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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411009/skeletal-muscle-morphology-and-regulatory-signalling-in-endurance-trained-and-sedentary-individuals-the-influence-of-ageing
#1
U R Mikkelsen, J Agergaard, C Couppé, J F Grosset, A Karlsen, S P Magnusson, P Schjerling, M Kjaer, A L Mackey
Muscle mass in humans is inversely associated with circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, but the interaction between ageing and training on muscle composition and the intra-muscular signalling behind inflammation and contractile protein synthesis and degradation is unknown. We studied 15 healthy life-long endurance runners, 12 age-matched untrained controls, 10 young trained and 12 young untrained individuals. Thigh muscle composition was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where non-contractile intramuscular tissue (NCIT) area (fat and connective tissue) was found to be greater in older but lower in trained individuals...
April 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408961/the-usefulness-of-diagnostic-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-pain-symptoms-in-temporomandibular-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Shigeaki Suenaga, Kunihiro Nagayama, Taisuke Nagasawa, Hiroko Indo, Hideyuki J Majima
The causes of pain symptoms in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masticatory muscle (MM) regions may not be determined by clinical examination alone. In this review, we document that pain symptoms of the TMJ and MM regions in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are associated with computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) findings of internal derangement, joint effusion, osteoarthritis, and bone marrow edema. However, it is emphasized that these imaging findings must not be regarded as the unique and dominant factors in defining TMJ pain...
November 2016: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404506/associations-of-24-hour-sleep-duration-and-ct-derived-measurements-of-muscle-and-bone-the-ages-reykjavik-study
#3
Elisa A Marques, Pedro Figueiredo, Vilmundur Gudnason, Thomas Lang, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Thor Aspelund, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Lenore Launer, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Tamara B Harris
BACKGROUND: Although the importance of sleep on preservation of several physiological functions is well known, the relationship with the two interconnected tissues - muscle and bone is less understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association of 24-hour sleep duration with mid-thigh muscle composition and proximal femur volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). METHODS: 2438 men and 3326 women aged 66 to 96years, residents in the Reykjavik area, were included in this cross-sectional study...
April 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402022/steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-star-overexpression-reduces-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-mice
#4
Yanyan Qiu, Xianxian Sui, Shengxuan Cao, Xiaobo Li, Yanxia Ning, Songmei Wang, Lianhua Yin, Xiuling Zhi
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), a mitochondrial cholesterol delivery protein, plays a beneficial role in hyperlipidemia, NAFLD and endothelial inflammation. Elevated circulating fatty acids and low grade inflammation are known as key risk factors of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the present study, C57BL/6J mice were fed with a HFD and infected with recombinant adenovirus expressing StAR by tail-vein injection. Intraperitoneal glucose/insulin tolerance test was performed to assess the insulin sensitivity...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402008/genome-wide-association-studies-reveal-additional-related-loci-for-fatty-acid-composition-in-a-duroc-pig-multigenerational-population
#5
Shuji Sato, Yoshinobu Uemoto, Takashi Kikuchi, Sachiko Egawa, Kimiko Kohira, Tomomi Saito, Hironori Sakuma, Satoshi Miyashita, Shinji Arata, Keiichi Suzuki
The aim of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci affecting fatty acid composition in back fat and intramuscular fat in a Duroc pig population comprising seventh-generation pedigrees using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In total, 305 animals were genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) array and five selected SNPs from regions containing known candidate genes related to fatty acid synthesis or metabolism. In total, 24 genome-wide significant SNP regions were detected in 12 traits, and 76 genome-wide suggestive SNP regions were detected in 33 traits...
April 12, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390726/effects-of-preweaning-nutrient-intake-in-the-developing-mammary-parenchymal-tissue
#6
F Soberon, M E Van Amburgh
Historically, mammary gland growth has been considered isometric the first 2 mo of life and then allometric until peripuberty. However, recent work indicated that the mammary gland might be responsive to nutrient intake preweaning. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of nutrient intake preweaning on mammary gland development and to investigate cell specific proliferation during this phase of development. Twelve dairy heifer calves were fed either a fixed amount of milk replacer (MR; control, n = 6) or an amount of MR adjusted for BW (enhanced, n = 6)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386555/analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-gastrocnemius-muscle-between-dgat1-transgenic-mice-and-wild-type-mice
#7
Fei Ying, Hao Gu, Yuanzhu Xiong, Bo Zuo
Adipose tissue was the major energy deposition site of the mammals and provided the energy for the body and released the external pressure to the internal organs. In animal production, fat deposition in muscle can affect the meat quality, especially the intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) was the key enzyme to control the synthesis of the triacylglycerol in adipose tissue. In order to better understand the regulation mechanism of the DGAT1 in the intramuscular fat deposition, the global gene expression profiling was performed in gastrocnemius muscle between DGAT1 transgenic mice and wild-type mice by microarray...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382782/fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-regulates-fatty-infiltration-after-rotator-cuff-tear-by-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-in-mice
#8
Yong-Soo Lee, Ja-Yeon Kim, Kyung-Soo Oh, Seok Won Chung
BACKGROUND: Fatty infiltration in skeletal muscle is directly linked to loss of muscle strength and is associated with various adverse physical outcomes such as muscle atrophy, inflammation, insulin resistance, mobility impairments, and even mortality in the elderly. Aging, mechanical unloading, muscle injury, and hormonal imbalance are main causes of muscle fat accumulation, and the fat cells are derived from muscle stem cells via adipogenic differentiation. However, the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of fatty infiltration in muscles are still not fully defined...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380598/dietary-whole-and-cracked-linseed-increases-the-proportion-of-oleic-and-%C3%AE-linolenic-acids-in-adipose-tissues-and-decreases-stearoyl-coenzyme-a-desaturase-acetyl-coenzyme-a-carboxylase-and-fatty-acid-synthase-gene-expression-in-the-longissimus-thoracis-muscle
#9
X Z Li, C G Yan, J Yu, Q S Gao, S H Choi, J S Shin, S B Smith
We hypothesized that supplementation of linseed in a beef cattle fattening diet would increase PUFA concentrations in intramuscular adipose tissue and depress (), (), and () gene expression by decreasing () expression. Conversely, supplemental linseed would upregulate expression of () and () in muscle of Yanbian Yellow steers. Thirty steers were assigned at random to 3 groups of 10 steers fed either the basal diet (corn grain and corn silage-based commercial concentrate [CON]), the CON diet plus 8% whole linseed (WLS; DM basis), or the CON diet plus 8% cracked linseed (CLS; DM basis) for 6 mo...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378745/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiles-reveal-novel-candidate-genes-associated-with-meat-quality-at-different-age-stages-in-hens
#10
Meng Zhang, Feng-Bin Yan, Fang Li, Ke-Ren Jiang, Dong-Hua Li, Rui-Li Han, Zhuan-Jan Li, Rui-Rui Jiang, Xiao-Jun Liu, Xiang-Tao Kang, Gui-Rong Sun
Poultry meat quality is associated with breed, age, tissue and other factors. Many previous studies have focused on distinct breeds; however, little is known regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in different age stages, such as DNA methylation. Here, we compared the global DNA methylation profiles between juvenile (20 weeks old) and later laying-period (55 weeks old) hens and identified candidate genes related to the development and meat quality of breast muscle using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365916/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-prevents-hepatic-fat-storage-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-dietary-steatohepatitis-of-mice
#11
Takafumi Yoshida, Jun Akiba, Takanori Matsui, Kazuo Nakamura, Takao Hisamoto, Mitsuhiko Abe, Yu Ikezono, Fumitaka Wada, Hideki Iwamoto, Toru Nakamura, Hironori Koga, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Takuji Torimura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of inflammation through its anti-oxidative property. Since oxidative response is considered to play the pivotal role of the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), it is conceivable that PEDF may play a protective role against NASH. In this study, we examined whether administration of PEDF slowed the progression of NASH in mice models. METHODS: Mice were fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet with or without intramuscular administration of adenovirus-expressing PEDF (Ad-PEDF)...
April 1, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363665/-extension-of-the-thoracodorsal-artery-perforator-flap-s-pedicle-anatomical-study
#12
M Lenglet, S Dast, L Dessena, C Herlin, B Chaput, E Havet, R Sinna
PURPOSE: In recent years, the indications of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap decreased in favor of its version preserving muscle: the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TDAP). The intramuscular dissection reduce donor site morbidity but also allows an extension of the pedicle compared to conventional latissimus dorsi flap pedicle. The purpose of this study was to quantify objectively elongation of the pedicle when the perforator is dissected through the muscle. METHOD: Sixteen TDAP flap were dissected in 9 cadavers...
March 28, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360421/muscle-specific-downregulation-of-gr-levels-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-porcine-intramuscular-adipocyte-tissue
#13
Weiwei Chu, Wei Wei, Haiyin Han, Ying Gao, Kaiqing Liu, Ye Tian, Zaohang Jiang, Lifan Zhang, Jie Chen
Intramuscular adipose is conducive to good pork quality, whereas subcutaneous adipose is considered as waste in pig production. So uncovering the regulation differences between these two adiposes is helpful to tissue-specific control of fat deposition. In this study, we found the sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs) was lower in intramuscular adipocytes (IMA) compared with subcutaneous adipocytes (SA). Comparison of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) revealed that IMA had lower GR level which contributed to its reduced GCs sensitivity...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350207/can-metabolic-function-and-physical-fitness-improve-without-weight-loss-for-inactive-obese-hispanic-adolescents-a-feasibility-study
#14
Wayne Brewer, Sharon Olson, Agneta Sunehag
INTRODUCTION: A case series that examines the effects of a 12-week combined resistance and aerobic training program for four sedentary obese, Hispanic adolescents without weight loss. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Baseline and post-intervention anthropometric, metabolic and physical fitness measures were obtained. Body composition, hepatic, visceral, and intramuscular fat contents were analyzed via imaging. Fasting levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), insulin, glucose, free fatty acids, triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and C-reactive protein were obtained via blood samples...
March 28, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298673/single-step-extraction-and-derivatization-of-intramuscular-lipids-for-fatty-acid-ultra-fast-gc-analysis-application-on-pig-thigh
#15
Eleonora Laura De Paola, Giuseppe Montevecchi, Francesca Masino, Andrea Antonelli, Domenico Pietro Lo Fiego
Two different methods for single step transesterification from pig meat without fat extraction have been tested. Freeze-drying of the meat with and without anhydrous salt, followed by a base-catalyzed transmethylation (KOH/MeOH) was carried out. Both methods were compared with the standard Folch procedure of fat extraction followed by transmethylation. The methods were tested on a complete sample set of biceps femoris of pig thigh, used for the production of dry-cured ham. The set was divided in three subgroups according to total fat content...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280846/obesity-type-2-diabetes-and-bone-in-adults
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer S Walsh, Tatiane Vilaca
In an increasingly obese and ageing population, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and osteoporotic fracture are major public health concerns. Understanding how obesity and type 2 diabetes modulate fracture risk is important to identify and treat people at risk of fracture. Additionally, the study of the mechanisms of action of obesity and T2DM on bone has already offered insights that may be applicable to osteoporosis in the general population. Most available evidence indicates lower risk of proximal femur and vertebral fracture in obese adults...
March 9, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273627/ventrogluteal-versus-dorsogluteal-site-selection-a-cross-sectional-study-of-muscle-and-subcutaneous-fat-thicknesses-and-an-algorithm-incorporating-demographic-and-anthropometric-data-to-predict-injection-outcome
#17
Theresa A Larkin, Elfriede Ashcroft, Asmahan Elgellaie, Blake A Hickey
BACKGROUND: The dorsogluteal and ventrogluteal intramuscular injection sites both have their use in clinical practice; however, it has not been established in whom one or the other should be preferentially targeted or avoided. There is a need for an evidence-based approach towards site selection for a successful intramuscular injection outcome and to avoid unwanted injection outcomes of inadvertent subcutaneous injection or bone contact. Injection outcome is dependent on injection site subcutaneous fat thickness and muscle thickness; these are likely influenced by gender and anthropometry...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272927/muscle-degeneration-associated-with-rotator-cuff-tendon-release-and-or-denervation-in-sheep
#18
Christian Gerber, Dominik C Meyer, Martin Flück, Paola Valdivieso, Brigitte von Rechenberg, Mario C Benn, Karl Wieser
BACKGROUND: The effect of an additional neurological injury (suprascapular nerve traction injury) to a chronically retracted rotator cuff muscle is incompletely understood and warrants clarification. PURPOSE: To investigate the microscopic and macroscopic muscle degeneration patterns caused by tendon release and/or muscle denervation in a sheep rotator cuff model. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Infraspinatus muscle biopsy specimens (for histological analysis) were obtained from 18 Swiss alpine sheep before and 16 weeks after release of the infraspinatus tendon (tenotomy [T] group; n = 6), transection of the suprascapular nerve (neurectomy [N] group; n = 6), or tendon release plus nerve transection (tenotomy + neurectomy [T&N] group; n = 6)...
March 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272430/identification-and-characterization-of-differentially-expressed-mirnas-in-subcutaneous-adipose-between-wagyu-and-holstein-cattle
#19
Yuntao Guo, Xiuxiu Zhang, Wanlong Huang, Xiangyang Miao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators involved in animal adipogenesis, however, their roles in bovine fat deposition remain poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted a comparative RNA sequencing to identify the key miRNAs involved in beef lipid accumulation by comparing the backfat small RNA samples between Wagyu (high intramuscular fat) and Holstein (moderate intramuscular fat) cattle. Fifteen miRNAs such as bta-miR-142-3p, bta-miR-379, bta-miR-196a, bta-miR-196b, bta-miR-30f and bta-miR-2887 were identified to have a higher expression level in Wagyu cattle compared with Holstein, whereas bta-miR-320a, bta-miR-874 and bta-miR-1247-3p had a lower expression level in Wagyu...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255944/fatty-rind-of-intramuscular-soft-tissue-tumors-of-the-extremity-is-it-different-from-the-split-fat-sign
#20
Jinkyeong Sung, Jee-Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: To analyze intramuscular soft-tissue tumors with fatty rind, and to evaluate the difference between fatty rind and split fat sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 50 pathologically confirmed intramuscular masses on MRI. We evaluated the distribution and shape of fatty rind and muscle atrophy. RESULTS: Fatty rind was found more frequently in benign lesions (80% [36 out of 45]) compared with malignant lesions (25% [1 out of 5]; P = 0...
March 2, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
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