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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467043/three-dimensional-spheroid-culture-of-adipose-stromal-vascular-cells-for-studying-adipogenesis-in-beef-cattle
#1
Y N Ma, B Wang, Z X Wang, N A Gomez, M J Zhu, M Du
Protocols designed for the adipogenic differentiation of human and mouse cells are commonly used for inducing the adipogenesis of bovine stromal vascular cells. However, likely due to metabolic differences between ruminant and non-ruminant animals, these methods result in only few cells undergoing complete adipogenesis with minimal lipid droplet accumulation. Here, we discuss the development of an adipogenic differentiation protocol for bovine primary cells through a three-dimensional spheroid culture. Stromal vascular cells derived from bovine intramuscular fat were isolated and stored in liquid nitrogen before culturing...
February 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459300/fatty-acid-composition-of-intramuscular-fat-and-odour-active-compounds-of-lamb-commercialized-in-northern-spain
#2
Leire Bravo-Lamas, Luis J R Barron, Linda Farmer, Noelia Aldai
Muscle fatty acid composition and odour-active compounds released during cooking were characterized in lamb chops (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum, n = 48) collected at retail level in northern Spain. Lamb samples were classified in two groups according to their 10 t/11 t-18:1 ratio: ≤1 (10 t-non-shifted, n = 21) and >1 (10 t-shifted, n = 28). Higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, vaccenic (11 t-18:1) and rumenic acid (9c,11 t-18:2), and iso-branched chain fatty acid contents were found in non-shifted lamb samples while n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, internal methyl-branched chain fatty acid, and 10 t-18:1 contents were greater in shifted samples...
February 7, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445089/mir-27a-5p-increases-steer-fat-deposition-partly-by-targeting-calcium-sensing-receptor-casr
#3
Wucai Yang, Keqiong Tang, Yaning Wang, Linsen Zan
Castration increases fat deposition, improving beef quality in cattle. Here, the steer group exhibited a significantly higher intramuscular fat (IMF) content than the bull group. To determine the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in castration-induced fat deposition, differential expression patterns of miRNA in liver tissue were investigated in bulls and steers. A total of 7,827,294 clean reads were obtained from the bull liver library, and 8,312,483 were obtained from the steer liver library; 452 conserved bovine miRNAs and 20 novel miRNAs were identified...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444639/differential-expression-of-mrna-isoforms-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-pigs-with-distinct-growth-and-fatness-profiles
#4
Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso, Raquel Quintanilla, Anna Castelló, Rayner González-Prendes, Marcel Amills, Ángela Cánovas
BACKGROUND: The identification of genes differentially expressed in the skeletal muscle of pigs displaying distinct growth and fatness profiles might contribute to identify the genetic factors that influence the phenotypic variation of such traits. So far, the majority of porcine transcriptomic studies have investigated differences in gene expression at a global scale rather than at the mRNA isoform level. In the current work, we have investigated the differential expression of mRNA isoforms in the gluteus medius (GM) muscle of 52 Duroc HIGH (increased backfat thickness, intramuscular fat and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids contents) and LOW pigs (opposite phenotype, with an increased polyunsaturated fatty acids content)...
February 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434550/select-skeletal-muscle-mrnas-related-to-exercise-adaptation-are-minimally-affected-by-different-pre-exercise-meals-that-differ-in-macronutrient-profile
#5
Pim Knuiman, Maria T E Hopman, Jeroen A Wouters, Marco Mensink
Background: Substantial research has been done on the impact of carbohydrate and fat availability on endurance exercise adaptation, though its role in the acute adaptive response to resistance exercise has yet to be fully characterized. Purpose: We aimed to assess the effects of a pre-resistance exercise isocaloric mixed meal containing different amounts of carbohydrates and fat, on post-resistance exercise gene expression associated with muscle adaptation. Methods: Thirteen young (age 21.2 ± 1.6 year), recreationally trained (VO2max 51...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430648/effect-of-castration-and-carcass-suspension-method-on-the-quality-and-fatty-acid-profile-of-beef-from-male-dairy-cattle
#6
Yingqun Nian, Paul Allen, Sabine M Harrison, Joseph P Kerry
BACKGROUND: The use of bulls rather than steers for beef production offers some considerable advantages, however, the eating quality of bull beef is an issue of marketing concern. This study assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bull and steer beef. Steer carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon (AS) and by Pelvic suspension (PS). RESULTS: HF Steer beef had higher redness, yellowness, and chroma values, while bulls had higher ultimate pH and darker muscle...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428883/correlated-responses-to-selection-for-intramuscular-fat-in-several-muscles-in-rabbits
#7
Marina Martínez-Álvaro, Pilar Hernández, Saif Agha, Agustín Blasco
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of six generations of selection for intramuscular fat (IMF) in muscle Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) at 9 wk. in IMF and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles with diverse metabolic profile in rabbits. Direct response to selection was 0.33 g of IMF/ 100 g of LTL, around 0.4 SD per generation. A positive correlated response was observed in IMF of Biceps femoris, Supraspinatus and Semimembranosus proprius muscles at 9 wk., representing around 0...
February 1, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415651/integrative-analysis-of-micrornas-and-mrnas-revealed-regulation-of-composition-and-metabolism-in-nelore-cattle
#8
Gabriella B Oliveira, Luciana C A Regitano, Aline S M Cesar, James M Reecy, Karina Y Degaki, Mirele D Poleti, Andrezza M Felício, James E Koltes, Luiz L Coutinho
BACKGROUND: The amount of intramuscular fat can influence the sensory characteristics and nutritional value of beef, thus the selection of animals with adequate fat deposition is important to the consumer. There is growing knowledge about the genes and pathways that control the biological processes involved in fat deposition in muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a well-conserved class of non-coding small RNAs that modulate gene expression across a range of biological functions in animal development and physiology...
February 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414921/microrna-125a-5p-affects-adipocytes-proliferation-differentiation-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-porcine-intramuscular-fat
#9
Jingjing Du, Yan Xu, Peiwen Zhang, Xue Zhao, Mailin Gan, Qiang Li, Jideng Ma, Guoqing Tang, Yanzhi Jiang, Jinyong Wang, Xuewei Li, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and composition are considered crucial indicators of porcine meat quality. However, the molecular mechanism of porcine IMF development is still mostly unclear. Recently, new evidence suggested that microRNA (miRNAs) play important roles in porcine intramuscular adipogenesis. Previously, microRNA-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p) was identified as an important regulator of adipogenesis. In the present study, we found that the expression of miR-125a-5p is dynamically regulated during porcine intramuscular preadipocytes differentiation and that its expression levels in different porcine muscle tissues were negatively involved with IMF content...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413675/fatty-acid-composition-of-polar-and-neutral-meat-lipids-of-goats-browsing-in-native-pasture-of-brazilian-semiarid
#10
Natália L O Fonteles, Susana P Alves, Marta Suely Madruga, Rita R E Queiroga, Albericio P Andrade, Divan S Silva, Amanda P Leal, Rui J B Bessa, Ariosvaldo N Medeiros
Thirty six male goats grazing Caatinga native pasture were randomly assigned to 4 concentrate supplementation levels (0, 5, 10 and 15g/kg of body weight) and slaughtered after 120days. Longissimus muscle meat lipids were extracted and fractionated into neutral (NL) and polar (PL) lipids. Supplementation of grazing goats increased linearly (P<0.05) intramuscular fat (1 to 1.5% of meat) and NL (0.3 to 1% of meat) but decreased linearly (P=0.044) the PL (0.66 to 0.50% of meat). On NL, supplementation increased linearly (P=0...
February 3, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413673/supplementation-of-nigella-sativa-seeds-to-barbarine-lambs-raised-on-low-or-high-concentrate-diets-effects-on-meat-fatty-acid-composition-and-oxidative-stability
#11
M Cherif, B Valenti, S Abidi, G Luciano, S Mattioli, M Pauselli, I Bouzarraa, A Priolo, H Ben Salem
Twenty-eight Barbarine male lambs were used to investigate the effect of dietary Nigella sativa seeds (NSS) on meat fatty acids and oxidative stability in two different feeding systems (high- or low-concentrate). Dietary treatments were planned to offer: 70% barley hay and 30% concentrate (LC); LC+12g/day of NSS (LCN); 30% barley hay and 70% concentrate (HC); HC+12g/day of NSS (HCN). NSS increased intramuscular fat only in the low-concentrate system (P=0.039); accordingly, the content of 14:0, c-9 14:1, t-9 18:1, t-11 18:1 and both individual and sum of odd and branched chain fatty acids were greater in LCN than LC meat...
February 2, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396841/metabolic-phenotype-of-male-obesity-related-secondary-hypogonadism-pre-replacement-and-post-replacement-therapy-with-intra-muscular-testosterone-undecanoate-therapy
#12
Georgios K Dimitriadis, Harpal S Randeva, Saboor Aftab, Asad Ali, John G Hattersley, Sarojini Pandey, Dimitris K Grammatopoulos, Georgios Valsamakis, Georgios Mastorakos, T Hugh Jones, Thomas M Barber
AIM: To explore the metabolic phenotype of obesity-related secondary hypogonadism (SH) in men pre-replacement and post-replacement therapy with long-acting intramuscular (IM) testosterone undecanoate (TU). METHODS: A prospective observational pilot study on metabolic effects of TU IM in male obesity-related SH (hypogonadal [HG] group, n = 13), including baseline comparisons with controls (eugonadal [EG] group, n = 15). Half the subjects (n = 7 in each group) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D)...
February 2, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393432/evaluation-of-type-2-diabetic-mellitus-animal-models-via-interactions-between-insulin-and-mitogen%C3%A2-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathways-induced-by-a-high-fat-and-sugar-diet-and-streptozotocin
#13
Juncheng Zhuo, Qiaohuang Zeng, Dake Cai, Xiaohui Zeng, Yuxing Chen, Haining Gan, Xuejun Huang, Nan Yao, Dane Huang, Chengzhe Zhang
Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), which is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, is a comprehensive dysfunction of metabolism. The insulin receptor (INSR)/phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway is well acknowledged as a predominant pathway associated with glucose uptake; however, the effect of streptozotocin (STZ) plus a high fat and sugar diet (HFSD) on the proteins associated with this pathway requires further elucidation. In order to explore this effect, a T2DM rat model was constructed to investigate T2DM pathogenesis and potential therapeutic advantages...
January 26, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385480/genotype-x-prenatal-and-post-weaning-nutritional-environment-interaction-in-a-composite-beef-cattle-breed-using-reaction-norms-and-a-multi-trait-model
#14
El Hamidi Hay, Andy Roberts
Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genotype x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise). Four nutritional environments (MARG-RES, MARG-CTRL, ADEQ-RES and ADEQ-CTRL) were created based on 2 levels of winter supplement provided to dams grazing winter range during gestation (MARG and ADEQ) and 2 levels of input to offspring during post-weaning development (RES and CTRL)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385468/the-history-of-adipocyte-and-adipose-tissue-research-in-meat-animals
#15
Gary J Hausman, Werner G Bergen, Terry D Etherton, Steve B Smith
Research in growth and development, accumulation of lean, and fat metabolism in farm animals was gaining attention principally from a carcass perspective by meat scientists and animal nutritionists about a century ago. Under the auspices of the USDA Cooperative State Research Service, State Agricultural Experiment Stations, and the Land Grant University system, researchers from various universities embarked on forming combined regional research projects (across states) with unifying specific aims. In the North Central region, this included states in the upper and lower Mid-West region...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385466/effects-of-postruminal-flows-of-protein-and-amino-acids-on-small-intestinal-starch-digestion-in-beef-cattle
#16
D W Brake, K C Swanson
Many nutritionists adopt feeding strategies designed to increase ruminal starch fermentation because ruminal capacity for starch degradation often exceeds amounts of starch able to be digested in the small intestine of cattle. However, increases in fermentable energy supply are positively correlated with increased instances of metabolic disorders and reductions in DMI, and energy derived by cattle subsequent to fermentation is less than that derived when glucose is intestinally absorbed. Small intestinal starch digestion (SISD) appears to be limited by α-glycohydrolase secretions and a precise understanding of digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine remains equivocal...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383561/betaine-promotes-lipid-accumulation-in-adipogenic-differentiated-skeletal-muscle-cells-through-erk-ppar%C3%AE-signalling-pathway
#17
Weiche Wu, Sisi Wang, Ziye Xu, Xinxia Wang, Jie Feng, Tizhong Shan, Yizhen Wang
Betaine, a neutral zwitterionic compound, could regulate intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition and meat quality. However, the efficacy is controversial. Moreover, the regulatory mechanism of betaine on lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle cells remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects and regulatory mechanism of betaine on lipid accumulation in adipogenic-differentiated C2C12 cells. We found that adipogenic-induced C2C12 cells treated with 10 mM betaine for 24 and 48 h had more lipid accumulation than the control group...
January 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377869/impact-of-low-muscularity-and-myosteatosis-on-long-term-outcome-after-curative-colorectal-cancer-surgery-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#18
Toshinori Sueda, Hidekazu Takahasi, Junichi Nishimura, Taishi Hata, Chu Matsuda, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
BACKGROUND: Muscle loss, characterized by reduced muscle mass (myopenia), and infiltration by intermuscular and intramuscular fat (myosteatosis), predicts a poor short-term prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. However, little is known about the influence of myopenia and myosteatosis on long-term outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the prognostic influence of both myopenia and myosteatosis on long-term outcomes after curative colorectal cancer surgery...
January 24, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376089/mri-biomarkers-of-proximal-nerve-injury-in-cidp
#19
Thorsten Lichtenstein, Alina Sprenger, Kilian Weiss, Karin Slebocki, Barbara Cervantes, Dimitrios Karampinos, David Maintz, Gereon R Fink, Tobias D Henning, Helmar C Lehmann
Objective: To evaluate the utility of nerve diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), nerve cross-sectional area, and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multiecho Dixon for assessing proximal nerve injury in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, 11 patients with CIDP and 11 healthy controls underwent a multiparametric MRI protocol with DTI of the sciatic nerve and assessment of muscle proton-density fat fraction of the biceps femoris and the quadriceps femoris muscles by multiecho Dixon MRI...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344008/understanding-the-factors-that-effect-maximal-fat-oxidation
#20
REVIEW
Troy Purdom, Len Kravitz, Karol Dokladny, Christine Mermier
Lipids as a fuel source for energy supply during submaximal exercise originate from subcutaneous adipose tissue derived fatty acids (FA), intramuscular triacylglycerides (IMTG), cholesterol and dietary fat. These sources of fat contribute to fatty acid oxidation (FAox) in various ways. The regulation and utilization of FAs in a maximal capacity occur primarily at exercise intensities between 45 and 65% VO2max, is known as maximal fat oxidation (MFO), and is measured in g/min. Fatty acid oxidation occurs during submaximal exercise intensities, but is also complimentary to carbohydrate oxidation (CHOox)...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
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