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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817120/the-erythropoietin-derived-peptide-mk-x-and-erythropoietin-have-neuroprotective-effects-against-ischemic-brain-damage
#1
Seung-Jun Yoo, Bongki Cho, Deokho Lee, Gowoon Son, Yeong-Bae Lee, Hyung Soo Han, Eunjoo Kim, Chanil Moon, Cheil Moon
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been well known as a hematopoietic cytokine over the past decades. However, recent reports have demonstrated that EPO plays a neuroprotective role in the central nervous system, and EPO has been considered as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic stroke. Despite the neuroprotective effect of EPO, clinical trials have shown its unexpected side effects, including undesirable proliferative effects such as erythropoiesis and tumor growth. Therefore, the development of EPO analogs that would confer neuroprotection without adverse effects has been attempted...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811005/regulatory-effects-of-mir-146a-b-on-the-function-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#2
Zeng-Feng Su, Zhong-Wu Sun, Ying Zhang, Shu Wang, Qi-Gui Yu, Ze-Bing Wu
The study aims to explore how microRNA-146a/b (miR-146a/b) regulates the function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in acute ischemic stroke in mice. Eighty male SPF C57BL/6J mice were evenly divided into the model-6 h, model-12 h, model-24 h (mice suffered from middle cerebral artery occlusion [MCAO] for 6 h, 12 h and model-24 h) and normal groups. EPCs were transfected and assigned into the control, MCAO, MCAO-miR-146a, MCAO-miR-146b and MCAO-miR-146a/b groups. The qRT-PCR was used to detect miR-146a/b expression in EPCs...
August 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810545/electroacupuncture-attenuates-learning-and-memory-impairment-via-activation-of-%C3%AE-7nachr-mediated-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-rats
#3
Jiao Liu, Chunyan Li, Hongwei Peng, Kunqiang Yu, Jing Tao, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen
Studies have reported that electroacupuncture (EA) may reduce learning and memory impairment following cerebral ischemic injury. However, the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, the attenuation of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by EA in rats was investigated. EA at the Baihui (DU 20) and Shenting (DU 24) acupoints was demonstrated to significantly improve performance in the Morris water maze task, with shortened latency time and increased frequency of passing the platform...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808799/transorbital-endoscopic-approach-for-exposure-of-the-sylvian-fissure-middle-cerebral-artery-and-crural-cistern-an-anatomical-study
#4
João Paulo Almeida, Armando S Ruiz-Treviño, Sathwik R Shetty, Sacit B Omay, Vijay K Anand, Theodore H Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The availability of minimal access instrumentation and endoscopic visualization has revolutionized the field of minimally invasive skull base surgery. The transorbital endoscopic approach using an eyelid incision has been proposed as a new minimally invasive technique for the treatment of skull base pathology, mostly extradural tumors. Our study aims to evaluate the anatomical aspects and potential role of the transorbital endoscopic approach for exposure of the sylvian fissure, middle cerebral artery and crural cistern...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808202/-borneol-is-neuroprotective-against-permanent-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-by-suppressing-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines
#5
Lei Chang, Chun-Yu Yin, Hai-Yin Wu, Bin-Bin Tian, Yan Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death globally. It occurs when a major artery is occluded in the brain and leads to death of cells within the injured tissue. (+)-Borneol, a simple bicyclic monoterpene extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in various types of diseases. However, no study has proved the effects of (+)-borneol on functional recovery from permanent ischemic stroke and the mechanism is still unknown. Here, we report that in the rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia, we found that (+)-borneol (1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807664/social-interaction-modulates-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-male-mice
#6
Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Ning Zhang, Adam H Haines, Surbhi, Min Zhou, A Courtney DeVries
Social isolation is a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, although the underlying mechanisms remain underspecified. Considering the potential of microglia to become sensitized by stressors and their role in neuroinflammation, we hypothesized that social isolation primes microglia, resulting in an exaggerated neuroimmune response to experimental cerebral ischemia. First, major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) gene expression, an indicator of microglial priming, was compared between mice that were socially isolated or pair-housed...
August 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806983/profiling-of-metalloprotease-activities-in-cerebrospinal-fluids-of-patients-with-neoplastic-meningitis
#7
Catharina Conrad, Kristina Dorzweiler, Miles A Miller, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Herwig Strik, Jörg W Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic invasion into leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, resulting in neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a fatal complication of advanced solid and hematological neoplasms. Identification of malignant involvement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) early in the disease course has crucial prognostic and therapeutic implications, but remains challenging. As indicators of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier, Matrix Metalloproteases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases (ADAMs) are potential analytes for cerebral pathophysiology and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells into the CSF...
August 14, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805936/characterizing-hypoxia-in-human-glioma-a-simultaneous-multimodal-mri-and-pet-study
#8
Christine Preibisch, Kuangyu Shi, Anne Kluge, Mathias Lukas, Benedikt Wiestler, Jens Göttler, Jens Gempt, Florian Ringel, Mohamed Al Jaberi, Jürgen Schlegel, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Thomas Pyka, Stefan Förster
Hypoxia plays an important role for the prognosis and therapy response of cancer. Thus, hypoxia imaging would be a valuable tool for pre-therapeutic assessment of tumor malignancy. However, there is no standard validated technique for clinical application available yet. Therefore, we performed a study in 12 patients with high-grade glioma, where we directly compared the two currently most promising techniques, namely the MR-based relative oxygen extraction fraction (MR-rOEF) and the PET hypoxia marker H-1-(3-[(18) F]-fluoro-2-hydroxypropyl)-2-nitroimidazole ([(18) F]-FMISO)...
August 14, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802564/interactions-between-platelets-and-inflammatory-monocytes-affect-sickness-behavior-in-mice-with-liver-inflammation
#9
Charlotte D'Mello, Wagdi Almishri, Hongqun Liu, Mark Gordon Swain
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with inflammatory liver disease commonly develop debilitating symptoms, called sickness behaviors, which arise via changes in brain function. Monocytes that produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) interact with cerebral endothelial cells to activate microglial cells and promote sickness behavior. Platelets regulate inflammation, and aggregates of monocytes and platelets are increased in the circulation of patients with liver disease. We investigated the role of platelets in inducing inflammatory features of circulating monocytes and promoting sickness behaviors in mice with cholestatic liver injury...
August 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801324/mechanical-thrombectomy-for-repeated-cerebral-tumor-embolism-from-a-thoracic-sarcomatoid-carcinoma
#10
Raoul Pop, Dan Mihoc, Monica Manisor, Johann Sebastian Richter, Veronique Lindner, Ralf Janssen-Langenstein, Mihaela Simu, Valerie Wolff, Remy Beaujeux
Cerebral embolism originating from intracardiac tumors represents a rare cause of stroke and has been documented in both adult and pediatric populations. We present a patient recently diagnosed with a right pulmonary hilum tumor, invading the pulmonary veins and the left atrium. Two consecutive episodes of large cerebral vessel occlusion in separate vascular territories occurred in the same day and were treated by mechanical thrombectomy. Embolic material retrieved on both occasions contained tumor fragments with peripheral endothelialization...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800332/cerebral-oxidative-stress-and-microvasculature-defects-in-tnf-%C3%AE-expressing-transgenic-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infected-apoe-mice
#11
Farheen Rokad, Ryan Moseley, Rowan S Hardy, Sasanka Chukkapalli, StJohn Crean, Lakshmyya Kesavalu, Sim K Singhrao
The polymicrobial dysbiotic subgingival biofilm microbes associated with periodontal disease appear to contribute to developing pathologies in distal body sites, including the brain. This study examined oxidative stress, in the form of increased protein carbonylation and oxidative protein damage, in the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) transgenic mouse that models inflammatory TNF-α excess during bacterial infection; and in the apolipoprotein knockout (ApoE-/-) mouse brains, following Porphyromonas gingivalis gingival monoinfection...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792646/clinical-applications-of-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-cest-mri
#12
Kyle M Jones, Alyssa C Pollard, Mark D Pagel
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed and employed in multiple clinical imaging research centers worldwide. Selective radiofrequency (RF) saturation pulses with standard 2D and 3D MRI acquisition schemes are now routinely performed, and CEST MRI can produce semiquantitative results using magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym ) analysis while accounting for B0 inhomogeneity. Faster clinical CEST MRI acquisition methods and more quantitative acquisition and analysis routines are under development...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790217/-an-elderly-patient-with-pilocytic-astrocytoma-operated-on-14-years-after-initial-detection-a-case-study
#13
Naoyuki Isobe, Takeshi Nishimoto, Takeshi Ueda
Pilocytic astrocytomas are found predominantly in the pediatric population and are extremely rare in elderly patients. We describe a case of pilocytic astrocytoma in an elderly patient who presented with the symptoms of an enlarged tumoral cyst. A 70-year-old woman was found to have an asymptomatic small solid tumor with a cystic component in the right frontal lobe at "Ningen Dock(medical checkup)of the Brain". She was hospitalized and underwent further examinations including cerebral angiography. At that time, she was opposed to undergoing an operation for tumor removal owing to lack of symptoms...
August 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776218/molecular-pathology-of-cerebral-tnf-%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-inos-and-nrf2-in-forensic-autopsy-cases-with-special-regard-to-deaths-due-to-environmental-hazards-and-intoxication
#14
Si-Hao Du, Xiao-Hui Tan, Rui Zhao, Dong Zhao, Ye Xue, Hui-Jun Wang, Xiao-Li Xie, Qi Wang
Deaths involved with environmental hazards and intoxication might present with minimal or nonspecific morphological features, which are insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The present study investigated the postmortem brain mRNA and immunohistochemical expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in forensic cases. Relative mRNA quantification using Taqman real-time PCR assay demonstrated higher expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS, and lower expression of Nrf2 in methamphetamine intoxication and hyperthermia cases, higher expression of iNOS in phenobarbital intoxication cases, and higher expression of Nrf2 in phenobarbital intoxication and hypothermia cases...
August 3, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770500/loss-of-pericytes-in-radiation-necrosis-after-glioblastoma-treatments
#15
Soon-Tae Lee, Youngbeom Seo, Ji-Yeon Bae, Kon Chu, Jin Wook Kim, Seung Hong Choi, Tae Min Kim, Il Han Kim, Sung-Hye Park, Chul-Kee Park
Radiation necrosis (RN) in brain tumor patients is often symptomatic, persistent without immediate resolution, and confused with tumor recurrence. Cerebral vascular pericytes are essential for endothelial function, vascular integrity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we showed that the loss of pericytes is involved in the pathogenesis of RN. From a brain tumor tissue repository, we identified three patients since 2011 with pathologically confirmed RN after the standard treatment for glioblastoma (GBM). The RN and their preradiation GBM tissues were serially processed for Western blotting using cell-type-specific antibodies against endothelial (CD31, active RhoA), pericyte [platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β)], alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), astrocyte (GFAP), myelin sheath protein (MBP), and microglial markers (Iba1)...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763467/effects-of-tnf-%C3%AE-on-penile-structure-alteration-in-rats-with-hyperprolactinemia
#16
Zhong-Lin Wang, Ling-Yu Yang, Hong-Huan Chen, Hsiao-Hsin Lin, Yi-Ting Tsai, William J Huang
This study aimed to investigate the effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody (Ab) on alteration of penile structure in the hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) rat model. HyperPRL was induced in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by allografting anterior pituitary (AP) glands under the renal capsule (+AP rats). Rats implanted with cerebral cortex (CX) were used as sham control (+CX rats). At 6 weeks post implantation, rats received either a single intra-testicular dose of TNF-α Ab (12.5 μg/kg) or testosterone replacement (2 doses of testosterone enanthate [TE], 3 mg/kg), and they were sacrificed 1 week later...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761630/s100-b-a-new-concept-in-neurocritical-care
#17
REVIEW
Omidvar Rezaei, Hossein Pakdaman, Kurosh Gharehgozli, Leila Simani, Amir Vahedian-Azimi, Sina Asaadi, Zahra Sahraei, Mohammadreza Hajiesmaeili
After brain injuries, concentrations of some brain markers such as S100B protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are correlated with the severity and outcome of brain damage. To perform an updated review of S100B roles in human neurocritical care domain, an electronic literature search was carried among articles published in English prior to March 2017. They were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, EMBSCO, CINAHL, ISC and the Cochrane Library using keywords including "brain", "neurobiochemical marker", "neurocritical care", and "S100B protein"...
April 4, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757574/finding-a-balance-between-protection-and-pathology-the-dual-role-of-perforin-in-human-disease
#18
REVIEW
Robin C Willenbring, Aaron J Johnson
Perforin is critical for controlling viral infection and tumor surveillance. Clinically, mutations in perforin are viewed as unfavorable, as lack of this pore-forming protein results in lethal, childhood disease, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (FHL 2). However, many mutations in the coding region of PRF1 are not yet associated with disease. Animal models of viral-associated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) have identified perforin as critical for inducing pathologic central nervous system CNS vascular permeability...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755288/neuroprotective-effect-of-chitosan-oligosaccharide-on-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage-in-neonatal-rats
#19
Wei Wu, Wei Wei, Min Lu, Xiaoyun Zhu, Ning Liu, Yang Niu, Tao Sun, Yuxiang Li, Jianqiang Yu
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality and permanent neurological disability worldwide and the effective treatment strategies are not yet available. It has been demonstrated that Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) exerts protective effect in vitro ischemic brain injury. However, no information is available on possible effects of COS on neonatal HIBD. To investigate the hypothesis of the potential neuroprotective effect of COS on the brain injury due to HIBD, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with left carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% oxygen (balanced with nitrogen) for 2...
July 28, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754131/a-translocator-protein-18%C3%A2-kda-agonist-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Han-Dong Li, Minshu Li, Elaine Shi, Wei-Na Jin, Kristofer Wood, Rayna Gonzales, Qiang Liu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia is a leading cause of death and disability with limited treatment options. Although inflammatory and immune responses participate in ischemic brain injury, the molecular regulators of neuroinflammation after ischemia remain to be defined. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) mainly localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane is predominantly expressed in glia within the central nervous system during inflammatory conditions. This study investigated the effect of a TSPO agonist, etifoxine, on neuroinflammation and brain injury after ischemia/reperfusion...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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