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intramuscular fat

Lu Liu, Huanxian Cui, Ruiqi Fu, Maiqing Zheng, Ranran Liu, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
BACKGROUND: The lipid from egg yolk is largely consumed in supplying the energy for embryonic growth until hatching. The remaining lipid in the yolk sac is transported into the hatchling's tissues. The gene expression profiles of fast- and slow-growing chickens, Arbor Acres (AA) and Beijing-You (BJY), were determined to identify global differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways related to lipid metabolism in the pectoralis major at hatching. RESULTS: Between these two breeds, the absolute and weight-specific amounts of total yolk energy (TYE) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in pectoralis major of fast-growing chickens were significantly higher (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yuding Wang, Cai Ma, Yi Sun, Yi Li, Li Kang, Yunliang Jiang
BACKGROUND: The intramuscular fat content (IMF) refers to the amount of fat within muscles, including the sum of phospholipids mainly found in cell membranes, triglycerides and cholesterol, and is determined both by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocyte during the development of pigs. The IMF content is an important economic trait that is genetically controlled by multiple genes. The Laiwu pig is an indigenous fatty pig breed distributed in North China, characterized by excessively higher level of IMF content (9%~12%), therefore, is suitable for the identification of genes controlling IMF variations...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
Ashraf S Gorgey, Robert M Lester, Rodney C Wade, Refka E Khalil, Rehan K Khan, Melodie L Anderson, Teodoro Castillo
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility and initial efficacy of telehealth communication in conjunction with surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) resistance training (RT) to induce muscle hypertrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a home-based setting of within-subject control design of trained vs controlled limbs. Five men with chronic (>1 year postinjury) motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in a twice-weekly telehealth videoconference program using home-based NMES-RT for 8 weeks...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
S Z Song, J P Wu, S G Zhao, D P Casper, B He, T Liu, X Lang, X Y Gong, L S Liu
Sheep production systems in northwest China depend mostly on natural grasslands. Seasonal growth and maturity fluctuations can cause periodical restrictions in food quality and quantity. These fluctuations, in turn, result in variability in fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in different fat depots. Consequently, the study objective was to compare fat deposition, intramuscular fat (IMF) percentage and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus dorsi (LD), kidney fat (KF), tail fat (TF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) in lambs under ME restrictions similar to seasonal changes observed in the natural grasslands of northwest China...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
A Francisco, S P Alves, P V Portugal, M T Dentinho, E Jerónimo, S Sengo, J Almeida, M C Bressan, V M R Pires, C M Alfaia, J A M Prates, R J B Bessa, J Santos-Silva
Meat from lambs finished with high-starch diets often contains low concentration of vaccenic (t11-18:1) and rumenic (c9,t11-18:2) acids and high concentration of t10-18:1. We hypothesized that replacing cereals by dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) and the inclusion of tanniferous feed sources in oil supplemented diets might reduce the accumulation of t10-18:1 and increase the t11-18:1 and c9,t11-18:2 in lamb meat, without affecting the productive performance. In total, 32 lambs were assigned to four diets which combine two factors: basal diet (BD) (cereals v...
October 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Fen-Fen Chen, Yan Xiong, Ying Peng, Yun Gao, Jin Qin, Gui-Yan Chu, Wei-Jun Pang, Gong-She Yang
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content affects the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor of pork. An increasing number of studies are focusing on the functions of microRNAs (miRs) during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte development. Previous studies have proved that miR-425-5p was enriched in porcine skeletal muscles and played important roles in multiple physiological processes; however, its functions during intramuscular adipogenesis remain unclear. To explore the role of miR-425-5p in porcine intramuscular adipogenesis, miR-425-5p agomir and inhibitor were used to perform miR-425-5p overexpression and knockdown in intramuscular preadipocytes, respectively...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stephan van Vliet, Evan L Shy, Sidney Abou Sawan, Joseph W Beals, Daniel Wd West, Sarah K Skinner, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Scott A Paluska, Carl M Parsons, Daniel R Moore, Nicholas A Burd
Background: Protein in the diet is commonly ingested from whole foods that contain various macro- and micronutrients. However, the effect of consuming protein within its natural whole-food matrix on postprandial protein metabolism remains understudied in humans.Objective: We aimed to compare the whole-body and muscle protein metabolic responses after the consumption of whole eggs with egg whites during exercise recovery in young men.Design: In crossover trials, 10 resistance-trained men [aged 21 ± 1 y; 88 ± 3 kg; body fat: 16% ± 1% (means ± SEMs)] received primed continuous l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and l-[1-(13)C]leucine infusions and performed a single bout of resistance exercise...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Katryna A van Leeuwen, Federica Camin, Eliana Jerónimo, Valentina Vasta, Paul D Prenzler, Danielle Ryan, Rui J B Bessa
In this study we measured 13C values of the main fatty acids (FA) present in neutral and polar intramuscular lipids of meat samples from 24 lambs, fed with four different diets supplemented with sunflower and linseed oil and the tanniferous shrub Cistus ladanifer L. The objective was to understand if the increase in intramuscular fat observed in lambs fed simultaneously C. ladanifer and oil was explained mostly by incorporation of diet derived FA or by increased de novo FA synthesis. De novo FA synthesis was evaluated by 13C enrichment (‰) of 16:0 in intramuscular lipids compared to bulk diet or compared to dietary 16:0...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
H A Channon, D N D'Souza, F R Dunshea
Female crossbred pigs were randomly allocated at 16weeks of age to one of three dietary treatments (A: corn and soybean meal; B: wheat and canola meal; C: wheat and sorghum) matched for digestible energy (13.6MJ DE/kg) and total lysine (0.93-0.95%) and fed for 4, 5 or 8weeks, respectively, prior to slaughter. Loin (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) and silverside (M. biceps femoris) were obtained from 20 pigs per dietary treatment group and prepared into steaks and roasts, respectively, for consumer evaluation with ageing treatments of 7 and 28days post-slaughter allocated within muscle...
September 18, 2017: Meat Science
Jie Wang, Yongsong Hu, Mauricio A Elzo, Yu Shi, Xianbo Jia, Shiyi Chen, Songjia Lai
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the polymorphism in the Myf5 gene on meat quality traits in the Ira and Tianfu Black rabbit breeds using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. A total of six SNPs and four haplotypes were found in Ira rabbits and only two SNPs were found in Tianfu Black rabbits. The two rabbit breeds had intermediate levels of genetic diversity according to their polymorphic information content values. The SNP association analysis in Ira indicated that SNP1-6 had a significant association with redness, yellowness and intramuscular fat values in the biceps femoris muscle, and also a significantly effect on redness in the longissimus dorsi muscle...
September 2017: Journal of Genetics
Kyu-Won Lee, Young-Hwa Hwang, Seon-Tea Joo
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of quality grade (QG) on meat tenderness characteristics of ten major muscles from Hanwoo steers. A total of 25 Hanwoo carcasses (5 carcasses × 5 QGs) were selected. Intramuscular fat content, collagen content, sarcomere length, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of Longissimus thoracis (LT), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Psoas major (PM), Semisponals (SS), Triceps brachii (TB), Semimembranosus (SM), Gluteus medius (GM), Rectus Abdominis (RA), Superficialis flexor (SF), and Internal and external intercostal (IC) were determined...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Nigel D Scollan, Eleri M Price, Sarah A Morgan, Sharon A Huws, Kevin J Shingfield
The nutritional value of meat is an increasingly important factor influencing consumer preferences for poultry, red meat and processed meat products. Intramuscular fat content and composition, in addition to high quality protein, trace minerals and vitamins are important determinants of nutritional value. Fat content of meat at retail has decreased substantially over the past 40 years through advances in animal genetics, nutrition and management and changes in processing techniques. Evidence of the association between diet and the incidence of human non-communicable diseases has driven an interest in developing production systems for lowering total SFA and trans fatty acid (TFA) content and enrichment of n-3 PUFA concentrations in meat and meat products...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Jacob A Mota, Hayden K Giuliani, Gena R Gerstner, Eric D Ryan
The examination of mechanisms contributing to the age-related reductions in rapid velocity development is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) on plantarflexor rate of velocity development (RVD) in older adults. Twenty-two men (mean ± SD age = 69 ± 3 years) performed three maximal plantarflexion voluntary isokinetic muscle actions at a velocity of 2.09 rad · s(-1). Peak RVD was determined as the peak derivative of the velocity-time curve from the onset of velocity development to the onset of the load range...
September 21, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
José Carlos Montes, Jurandy Mauro Penitente-Filho, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães, Paulo Sávio Lopes, Breno Soares Camilo, Hugo Hideki Shiomi, Daniel Araújo Lima, Rogério Oliveira Pinho, Jhonata Vieira Tavares do Nascimento Pereira, Denise Silva Okano, Karine Assis Costa, José Domingos Guimarães
In view of the importance of the genetic material of local breeds in the swine industry and the lack of information about reproductive performance of Piau females, two experiments were conducted to evaluate puberty and sexual maturity as well as the morphometry of embryos/fetuses, placenta and uterus during the first 90 days of gestation in Piau breed and Commercial line gilts. In experiment I, 37 Piau and 25 commercial line gilts were used. From the 120 days of age, detection of estrus was performed using mature boars from the first to third estrus of each gilt...
September 12, 2017: Theriogenology
Flávia de Toledo Frias, Karina Cunha E Rocha, Mariana de Mendonça, Gilson Massahiro Murata, Hygor Nunes Araujo, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de Sousa, Érica de Souza, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Nayara de Carvalho Leite, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Rui Curi, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Alice Cristina Rodrigues
The effect of fenofibrate on the metabolism of skeletal muscle and visceral white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice was investigated. C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for eight weeks. Fenofibrate (50 mg/Kg b.w., daily) was administered by oral gavage during the last two weeks of the experimental period. Insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in soleus muscles, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, indirect calorimetry, lipolysis of visceral white adipose tissue, expression of miR-103-3p in adipose tissue and miR-1a, miR-133a/b, miR-206, let7b-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-29-3p, miR-143-3p in soleus muscle, genes related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and soleus muscle, and proteins (phospho-AMPKα2, Pgc1α, Cpt1b), intramuscular lipid staining, and activities of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in skeletal muscle were investigated...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Haiyin Han, Shuhua Gu, Weiwei Chu, Wenxing Sun, Wei Wei, Xiaoyong Dang, Ye Tian, Kaiqing Liu, Jie Chen
Fat distribution affects economic value in pork production. Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) improves meat quality, whereas subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) is usually regarded as waste. In the present study, we analyzed IMAT/SCAT (I/S) ratios in each pig. Individuals selected from a population of 1200 Suhuai pigs were divided into two cohorts; those with high I/S ratios and those with low I/S ratios, and correlations between nuclear Receptor Co-activator 3 (NCOA3), a critical gene involved in regulating fat accumulation, and fat distribution were investigated...
September 18, 2017: Lipids
Takehiro Kasai, Masashi Nakatani, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Naoki Yamamoto, Mitsuhiro Morita, Harumoto Yamada, Kunihiro Tsuchida, Akiyoshi Uezumi
Fatty degeneration of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and loss of function. Preventing fatty degeneration in skeletal muscle is important, but no drug has been used clinically. In this study, we performed drug repositioning using human platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα)-positive mesenchymal progenitors that have been proved to be an origin of ectopic adipocytes in skeletal muscle. We found that promethazine hydrochloride (PH) inhibits adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner without cell toxicity...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
Sally S Lloyd, Edward J Steele, Jose L Valenzuela, Roger L Dawkins
Traditional analyses of a QTL on Bota 19 implicate a surfeit of candidates, but each is of marginal significance in explaining the deposition of healthy, low melting temperature fat within marbled muscle of Wagyu cattle. As an alternative approach, we have used genomic, multigenerational segregation to identify 14 conserved, ancestral 20 Mb haplotypes. These determine the degree and rate of marbling in Wagyu and other breeds of cattle. The melting temperature of intramuscular fat is highly heritable and traceable by haplotyping...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
Yingqun Nian, Paul Allen, Robert Prendiville, Joseph P Kerry
BACKGROUND: The aim was to assess the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of Longissimus thoracis muscle from young dairy bulls; Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Jersey×Holstein-Friesian (JEX). Bulls slaughtered at 15-months old differed in finishing system, while 19-month old bulls differed in energy consumption during a second grazing season and finishing period. All bulls were offered different diet during the first grazing season. RESULTS: Insoluble and total collagen contents increased with slaughter age, while collagen solubility and hue angle reduced with age...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Wei Wei, Wenxing Sun, Haiyin Han, Weiwei Chu, Lifan Zhang, Jie Chen
To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying differential lipid deposition between intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat tissues of pigs, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) expression levels were compared in these two types of adipose tissues. The results showed that both mRNA and protein levels of PPARG were significantly higher in SC fat than in IM fat. Correspondingly, the expression levels of miR-128 and miR-130a, which potentially targeting PPARG 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), in IM fat were 8...
September 4, 2017: Gene
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