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Extracellular water

An Ding, Jinlong Wang, Dachao Lin, Rong Zeng, Shengping Yu, Zhendong Gan, Nanqi Ren, Guibai Li, Heng Liang
Gravity-driven membrane filtration (GDM) is promising for decentralized rainwater recycling, owing to low maintenance and energy consumption. However, the organic removal by GDM process is sometimes undesirable and the quality of the permeate cannot meet the standard of water reuse. To improve this, granular activate carbon (GAC) was added as a particle layer on the membrane surface of GDM system. Additionally, a system with sand addition and a system with no particle addition were trialed as comparisons, to study the combined effects of particle hindering and adsorption on the removal efficacy of organics and the development of permeate flux...
October 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Xinyu Hu, Yongmei Wang, Liangliang Zhang, Man Xu, Jianfa Zhang, Wei Dong
Salecan, a novel water-soluble extracellular β-glucan, is very suitable for the hydrogel preparation. Here, pH-sensitive magnetic composite hydrogel was fabricated by the graft copolymerization of crotonic acid (CA) and N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide (HMAA) onto salecan in the presence of Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. The embedment of Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles into salecan-g-poly(CA-co-HMAA) hydrogel network endowed the material with magnetic property. In addition, DOX not only achieved effectively bound to the composite hydrogel, but also released in a controlled and pH-dependent manner...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Takamasa Kido, Masashi Tsunoda, Chiemi Sugaya, Hiroshi Hano, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
The contamination of ground water by fluoride has been reported worldwide. Most fluoride (approximately 70%) is filtered by the kidneys; humans or experimental animals with renal damage therefore may be more affected by fluoride exposure than those with normal kidney function. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which involves macrophage-promoted extracellular matrix production and myofibroblast migration, can be induced in rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). We examined the effects of fluoride exposure on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney of UUO rats...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology
Catherine A Vulfius, Igor E Kasheverov, Elena V Kryukova, Ekaterina N Spirova, Irina V Shelukhina, Vladislav G Starkov, Tatyana V Andreeva, Grazyna Faure, Marios Zouridakis, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein...
2017: PloS One
Liyuan Li, Pan Wang, Kaiqiang Hu, Xiaoyan Wang, Wenping Cai, Chao Ai, Shangfeng Liu, Zhao Wang
Nacre is a widely used mineral medicine that has been reported to have beneficial effects in bone remodeling without an increase in inflammation. Water-soluble nacre matrix has been demonstrated to be responsible for the effect, yet core active ingredients are unknown. Pinctada fucata mantle gene 1 (PFMG1) was first discovered in the mantle tissue of Pinctada fucata. The protein has 2 EF-hands, a calcium-binding domain. PFMG1 protein can affect the growth of calcium carbonate crystals in vitro Here, we demonstrate that PFMG1 affects cell-cycle distribution and promotes preosteoblast proliferation...
October 11, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Frank R Halfwerk, Jeroen Rouwkema, Jan A Gossen, Jan G Grandjean
INTRODUCTION: Many biomaterials are used in cardio-thoracic surgery with good short-term results. However, calcification, dehiscence, and formation of scar tissue are reported. The aim of this research is to characterise decellularised pericardium after supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) processing as an alternative biological material for uses in cardio-thoracic surgery. METHODS: Porcine and bovine pericardium were decellularised using scCO2. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness and suture retention strength were determined...
October 3, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Kelvin C W Leung, Robert R Quinn, Pietro Ravani, Henry Duff, Jennifer M MacRae
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is associated with morbidity. The effect of blood volume-guided ultrafiltration biofeedback, which automatically adjusts fluid removal rate on the basis of blood volume parameters, on the reduction of IDH was tested in a randomized crossover trial. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We performed a 22-week, single blind, randomized crossover trial in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis who had >30% of sessions complicated by symptomatic IDH in five centers in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Po-Yuan Wu, Jia-Ling Lyu, Yi-Jung Liu, Ting-Yi Chien, Hao-Cheng Hsu, Kuo-Ching Wen, Hsiu-Mei Chiang
Chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure may cause skin damage, disrupt skin barrier function, and promote wrinkle formation. UV induces oxidative stress and inflammation, which results in extracellular matrix degradation in the dermis and epidermal hyperplasia. Our previous study demonstrated that fisetin exerts photoprotective activity by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein-1/matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activation. In this study, fisetin was applied topically to investigate its antiphotodamage effects in hairless mice...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Haiyan Pei, Hangzhou Xu, Jingjing Wang, Yan Jin, Hong-Di Xiao, Chunxia Ma, Jiongming Sun, Hongmin Li
This is the first study to systematically investigate the microbial community structure in cyanobacteria-laden drinking water sludge generated by different types of coagulants (including AlCl3, FeCl3, and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC)) using Illumina 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing. Results show that Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes were the most dominant phyla in sludge, and because of the toxicity of high Al and Fe level in AlCl3 and FeCl3 sludges, respectively, the PAFC sludge exhibited greater microbial richness than that in AlCl3 and FeCl3 sludges...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Ran Tao, Chengzhang Wang, Changwei Zhang, WenJun Li, Hao Zhou, Hongxia Chen, Jianzhong Ye
The structure and bioactivity of Ginkgo biloba leaves polyprenol (GBP) are similar to that of dolichol which widely exists in human and mammalian organs. GBP possesses potential pharmacological activities against cancer. This study involved oil-in-water type nanoemulsion (NE) loading GBP was prepared by dissolving polyprenol in nanoemulsion of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)/TiO2 solution, Triton X-100, and 1-octanol by inversed-phase emulsification (EIP) and ultrasonic emulsification (UE) method. Folic acid (FA)-coupled chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs), GBP-FA-CS-NPs and GBP-TiO2-FA-CS-NPs, were fabricated by ionic cross-linking of positively charged FA-CS conjugates and negatively charged nanoemulsion with TPP/TiO2...
October 9, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Siya G Sibiya, Musa V Mbandla, Thavi Govender, Adeola Shobo, William M U Daniels
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. These protein deposits impair synaptic plasticity thereby producing a progressive decline in cognitive function. Current therapies are merely palliative and only slow cognitive decline. Poly-N-methylated Aβ-Peptide C-Terminal Fragments (MEPTIDES) were recently shown to reduce Aβ toxicity in vitro and in Drosophila melanogaster, however whether these novel compounds are effective in inhibiting Aβ-induced toxicity in the mammalian brain remains unclear...
October 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Daniel R Messroghli, James C Moon, Vanessa M Ferreira, Lars Grosse-Wortmann, Taigang He, Peter Kellman, Julia Mascherbauer, Reza Nezafat, Michael Salerno, Erik B Schelbert, Andrew J Taylor, Richard Thompson, Martin Ugander, Ruud B van Heeswijk, Matthias G Friedrich
Parametric mapping techniques provide a non-invasive tool for quantifying tissue alterations in myocardial disease in those eligible for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Parametric mapping with CMR now permits the routine spatial visualization and quantification of changes in myocardial composition based on changes in T1, T2, and T2*(star) relaxation times and extracellular volume (ECV). These changes include specific disease pathways related to mainly intracellular disturbances of the cardiomyocyte (e...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Stephan Butler, Sandra Luz, Kile McFadden, Joanna Fesi, Christopher Long, Lynn Spruce, Steven Seeholzer, Douglas Canning, Rita Valentino, Stephen Zderic
Repeated exposure to social stress shifts the voiding phenotype in male mice leading to bladder wall remodeling and is associated with increased expression of the stress neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in Barrington's nucleus neurons. In these studies, we set out to determine if the voiding phenotype could recover upon removal from the stressor. Male mice were exposed for 1h daily to an aggressor and the voiding phenotype was assessed at one month followed by randomization to three groups...
October 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Mohammad Y Ansari, Nazir M Khan, Tariq M Haqqi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of joint dysfunction, disability and poor quality of life in the affected population. The underlying mechanism of joint dysfunction involves increased oxidative stress, inflammation, high levels of cartilage extracellular matrix degrading proteases and decline in autophagy-a mechanism of cellular defense. There is no disease modifying therapies currently available for OA. Different parts of the Butea monosperma (Lam.) plant have widely been used in the traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine system for the treatment of various human diseases including inflammatory conditions...
October 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Wei-Hsiang Weng, Ya-Tzu Li, Hao-Jen Hsu
The atomic-level dopamine activation mechanism for transmitting extracellular ligand binding events through transmembrane helices to the cytoplasmic G protein remains unclear. In the present study, the complete dopamine D3 receptor (D3R), with a homology-modeled N-terminus, was constructed to dock different ligands to simulate conformational alterations in the receptor's active and inactive forms during microsecond-timescale molecular dynamic simulations. In agonist-bound systems, the D3R N-terminus formed a "lid-like" structure and lay flat on the binding site opening, whereas in antagonist and inverse agonist-bound systems, the N-terminus exposed the binding cavity...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Temidayo Olutayo Omóbòwálé, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Bukola Ayokunmi Alaba, Olufunke Eunice Ola-Davies, Olumuyiwa Abiola Adejumobi, Ebunoluwa Racheal Asenuga, Temitayo Olabisi Ajibade, Adeolu Alex Adedapo, Momoh Audu Yakubu
BACKGROUND: Toxicities due to fluoride exposure from natural and industrial sources occur commonly in man and animals with severe consequences ranging from mild cardiac derangements to sudden death. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the methanol extract of Azadirachta indica (AI) against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced hypertension and genotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into six groups of ten rats each as follows: Group A, the control group received distilled water; Group B rats were administered NaF at 600 ppm in drinking water; Groups C and D rats were pre-treated with the methanol extract of AI and thereafter administered NaF at 600 ppm in drinking water for 7 consecutive days; Groups E and F rats were co-administered with AI and NaF...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Biswajit Sadhu, Mahesh Sundararajan, Tusar Bandyopadhyay
The bacterial NaK ion channel is distinctly different from other known ion channels due to its inherent non-selective feature. One of the unexplored and rather interesting features is its ability to permeate divalent metal ions (such as Ca(2+) and Ba(2+)) and not monovalent alkali metal ions. Several intriguing questions about the energetics and structural aspects still remain unanswered. For instance, what causes Ca(2+) to permeate as well as block the selectivity filter (SF) of the NaK ion channel and act as a "permeating blocker"? How and at what energetic cost does another chemical congener, Sr(2+), as well as Ba(2+), a potent blocker of the K(+) ion channel, permeate through the SF of the NaK ion channel? Finally, how do their translocation energetics differ from those of monovalent ions such as K(+)? Here, in an attempt to address these outstanding issues, we elucidate the structure, binding and selectivity of divalent ions (Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) as they permeate through the SF of the NaK ion channel using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory based calculations...
October 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Hiroshi Hibino, Madoka Takai, Hidenori Noguchi, Seishiro Sawamura, Yasufumi Takahashi, Hideki Sakai, Hitoshi Shiku
The article An approach to the research on ion and water properties in the interphase between the plasma membrane and bulk extracellular solution, written by Hiroshi Hibino, Madoka Takai, Hidenori Noguchi, Seishiro Sawamura, Yasufumi Takahashi, Hideki Sakai and Hitoshi Shiku, was originally published Online First without open access.
October 4, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Anastasia Gkza, Andrew Davenport
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, dietary sodium assessment requires reliable and rapid screening tools. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in estimating dietary sodium intakes in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: We used the Derby Salt Questionnaire (DSQ), and Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) to estimate sodium intake. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. RESULTS: In total, 139 haemodialysis patients (95 men) completed the FFQs, with mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 15 years...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
Thomas R Murphy, David Davila, Nicholas Cuvelier, Leslie R Young, Kelli Lauderdale, Devin K Binder, Todd A Fiacco
Normal nervous system function is critically dependent on the balance of water and ions in the extracellular space (ECS). Pathological reduction in brain interstitial osmolarity results in osmotically-driven flux of water into cells, causing cellular edema which reduces the ECS and increases neuronal excitability and risk of seizures. Astrocytes are widely considered to be particularly susceptible to cellular edema due to selective expression of the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The apparent resistance of pyramidal neurons to osmotic swelling has been attributed to lack of functional water channels...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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