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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143062/-intracranial-cystic-lesions
#1
REVIEW
F Ahlhelm, K Shariat, S Götschi, S Ulmer
CLINICAL PROBLEM: Intracerebral cysts are common findings in imaging of the neurocranium and are not always clinically significant. The pathological spectrum of intracerebral cysts is, however, very broad and in addition to incidental findings includes developmental disorders, malformation tumors, primary and secondary neoplasms and infectious etiologies, such as cerebral abscess formation, cysticercosis or residuals after congenital cytomegalovirus infections. Intracerebral cystic defects may be caused by inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as multiple sclerosis as well as by mitochondriopathies, leukodystrophy, electrolyte disturbances or osmotic demyelination syndrome or brain infarctions, e...
November 15, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139152/giant-intracranial-arteriovenous-malformation-as-the-focus-of-epileptic-seizures
#2
Mio Takayama, Kenji Hara, Aya Matsusue, Brian Waters, Natsuki Ikematsu, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A man in his late thirties was found in a supine position in the hallway of his house. He had been diagnosed with epilepsy at approximately 20 years old. Since stopping treatment, epileptic events occurred more frequently and his condition deteriorated in the past 2 years. Autopsy revealed that head injuries were found on the left side of his head. A fracture from the left parietal bone to the anterior cranial fossa was also detected. A subdural hemorrhage (hematoma) spanned a wide range. A subarachnoid hemorrhage was also identified in the left parietal region...
November 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135613/68ga-dotatate-uptake-in-ischemic-stroke
#3
Émilie Vallée, Nancy Paquet, James Patrick Buteau, Éric Turcotte
A 76-year-old man known to have a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with hepatic and lymph nodes metastasis had a follow-up Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT before Lu-DOTATATE therapy. A new cerebral lesion expressing somatostatin receptors was discovered in the right temporal lobe, suggestive of an ischemic stroke territory. This was later confirmed from the hospital chart where an ischemic stroke was described a month ago.
November 11, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132382/early-motor-function-after-local-treatment-of-brain-metastases-in-the-motor-cortex-region-with-stereotactic-radiotherapy-radiosurgery-or-microsurgical-resection-a-retrospective-study-of-two-consecutive-cohorts
#4
Bogdan Pintea, Brigitta Baumert, Thomas Mehari Kinfe, Konstantinos Gousias, Yaroslav Parpaley, Jan Patrick Boström
BACKGROUND: We compared the functional outcome and influential factors of two standard treatment modalities for central cerebral metastases: electrophysiological-controlled microsurgical resection (MSR) and stereotactic radiotherapy/stereotactic radiosurgery (SRT/SRS). METHODS: We performed a database search for central metastasis treatments during the period from January 2008 to September 2012 in two clinical registers: 1) register for intraoperative neuromonitoring (Department of Neurosurgery), and 2) prospective database for SRT/SRS (Department of Radiotherapy)...
November 13, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131102/a-case-of-a-4-year-old-female-with-a-primary-spinal-malignancy-presenting-with-froin-s-syndrome
#5
Andrew T Hale, Gregory P Fricker, Travis W Crook
We report the case of a 4-year-old female with a primary extradural intramedullary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) leading to a middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct and Froin's syndrome. She presented with a 6-pound weight loss over the previous week, as well as a decreased urinary output and an altered mental status. She underwent a brain MRI that revealed a left MCA infarct, mild ventriculomegaly, and bilateral internal carotid artery, M1, and A1 stenosis. An external ventricular drain (EVD) was placed due to increased intracranial pressure...
November 2, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124086/the-pediatric-ependymoma-protein-database-pepd
#6
George Th Tsangaris, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos
Proteomics, through application of modern high-end mass spectrometric (MS) approaches, offers the advantage of in-depth analysis of cancer tissues regarding their protein composition. Pediatric brain tumor malignancies are scarcely approached by modern holistic technologies (e.g. genomics, proteomics) due to rarity of samples and most importantly difficulty in their collection. Ependymoma, is the third most common tumor in children and is thought to arise from ependymal cells in the wall of the cerebral ventricles or the spinal canal...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123466/neuroprotective-effect-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-regulation-of-necroptotic-neuronal-death-and-inflammation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#7
Mei Yang, Yongjiu Lv, Xiaocui Tian, Jie Lou, Ruidi An, Qian Zhang, Minghang Li, Lu Xu, Zhi Dong
Necrotic cell death is a hallmark feature of ischemic stroke and it may facilitate inflammation by releasing intracellular components after cell-membrane rupture. Previous studies reported that β-caryophyllene (BCP) mitigates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We explored whether BCP exerts a neuroprotective effect in cerebral I/R injury through inhibiting necroptotic cell death and inflammation. Primary neurons with and without BCP (0.2, 1, 5, 25 μM) treatment were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation (OGD/R)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119071/sporadic-meningioangiomatosis-a-series-of-three-pediatric-cases
#8
Raja Anand, Richard J Garling, Janet Poulik, Marko Sabolich, Dylan J Goodrich, Sandeep Sood, Carolyn A Harris, Abilash Haridas
Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare benign, hamartomatous lesion within the leptomeninges and cerebral cortex. Three percent of intractable epileptic patients with tumor develop MA. It may be accompanied with neurofibromatosis type II, or it may occur sporadically. Three patients, age range of 2-16 years old, presented with episodes of seizure. The patients demonstrated no family history or stigmata of neurofibromatosis type II. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was unremarkable for epileptiform activity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed enhancing lesions within the frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate gyrus, and the parietal lobe...
September 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115594/pentoxifylline-exerts-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion%C3%A2-induced-injury-in-a-rat-model-via-the-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway
#9
Jianqing Dong, Xinmei Yuan, Weiwei Xie
Pentoxifylline exhibits complex functions with extensive pharmacological effects and is used therapeutically due to its therapeutic effects and rapid metabolism in the body, with no cumulative effects and few side effects. The present study investigated the effects of pentoxifylline on cerebral ischemia reperfusion‑induced injury (IRI) through suppression of inflammation in rats. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to evaluate the number of neurocytes, and ELISAs were applied to measure tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin‑6, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activities...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114910/n-acetylcysteine-attenuates-the-cuprizone-induced-behavioral-changes-and-oligodendrocyte-loss-in-male-c57bl-7-mice-via-its-anti-inflammation-actions
#10
Lin Zhang, Shuqin Xu, Qingjun Huang, Haiyun Xu
Previous animal studies have linked white matter damage to certain schizophrenia-like behaviors in cuprizone (CPZ)-exposed mouse. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte loss coexist in the brain of such mice. The aim of this study was to examine effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on CPZ-induced behavioral changes and concurrent oligodendrocyte loss, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation in these animals. Male C57BL/6 mice were given intraperitoneal saline or NAC at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks; animals were fed a CPZ-containing diet (0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114296/occipital-intraparenchymal-myxopapillary-ependymoma-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Tushit Bharat Mewada, Ishu Hetram Bishnoi, Hukum Singh, Daljit Singh
Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a histological variant of ependymoma found in the conus medullaris or filum terminale region. Intracranial occurrence of the tumor is a rarity. The most characteristic histological feature of myxopapillary tumors is the abundance of intercellular and perivascular mucin and the arborizing vasculature, which tends to form papillae. We are reporting a 14-year-old patient presented with seizures caused by the right occipital region intraparenchymal lesion. Histopathology confirmed it to be MPE...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114077/the-ubiquitin-e3-ligase-traf6-exacerbates-ischemic-stroke-by-ubiquitinating-and-activating-rac1
#12
Tao Li, Juan-Juan Qin, Xia Yang, Yan-Xiao Ji, Fangliang Guo, Wen-Lin Cheng, Xiaolin Wu, Fu-Han Gong, Ying Hong, Xue-Yong Zhu, Jun Gong, Zhihua Wang, Zan Huang, Zhi-Gang She, Hongliang Li
Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and excitotoxicity contribute to neuronal death during ischemic stroke; however, the mechanisms underlying these complicated pathophysiological processes remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we found that the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) was markedly increased after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in mice. TRAF6 ablation in male mice decreased the infarct volume and neurological deficit scores, and decreased pro-inflammatory signaling, oxidative stress and neuronal death after cerebral I/R, whereas transgenic overexpression of TRAF6 in male mice exhibited opposite effects...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113143/sevoflurane-postconditioning-induced-anti-inflammation-via-inhibition-of-the-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-pathway-contributes-to-neuroprotection-against-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#13
Jung-Won Hwang, Young-Tae Jeon, Young-Jin Lim, Hee-Pyoung Park
The anti-inflammatory actions of sevoflurane postconditioning are suggested as an important mechanism of sevoflurane postconditioning-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. Here, we determined whether the anti-inflammatory effects of sevoflurane postconditioning were mediated via inhibition of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway after global transient cerebral ischemia in rats. Forty-five rats were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: (1) control (10 min of ischemia, n = 10); (2) sevoflurane postconditioning (two periods of sevoflurane inhalation after ischemia for 10 min with a wash period of 10 min, n = 10); (3) resatorvid (intraperitoneal injection of a selective TLR-4 antagonist (3 mg/kg) 30 min before ischemia, n = 10); (4) sevoflurane postconditioning plus resatorvid (n = 10), and sham (n = 5)...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112956/hiv-1-persistence-following-extremely-early-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-art-during-acute-hiv-1-infection-an-observational-study
#14
Timothy J Henrich, Hiroyu Hatano, Oliver Bacon, Louise E Hogan, Rachel Rutishauser, Alison Hill, Mary F Kearney, Elizabeth M Anderson, Susan P Buchbinder, Stephanie E Cohen, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Remi Fromentin, Rebecca Hoh, Albert Y Liu, Joseph M McCune, Jonathan Spindler, Kelly Metcalf-Pate, Kristen S Hobbs, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A Gibson, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Robert F Siliciano, Richard W Price, Douglas D Richman, Nicolas Chomont, Janet D Siliciano, John W Mellors, Steven A Yukl, Joel N Blankson, Teri Liegler, Steven G Deeks
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male) and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male) after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) following 32 weeks of continuous ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112665/long-term-risk-of-a-seizure-disorder-after-eclampsia
#15
Kara A Nerenberg, Alison L Park, Simone N Vigod, Gustavo Saposnik, Howard Berger, Michelle A Hladunewich, Shital Gandhi, Candice K Silversides, Joel G Ray
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence rate and relative risk of a seizure disorder after eclampsia. METHODS: We evaluated 1,565,733 births in a retrospective data linkage cohort study in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2014. We included females aged 15-50 years and excluded patients with epilepsy, conditions predisposing to seizure, and those who died within 30 days of the delivery discharge date. The exposure was defined as a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, namely 1) eclampsia, 2) preeclampsia, or 3) gestational hypertension...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111093/biomarkers-of-cerebral-microembolic-signals
#16
REVIEW
Ruihua Yin, Aijun Ma, Xudong Pan, Shaonan Yang
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. Microembolic signals (MES), as the markers of unstable atherosclerotic plaque, can predict the occurrence and prognosis of ischemic stroke (IS). MES can also assess the efficacy of antithrombotic agents and predict the recurrence probability of IS. Unstable plaques are the main source of MES; thus, numerous biomarkers of atherosclerotic plaque instability are highly likely to predict the presence of MES. This study aims to review recent biomarker candidates for MES or microembolism...
October 27, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110365/magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-canine-gliomatosis-cerebri
#17
Daniela Schweizer-Gorgas, Diana Henke, Anna Oevermann, Johann Lang, Marc Vandevelde, Frank Steffen
A retrospective, case series study was undertaken to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of gliomatosis cerebri in dogs. Fourteen dogs were included by review of histopathological records and contemporaneous MRI. On MRI, all lesions presented as ill-defined, intraaxial lesions within the left and right forebrain hemispheres with involvement of white and gray matter. Lesions presented as hyperintense areas on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences and as hypointense or isointense areas on T1-weighted images, with mild parenchymal contrast enhancement in three dogs...
November 6, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110337/pituitary-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-in-a-patient-with-prolactinoma-a-unique-description
#18
Valeria Barresi, Simona Lionti, Alessandro Raso, Felice Esposito, Salvatore Cannavò, Filippo F Angileri
Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is an aggressive tumor of the CNS and characteristically occurs in the pediatric age. In adulthood, ATRT is rare and it is mainly localized in the cerebral hemispheres. Only 16 cases of ATRT have been described in the sellar region up to now. Interestingly, all sellar ATRTs occurred in adult female patients. Herein we report a novel case of sellar ATRT in a patient with previous history of lactotroph adenoma. Similar to other sellar ATRTs, this case occurred in a female adult patient...
November 6, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107216/pharmacological-effects-and-potential-therapeutic-targets-of-dt-13
#19
REVIEW
Ghulam Jilany Khan, Mohsin Rizwan, Muhammad Abbas, Muhammad Naveed, Yu Boyang, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem, Sara Khan, Shengtao Yuan, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Li Sun
DT-13 is an isolated compound from Dwarf lillytruf tuber and currently among active research drugs by National Natural Science foundation of China for its several potential effects. The drug has been reported for its multiple pharmacological actions however no thorough review studies are available on it. Our present study is highlighting the pros and cons of DT-13 focusing on its potential pharmacological actions, therapeutic utilization and further exploration for novel targets. The drug possesses very low toxicity profile, quick onset and long duration of action with slow elimination that combinely makes it favorable for the clinical studies...
October 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104534/mir-148b-regulates-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-rat-ischemic-stroke-model
#20
Jingru Wang, Tuanzhi Chen, Guangzhen Shan
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Stroke induced proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) that have been proven to participate in ischemic brain repair. However, molecular mechanisms that regulate neurogenesis have not been fully investigated. MicroRNAs play an important role in the neurological repairing process and impact stroke recovery outcome. MiRNA-148b has been reported to regulate cell proliferation in tumor cells, but its role in NSCs after ischemic stroke remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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