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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892898/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-and-excess-of-fatty-acids-in-the-induction-of-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle
#1
Agnieszka Błachnio-Zabielska, Sławomir Grycel, Marta Chacińska, Piotr Zabielski
Skeletal muscle is the main tissue responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Consumption of a high-fat diet rich in saturated fats (HFD) and obesity are associated with accumulation of intramuscular lipids that leads to several disorders, e.g. insulin resistance (IRes) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The mechanism underlying the induction of IRes is still unknown. It was speculated that accumulation of intramuscular triacylglycerols (TAG) is linked to induction of IRes. Now, research focuses on bioactive lipids: long-chain acyl-CoA (LCACoA), diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramides (Cer)...
November 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891709/effect-of-dietary-kapok-oil-supplementation-on-growth-performance-carcass-traits-meat-quality-and-sensory-traits-of-pork-in-finishing-pigs
#2
Keisuke Maeda, Kimiko Kohira, Hiroki Kubota, Kousuke Yamanaka, Kaoru Saito, Masakazu Irie
Kapok seed and oil from the tropical zone are widely used as pig feed to harden porcine fat in Japan. This study evaluated the effect of dietary kapok oil supplementation on pork quality and sensory traits. Five Duroc pigs each were assigned to an experimental group supplemented with kapok oil and a control group. Dietary kapok oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance and intramuscular fat content in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (LM). Supplemental kapok oil increased saturated fatty acid contents in subcutaneous and intramuscular fat and decreased monounsaturated fatty acid levels (P < 0...
November 27, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884102/gene-expression-profile-of-intramuscular-muscle-in-nellore-cattle-with-extreme-values-of-fatty-acid
#3
Mariana P Berton, Larissa F S Fonseca, Daniela F J Gimenez, Bruno L Utembergue, Aline S M Cesar, Luiz L Coutinho, Marcos Vinicius A de Lemos, Carolyn Aboujaoude, Angélica S C Pereira, Rafael M de O Silva, Nedenia B Stafuzza, Fabieli L B Feitosa, Hermenegildo L J Chiaia, Bianca F Olivieri, Elisa Peripolli, Rafael L Tonussi, Daniel M Gordo, Rafael Espigolan, Adrielle M Ferrinho, Lenise F Mueller, Lucia G de Albuquerque, Henrique N de Oliveira, Susan Duckett, Fernando Baldi
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid type in beef can be detrimental to human health and has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes in longissimus thoracis muscle of 48 Nellore young bulls with extreme phenotypes for fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat by RNA-seq technique. RESULTS: Differential expression analyses between animals with extreme phenotype for fatty acid composition showed a total of 13 differentially expressed genes for myristic (C14:0), 35 for palmitic (C16:0), 187 for stearic (C18:0), 371 for oleic (C18:1, cis-9), 24 for conjugated linoleic (C18:2 cis-9, trans11, CLA), 89 for linoleic (C18:2 cis-9,12 n6), and 110 genes for α-linolenic (C18:3 n3) fatty acids...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878919/effect-of-health-status-on-fattening-performance-in-young-crossbred-polish-holstein-friesian-%C3%A3-limousin-bulls-and-steers
#4
Zofia Wielgosz-Groth, Monika Sobczuk-Szul, Zenon Nogalski, Paulina Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Cezary Purwin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of disease incidence on selected parameters of cattle fattening performance and carcass quality, and the fatty acid profile of beef. The experimental materials comprised 16 bulls and 16 steers, Polish Holstein-Friesian × Limousin crossbreeds (including 10 healthy and six treated animals of each category). At 5 weeks of age, bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. The calves were fed milk replacer provided in automatic feeding stations...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878829/genetic-association-of-plag1-scd-cyp7b1-and-fasn-snps-and-their-effects-on-carcass-weight-intramuscular-fat-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-hanwoo-steers-korean-cattle
#5
Hyun Joo Kim, Aditi Sharma, Soo Hyun Lee, Doo Ho Lee, Da Jeong Lim, Yong Min Cho, Boh Suk Yang, Seung Hwan Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866258/fat-containing-soft-tissue-masses-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth F Sheybani, Eric P Eutsler, Oscar M Navarro
The diagnosis of soft-tissue masses in children can be difficult because of the frequently nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics of these lesions. However key findings on imaging can aid in diagnosis. The identification of macroscopic fat within a soft-tissue mass narrows the differential diagnosis considerably and suggests a high likelihood of a benign etiology in children. Fat can be difficult to detect with sonography because of the variable appearance of fat using this modality. Fat is easier to recognize using MRI, particularly with the aid of fat-suppression techniques...
December 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857532/health-implications-of-beef-intramuscular-fat-consumption
#7
Declan J Troy, Brijesh K Tiwari, Seon-Tea Joo
Despite several issues in relation to human health, beef is still a most popular meat product among large section of society due to the presence of high quality protein and other nutrients. The current paper reviews numerous studies that provide nutritional profiles and health implications of high marbled beef consumption. In relation to lipid content of beef, intramuscular fat contains high level of PUFA and MUFA compared to other beef fat. Level and composition of intramuscular fat varies depending on breed and feeding regime...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855411/leg-muscle-involvement-in-facioscapulohumeral-muscular-dystrophy-comparison-between-facioscapulohumeral-muscular-dystrophy-types-1-and-2
#8
Dorothea Mair, Monika Huegens-Penzel, Wolfram Kress, Christian Roth, Andreas Ferbert
BACKGROUND: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) presents with 2 genetically distinct types. We describe for the first time the MRI patterns of leg muscle involvement in type 2 and compare it with type 1. METHODS: The intramuscular fat content was assessed on lower extremity axial T1-weighted MRI scans in 6 FSHD1 and 5 FSHD2 patients. RESULTS: Overall, the muscle involvement profile did not differ substantially between FSHD1 and FSHD2...
November 18, 2016: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854210/skeletal-muscle-quantitative-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-as-an-outcome-measure-for-clinical-trials
#9
Pierre G Carlier, Benjamin Marty, Olivier Scheidegger, Paulo Loureiro de Sousa, Pierre-Yves Baudin, Eduard Snezhko, Dmitry Vlodavets
Recent years have seen tremendous progress towards therapy of many previously incurable neuromuscular diseases. This new context has acted as a driving force for the development of novel non-invasive outcome measures. These can be organized in three main categories: functional tools, fluid biomarkers and imagery. In the latest category, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) offers a considerable range of possibilities for the characterization of skeletal muscle composition, function and metabolism. Nowadays, three NMR outcome measures are frequently integrated in clinical research protocols...
March 3, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853291/a-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-rapidly-alters-muscle-integrity-inflammation-and-gut-microbiota-in-male-rats
#10
Kelsey H Collins, Heather A Paul, David A Hart, Raylene A Reimer, Ian C Smith, Jaqueline L Rios, Ruth A Seerattan, Walter Herzog
The chronic low-level inflammation associated with obesity is known to deleteriously affect muscle composition. However, the manner in which obesity leads to muscle loss has not been explored in detail or in an integrated manner following a short-term metabolic challenge. In this paper, we evaluated the relationships between compromised muscle integrity, diet, systemic inflammatory mediators, adipose tissue, and gut microbiota in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We show that intramuscular fat, fibrosis, and the number of pro-inflammatory cells increased by 3-days and was sustained across 28-days of high-fat high-sugar feeding compared to control-diet animals...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842906/metformin-preconditioned-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-a-better-option-for-the-reversal-of-diabetes-upon-transplantation
#11
Nitya Shree, Ramesh R Bhonde
Metformin is used worldwide as an insulin sensitizer. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells have shown promising results in the reducing hyperglycemia. We examined whether preconditioning of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) with metformin could have a better therapeutic value for the reversal of type 2 diabetes. We compared the effect of metformin, ASCs and metformin preconditioned ASCs (MetASCs) in high fat diet induced C57BL/6 mice by injecting the cells intramuscularly only once where as metformin was given at a concentration of 300mg per kg body weight orally daily...
November 11, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835833/an-assessment-of-the-fatty-acid-composition-of-horse-meat-available-at-the-retail-level-in-northern-spain
#12
Xabier Belaunzaran, Paz Lavín, Luis J R Barron, Angel R Mantecón, John K G Kramer, Noelia Aldai
The objective of the present study was to assess the fatty acid composition of horse-meat available at the retail market in northern Spain. Horse steaks (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle; n=82) were purchased from butcher-shops and large grocery stores throughout six northern regions of Spain in two different seasons. Fat content differed significantly among regions (1.12 to 2.77%). Samples with higher intramuscular fat content presented the highest percentages of total monounsaturated fatty acids and the lowest contents of dimethylacetal and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), while the opposite was found in the leanest samples...
October 29, 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835773/microbiota-of-high-pressure-processed-serrano-ham-investigated-by-culture-dependent-and-culture-independent-methods
#13
N Martínez-Onandi, A Castioni, E San Martín, A Rivas-Cañedo, M Nuñez, S Torriani, A Picon
The microbiota of Serrano dry-cured ham of different chemical composition, subjected or not to high-pressure processing (HPP), was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Microbial counts were submitted to analysis of variance with physicochemical parameters (aw, NaCl concentration, salt-in-lean ratio and intramuscular fat content) or HPP as main effects. In untreated hams, physicochemical parameters significantly affected counts of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and moulds and yeasts...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809381/stability-and-sensitivity-of-water-t2-obtained-with-ideal-cpmg-in-healthy-and-fat-infiltrated-skeletal-muscle
#14
Christopher D J Sinclair, Jasper M Morrow, Robert L Janiczek, Matthew R B Evans, Elham Rawah, Sachit Shah, Michael G Hanna, Mary M Reilly, Tarek A Yousry, John S Thornton
Quantifying muscle water T2 (T2 -water) independently of intramuscular fat content is essential in establishing T2 -water as an outcome measure for imminent new therapy trials in neuromuscular diseases. IDEAL-CPMG combines chemical shift fat-water separation with T2 relaxometry to obtain such a measure. Here we evaluate the reproducibility and B1 sensitivity of IDEAL-CPMG T2 -water and fat fraction (f.f.) values in healthy subjects, and demonstrate the potential of the method to quantify T2 -water variation in diseased muscle displaying varying degrees of fatty infiltration...
November 3, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785930/evaluation-of-paravertebral-muscle-atrophy-and-fatty-degeneration-in-ankylosing-spondylitis
#15
Hatice Resorlu, Yılmaz Savas, Nilufer Aylanc, Ferhat Gokmen
AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess morphological changes in the paravertebral muscles in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis and a 50 member control group were included in the study. The surface area of the multifidus and erector spinae muscles was measured at four levels between L1 and L5, and fatty degeneration in these muscles was scored. Lumbosacral and lumbar lordotic angles were determined for the patient and control groups...
October 27, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775171/discovery-of-porcine-mirna-196a-b-may-influence-porcine-adipogenesis-in-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-by-mirna-sequencing
#16
Linqing Liu, Kun Qian, Chonglong Wang
Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the fat traits that has economic importance in the pork industry. Longissimus dorsi muscle contains IMF and is suitable for studying adipogenesis. To discover further potential regulatory miRNAs that may influence adipogenesis, we analyzed miRNA in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Yorkshire (YY, lean-type) and Chinese Wannanhua (WH, fatty) pigs using miRNA sequencing (miRNA-seq). From this dataset, we identified 598 unique miRNAs comprising 325 pre-miRNAs and 273 novel pre-miRNAs through comparison with known miRNAs in miRBase version 21...
October 24, 2016: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747894/effect-of-nursing-or-mentoring-by-adult-cows-on-physical-activity-performance-and-meat-quality-of-fattening-beef-calves-kept-on-alpine-pastures
#17
Isabelle Dm Gangnat, Pierre-Alain Dufey, Paolo Silacci, Jessika Messadene-Chelali, Michael Kreuzer, Joel Berard
BACKGROUND: Compared to weaned calves, nursed calves benefit from access to milk as nutrient-dense feed and mentoring by their dams. Both may be decisive for growth under difficult conditions such as grazing on alpine pastures, where experience will play an essential role. These factors were investigated separately by comparing nursed calves with calves weaned at 3 months of age and grazing with or without mentor cow (n = 8 calves). RESULTS: Weaned calves with mentor cows spent less time lying and walked more than nursed calves...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745558/higher-membrane-fluidity-mediates-the-increased-subcutaneous-fatty-acid-content-in-pigs-fed-reduced-protein-diets
#18
P A Lopes, A P Martins, S V Martins, M S Madeira, N C Santos, T F Moura, J A M Prates, G Soveral
The production of pork with moderate amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF) without an increase in subcutaneous fat is highly desirable for the meat industry. Several studies indicate that dietary protein reduction during the growing-finishing period of pigs enhances IMF content, but its consequence on carcass fat deposition is still contradictory. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of reduced protein diets (RPD), corrected or not with the limiting amino acid lysine, on subcutaneous fat deposition from pigs with distinct genotypes are mediated by adipose membranes biophysical properties...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738117/effects-of-caponization-and-ovariectomy-on-objective-indices-related-to-meat-quality-in-chickens
#19
X Cui, R Liu, H Cui, G Zhao, M Zheng, Q Li, J Liu, Z Liu, J Wen
Capons and ovariectomized chickens are birds that have been gonadectomized to improve the meat quality. This study investigated the effects of caponization and ovariectomy on physical, chemical, and fatty acid and amino acid profiles of meat from Beijing-You chickens (a Chinese local breed) at market age (17 wk). All birds (20 capons, 20 ovariectomized, and 40 controls) were reared under the same conditions. Breast muscle fiber diameter and area were significantly smaller and the fiber density was higher in capons and ovariectomized chickens than in controls (P < 0...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732905/cortical-bone-deficit-and-fat-infiltration-of-bone-marrow-and-skeletal-muscle-in-ambulatory-children-with-mild-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#20
Daniel G Whitney, Harshvardhan Singh, Freeman Miller, Mary F Barbe, Jill M Slade, Ryan T Pohlig, Christopher M Modlesky
INTRODUCTION: Nonambulatory children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) have underdeveloped bone architecture, low bone strength and a high degree of fat infiltration in the lower extremity musculature. The present study aims to determine if such a profile exists in ambulatory children with mild CP and if excess fat infiltration extends into the bone marrow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ambulatory children with mild spastic CP and typically developing children (4 to 11years; 12/group) were compared...
January 2017: Bone
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