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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352732/long-term-effects-of-crizotinib-in-alk-positive-tumors-excluding-nsclc-a-phase-1b-open-label-study
#1
Carlo Gambacorti-Passerini, Sergey Orlov, Li Zhang, Fadi Braiteh, Huiqiang Huang, Taito Esaki, Keizo Horibe, Jin-Seok Ahn, Joseph T Beck, William Jeffrey Edenfield, Yuankai Shi, Matthew Taylor, Kenji Tamura, Brian A Van Tine, Shang-Ju Wu, Jolanda Paolini, Paulina Selaru, Tae Min Kim
Crizotinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), MET, and ROS1, is approved for treatment of patients with ALK-positive or ROS1-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, ALK rearrangements are also implicated in other malignancies, including anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs). In this ongoing, multicenter, single-arm, open-label phase 1b study (PROFILE 1013; NCT01121588), patients with ALK-positive advanced malignancies other than NSCLC were to receive a starting dose of crizotinib 250 mg twice daily...
January 20, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352433/development-and-clinical-application-of-vertebral-metrics-using-a-stereo-vision-system-to-assess-the-spine
#2
Ana Teresa Gabriel, Cláudia Quaresma, Mário Forjaz Secca, Pedro Vieira
The biomechanical changes in the spinal column are considered to be the main responsible for rachialgia. Although radiological techniques use ionizing radiation, they are the most applied tools to assess the biomechanics of the spine. To face this problem, non-invasive techniques must be developed. Vertebral Metrics is an ionizing radiation-free instrument designed to detect the 3D position of each vertebrae in a standing position. Using a stereo vision system combined with low intensity UV light, recognition is achieved with software capable of distinguishing fluorescent marks...
January 20, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352163/word-mode-a-crowding-free-reading-protocol-for-individuals-with-macular-disease
#3
Stuart Wallis, Yit Yang, Stephen J Anderson
Central retinal loss through macular disease markedly reduces the ability to read largely because identification of a word using peripheral vision is negatively influenced by nearby text, a phenomenon termed visual crowding. Here, we present a novel peripheral reading protocol, termed Word Mode, that eliminates crowding by presenting each word in isolation but in a position that mimics its natural position in the line of text being read, with each new word elicited using a self-paced button press. We used a gaze-contingent paradigm to simulate a central scotoma in four normally-sighted observers, and measured oral reading speed for text positioned 7...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352075/o-linked-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosamine-o-glcnac-modification-a-new-pathway-to-decode-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#4
REVIEW
Zafer Gurel, Nader Sheibani
The incidence of diabetes continues to rise among all ages and ethnic groups worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes that affects the retinal neurovasculature causing serious vision problems, including blindness. Its pathogenesis and severity is directly linked to the chronic exposure to high glucose conditions. No treatments are currently available to stop the development and progression of DR. To develop new and effective therapeutic approaches, it is critical to better understand how hyperglycemia contributes to the pathogenesis of DR at the cellular and molecular levels...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351997/spatiotemporal-organization-of-exocytosis-emerges-during-neuronal-shape-change
#5
Fabio L Urbina, Shawn M Gomez, Stephanie L Gupton
Neurite elongation and branching in developing neurons requires plasmalemma expansion, hypothesized to occur primarily via exocytosis. We posited that exocytosis in developing neurons and nonneuronal cells would exhibit distinct spatiotemporal organization. We exploited total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to image vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-pHluorin-mediated exocytosis in mouse embryonic cortical neurons and interphase melanoma cells, and developed computer-vision software and statistical tools to uncover spatiotemporal aspects of exocytosis...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351936/intravitreal-bevacizumab-for-postviral-fever-retinitis-a-novel-approach-for-early-resolution-of-macular-oedema
#6
Rohan Chawla, Dheepak M Sundar, Prasad Gupta, Kanhaiya Mittal
Severe macular oedema causing marked loss of vision is seen in cases of retinitis developing postviral fever. The use of antivascular endothelial growth factor agents for macular oedema and submacular fluid secondary to viral retinitis has not been studied or well established in the past. We report a case series of two patients of postviral retinitis with severe macular oedema resistant to steroid therapy, treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. The patients showed significant symptomatic improvement in the visual acuity...
January 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351910/visual-literacy-in-bloom-using-bloom-s-taxonomy-to-support-visual-learning-skills
#7
Jessie B Arneson, Erika G Offerdahl
Vision and Change identifies science communication as one of the core competencies in undergraduate biology. Visual representations are an integral part of science communication, allowing ideas to be shared among and between scientists and the public. As such, development of scientific visual literacy should be a desired outcome of undergraduate instruction. We developed the Visualization Blooming Tool (VBT), an adaptation of Bloom's taxonomy specifically focused on visual representations, to aid instructors in designing instruction and assessments to target scientific visual literacy in undergraduate instruction...
2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351407/pedf-expression-affects-the-oxidative-and-inflammatory-state-of-choroidal-endothelial-cells
#8
Mitra Farnoodian, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among the elderly population, and is associated with severe macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Although the pathogenesis of AMD is associated with choroidal dysfunction and CNV, the detailed underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Altered production of pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), a neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic factor, contributes to CNV. Furthermore, exogenous PEDF mitigates angiogenesis in preclinical CNV models...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351358/microfluidics-based-subretinal-chemical-neuromodulation-of-photoreceptor-degenerated-retinas
#9
Corey M Rountree, John B Troy, Laxman Saggere
Purpose: Retinal prostheses can restore rudimentary vision in cases of photoreceptor degeneration through electrical stimulation, but face difficulties achieving high spatial resolution because electrical current is an inherently unnatural stimulus. We investigated the therapeutic feasibility of using patterned delivery of the glutamate neurotransmitter, a primary agent of natural synaptic communication of the retina, as a biomimetic chemical alternative to electrical current for neuromodulation of photoreceptor degenerate retina...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351351/comparing-performance-on-the-mnread-ipad-application-with-the-mnread-acuity-chart
#10
Aurélie Calabrèse, Long To, Yingchen He, Elizabeth Berkholtz, Paymon Rafian, Gordon E Legge
Our purpose was to compare reading performance measured with the MNREAD Acuity Chart and an iPad application (app) version of the same test for both normally sighted and low-vision participants. Our methods included 165 participants with normal vision and 43 participants with low vision tested on the standard printed MNREAD and on the iPad app version of the test. Maximum Reading Speed, Critical Print Size, Reading Acuity, and Reading Accessibility Index were compared using linear mixed-effects models to identify any potential differences in test performance between the printed chart and the iPad app...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351267/motorcycle-that-see-multifocal-stereo-vision-sensor-for-advanced-safety-systems-in-tilting-vehicles
#11
Gustavo Gil, Giovanni Savino, Simone Piantini, Marco Pierini
Advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, have shown the possibility to anticipate crash accidents and effectively assist road users in critical traffic situations. This is not the case for motorcyclists, in fact ADAS for motorcycles are still barely developed. Our aim was to study a camera-based sensor for the application of preventive safety in tilting vehicles. We identified two road conflict situations for which automotive remote sensors installed in a tilting vehicle are likely to fail in the identification of critical obstacles...
January 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351010/using-human-vision-to-detect-variation-in-avian-coloration-how-bad-is-it
#12
Zachary T Bergeron, Rebecca C Fuller
Assessing variation in animal coloration is difficult, as animals differ in their visual system properties. This has led some to propose that human vision can never be used to evaluate coloration, yet many studies have a long history of relying on human vision. To reconcile these views, we compared the reflectance spectra of preserved avian plumage elements with two measures that are human biased: RGB values from digital photographs and the corresponding reflectance spectra from a field guide. We measured 73 plumage elements across 14 bird species...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350321/sliding-to-predict-vision-based-beating-heart-motion-estimation-by-modeling-temporal-interactions
#13
Angelica I Aviles-Rivero, Samar M Alsaleh, Alicia Casals
PURPOSE: Technical advancements have been part of modern medical solutions as they promote better surgical alternatives that serve to the benefit of patients. Particularly with cardiovascular surgeries, robotic surgical systems enable surgeons to perform delicate procedures on a beating heart, avoiding the complications of cardiac arrest. This advantage comes with the price of having to deal with a dynamic target which presents technical challenges for the surgical system. In this work, we propose a solution for cardiac motion estimation...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350199/cortical-visual-prostheses-from-microstimulation-to-functional-percept
#14
Armin Najarpour Foroushani, Christopher Pack, Mohamad Sawan
Cortical visual prostheses are intended to restore vision by targeted electrical stimulation of the visual cortex. The perception of spots of light, called phosphenes, resulting from microstimulation of the visual pathway, suggests the possibility of creating meaningful percept made of phosphenes. However, to date electrical stimulation of V1 has still not resulted in perception of phosphenated images that goes beyond punctate spots of light. In this review, we summarize the clinical and experimental progress that has been made in generating phosphenes and modulating their associated perceptual characteristics in human and macaque primary visual cortex (V1)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348208/learning-to-make-external-sensory-stimulus-predictions-using-internal-correlations-in-populations-of-neurons
#15
Audrey J Sederberg, Jason N MacLean, Stephanie E Palmer
To compensate for sensory processing delays, the visual system must make predictions to ensure timely and appropriate behaviors. Recent work has found predictive information about the stimulus in neural populations early in vision processing, starting in the retina. However, to utilize this information, cells downstream must be able to read out the predictive information from the spiking activity of retinal ganglion cells. Here we investigate whether a downstream cell could learn efficient encoding of predictive information in its inputs from the correlations in the inputs themselves, in the absence of other instructive signals...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347880/functions-of-utopia-how-utopian-thinking-motivates-societal-engagement
#16
Julian W Fernando, Nicholas Burden, Adam Ferguson, Léan V O'Brien, Madeline Judge, Yoshihisa Kashima
Images of ideal societies, utopias, are all around us; yet, little is known of how utopian visions affect ordinary people's engagement with their societies. As goals for society, utopias may elicit processes of collective self-regulation, in which citizens are critical of, or take action to change, the societies they live in. In three studies, we investigated the psychological function of utopian thinking. In Study 1, measured utopianism was correlated with the activation of three utopian functions: change, critique, and compensation...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347716/inferring-low-dimensional-microstructure-representations-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#17
Nicholas Lubbers, Turab Lookman, Kipton Barros
We apply recent advances in machine learning and computer vision to a central problem in materials informatics: the statistical representation of microstructural images. We use activations in a pretrained convolutional neural network to provide a high-dimensional characterization of a set of synthetic microstructural images. Next, we use manifold learning to obtain a low-dimensional embedding of this statistical characterization. We show that the low-dimensional embedding extracts the parameters used to generate the images...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346801/early-gene-expression-profile-in-retinal-ganglion-cell-layer-after-optic-nerve-crush-in-mice
#18
Satoru Ueno, Azusa Yoneshige, Yoshiki Koriyama, Man Hagiyama, Yoshikazu Shimomura, Akihiko Ito
Purpose: Optic nerve crush (ONC) induces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, which causes vision loss in glaucoma. To investigate early events leading to apoptosis of RGCs, we performed gene expression analysis of injured retinas in the period before RGC loss. Methods: The temporal changes of gene profiles at 0, 1, and 4 days after ONC were determined by DNA microarray. To verify the gene expression changes in RGCs, we enriched RGCs by laser-captured microdissection and performed real-time RT-PCR of 14 selected genes...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346499/repeatability-and-agreement-of-visual-acuity-using-the-etdrs-number-chart-landolt-c-chart-or-etdrs-alphabet-chart-in-eyes-with-or-without-sight-threatening-diseases
#19
Voraporn Chaikitmongkol, Onnisa Nanegrungsunk, Direk Patikulsila, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Neil M Bressler
Importance: The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) alphabet chart is not feasible for measuring best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for individuals who are unfamiliar with the Roman alphabet. The ETDRS Landolt C chart is an alternative, but it may not reflect true BCVA among those with confusion between left and right. The ETDRS number chart might overcome these limitations, but little is known regarding its reliability. Objective: To evaluate repeatability and agreement of BCVA using the ETDRS number chart or Landolt C chart compared with ETDRS alphabet charts in healthy and diseased eyes...
January 18, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346240/response-of-inflammatory-cystoid-macular-edema-to-treatment-using-oral-acetazolamide
#20
Kathryn L Pepple, Macklin H Nguyen, Kaivon Pakzad-Vaezi, Kathleen Williamson, Naomi Odell, Cecilia Lee, Thellea K Leveque, Russell N Van Gelder
PURPOSE: To determine the treatment effect of oral acetazolamide on refractory inflammatory macular edema. METHODS: A retrospective review of identified patients with uveitic or pseudophakic macular edema treated using acetazolamide between 2007 and 2014. Visual acuity and central macular subfield thickness was determined at baseline and at first follow-up. Baseline optical coherence tomography features were analyzed as predictors of acetazolamide response. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (19 eyes) of 61 screened met all criteria...
January 16, 2018: Retina
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