures of Efimov physics in such a spectroscopy measurement...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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