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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683032/applicability-of-api-zym-to-capture-seasonal-and-spatial-variabilities-in-lake-and-river-sediments
#1
Drashti Patel, Renee Gismondi, Ali Alsaffar, Sonia M Tiquia-Arashiro
Waters draining into a lake carry with them much of the suspended sediment that is transported by rivers and streams from the local drainage basin. The organic matter processing in the sediments is executed by heterotrophic microbial communities, whose activities may vary spatially and temporally. Thus, to capture and evaluate some of these variabilities in the sediments, we sampled six sites: three from St. Clair River (SC1, SC2, and SC3) and three from Lake St. Clair in spring, summer, fall and winter of 2016...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681008/micromanaging-freeze-tolerance-the-biogenesis-and-regulation-of-neuroprotective-micrornas-in-frozen-brains
#2
Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
When temperatures plummet below 0 °C, wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) can endure the freezing of up to ~ 65% of their body water in extracellular ice masses, displaying no measurable brain activity, no breathing, no movement, and a flat-lined heart. To aid survival, frogs retreat into a state of suspended animation characterized by global suppression of metabolic functions and reprioritization of energy usage to essential survival processes that is elicited, in part, by the regulatory controls of microRNAs...
April 21, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678169/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-attenuates-the-inflammatory-response-by-modulating-microglia-polarization-through-sirt1-mediated-deacetylation-of-the-hmgb1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Xiangrong Chen, Chunnuan Chen, Sining Fan, Shukai Wu, Fuxing Yang, Zhongning Fang, Huangde Fu, Yasong Li
BACKGROUND: Microglial polarization and the subsequent neuroinflammatory response are contributing factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced secondary injury. High mobile group box 1 (HMGB1) mediates the activation of the NF-κB pathway, and it is considered to be pivotal in the late neuroinflammatory response. Activation of the HMGB1/NF-κB pathway is closely related to HMGB1 acetylation, which is regulated by the sirtuin (SIRT) family of proteins. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are known to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677548/combination-of-curcumin-and-vagus-nerve-stimulation-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-behavioral-deficits
#4
Jian Xu, Xinjuan Kong, Hong Xiu, Yihe Dou, Zeyu Wu, Peng Sun
AIM: Previous studies indicated that cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/RI) could induce behavioral deficits. Single treatment of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or curcumin is reported to restore CI/RI-induced behavioral deficits. However, the synergic effect remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups: sham, CI/RI, VNS, CI/RI + VNS, VNS + curcumin and CI/RI + VNS + curcumin groups. Each group was further divided into three or four subgroups for further assessments...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674743/native-collagen-hydrogel-nanofibres-with-anisotropic-structure-using-core-shell-electrospinning
#5
Yuka Wakuda, Shohei Nishimoto, Shin-Ichiro Suye, Satoshi Fujita
Collagen hydrogel is a popular extracellular matrix (ECM) material in regenerative medicine and has an isotropic structure. In contrast, native ECM has an anisotropic structure. Electrospinning of collagen dissolved in organic solvents is widely used for fabricating anisotropic collagen nanofibres; however, such fibres are water-soluble and require cross-linking before use as scaffolds for cell culture. Herein, electrospinning using a core-shell nozzle was employed to spin an aqueous acidic solution of collagen and encapsulate it within a shell of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670834/hybrid-scaffolds-of-hyaluronic-acid-and-collagen-loaded-with-prednisolone-an-interesting-system-for-osteoarthritis
#6
Farhad Mohammadi, Soliman Mohammadi Samani, Nader Tanideh, Fatemeh Ahmadi
Purpose: Cartilage regeneration by using polymeric scaffolds is a new option for treatment of osteoarthritis. A good scaffold for tissue engineering should copy the characteristics of natural extracellular matrix. The purpose of this study was to make a dosage form with proper reliability and stability for cartilage repair. Methods: Hybrid scaffolds containing different ratios of hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen were prepared and loaded with prednisolone as anti-inflammatory agent. Two different dosage forms (lyophilized implantable disk and thermo-sensitive gels) were examined...
March 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670659/beneficial-effects-of-gagam-palmultang-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-deficits-in-mice
#7
Yu Ri Kim, Min Young Kwon, Malk Eun Pak, So Hyun Park, Jin Ung Baek, Byung Tae Choi
From text mining of Dongeuibogam, the 7 herbs in Palmultang can be considered effective candidates for memory enhancement. We sought to determine whether Gagam-Palmultang, comprising these 7 herbs, ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice, by focusing on the central cholinergic system and memory-related signaling molecules. Behavioral tests were performed after inducing memory impairment by scopolamine administration. The cholinergic system activity and memory-related molecules were examined in the hippocampus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent, western blot, and immunofluorescence assays...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669302/cytotoxic-and-partial-hepatoprotective-activity-of-sodium-ascorbate-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma-through-inhibition-of-sulfatase-2-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#8
Abdullah Alyoussef, Mohammed M H Al-Gayyar
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by elevation in the activity of sulfatase-2, an extracellular enzyme that catalyzes removal of 6-O-sulfate groups from heparan sulfate. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the cytotoxic activity of the strong water-soluble antioxidant, sodium ascorbate, against HCC both in vivo and in vitro. Sodium ascorbate enhanced animal survival in vivo and reduced HepG2 cells survival. The protein levels of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), insulin like growth factor (IGF)-2, sulfatase-2 and glypican-3 were assessed...
April 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667430/effect-of-electrolyzed-water-on-the-disinfection-of-bacillus-cereus-biofilms-the-mechanism-of-enhanced-resistance-of-sessile-cells-in-the-biofilm-matrix
#9
Mohammad Shakhawat Hussain, Minyeong Kwon, Charles Nkufi Tango, Deog Hwan Oh
This study examined the disinfection efficacy and mechanism of electrolyzed water (EW) on Bacillus cereus biofilms. B. cereus strains, ATCC 14579 and Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) 13153 biofilms, were formed on stainless steel (SS) and plastic slide (PS) coupons. Mature biofilms were treated with slightly acidic EW (SAEW), acidic EW (AEW), and basic EW (BEW). SAEW (available chlorine concentration, 25 ± 1.31 mg L-1 ; pH 5.71 ± 0.16; and oxidation reduction potential, 818 to 855 mV) reduced ATCC 14579 biofilms on plastic slides to below the detection limit within 30 s...
May 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666374/hatric-based-identification-of-receptors-for-orphan-ligands
#10
Nadine Sobotzki, Michael A Schafroth, Alina Rudnicka, Anika Koetemann, Florian Marty, Sandra Goetze, Yohei Yamauchi, Erick M Carreira, Bernd Wollscheid
Cellular responses depend on the interactions of extracellular ligands, such as nutrients, growth factors, or drugs, with specific cell-surface receptors. The sensitivity of these interactions to non-physiological conditions, however, makes them challenging to study using in vitro assays. Here we present HATRIC-based ligand receptor capture (HATRIC-LRC), a chemoproteomic technology that successfully identifies target receptors for orphan ligands on living cells ranging from small molecules to intact viruses...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665503/zebrafish-extracellular-matrix-improves-neuronal-viability-and-network-formation-in-a-3-dimensional-culture
#11
Sung-Min Kim, Daniel Ward Long, Michael Wai Kok Tsang, Yadong Wang
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has limited capacity for regeneration. CNS injuries cause life-long debilitation and lead to $50 billion in healthcare costs in U.S. alone each year. Despite numerous efforts in the last few decades, CNS-related injuries remain as detrimental as they were 50 years ago. Some functional recovery can occur, but most regeneration are limited by an extracellular matrix (ECM) that actively inhibits axonal repair and promotes glial scarring. In most tissues, the ECM is an architectural foundation that plays an active role in supporting cellular development and regenerative response after injury...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663040/isolation-characterization-and-metal-response-of-novel-acid-tolerant-penicillium-spp-from-extremely-metal-rich-waters-at-a-mining-site-in-transbaikal-siberia-russia
#12
Lubov B Glukhova, Yulia A Frank, Ehrzena V Danilova, Marat R Avakyan, David Banks, Olli H Tuovinen, Olga V Karnachuk
The role of fungi in metal cycling in acidic environments has been little explored to date. In this study, two acid-tolerant and metal-resistant Penicillium isolates, strains ShG4B and ShG4C, were isolated from a mine site in the Transbaikal area of Siberia (Russia). Waters at the mine site were characterized by extremely high metal concentrations: up to 18 g l-1 Fe and > 2 g l-1 each of Cu, Zn, Al, and As. Both isolates were identified as Penicillium spp. by phylogenetic analyses and they grew well in Czapek medium acidified to pH 2...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662128/the-extracellular-domain-of-staphylococcus-aureus-ltas-binds-insulin-and-induces-insulin-resistance-during-infection
#13
Yu Liu, Fang-Jie Liu, Zhang-Chun Guan, Fang-Ting Dong, Jian-Hua Cheng, Ya-Ping Gao, Di Li, Jun Yan, Cheng-Hua Liu, Dian-Peng Han, Chun-Mei Ma, Jian-Nan Feng, Bei-Fen Shen, Guang Yang
Insulin resistance is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes and predisposes individuals to Staphylococcus aureus colonization; however, the contribution of S. aureus to insulin resistance remains unclear. Here, we show that S. aureus infection causes impaired glucose tolerance via secretion of an insulin-binding protein extracellular domain of LtaS, eLtaS, which blocks insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Notably, eLtaS transgenic mice (eLtaS trans ) exhibited a metabolic syndrome similar to that observed in patients, including increased food and water consumption, impaired glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic glycogen synthesis...
April 16, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660366/tools-and-drugs-for-uracil-nucleotide-activated-p2y-receptors
#14
REVIEW
Muhammad Rafehi, Christa E Müller
P2Y receptors (P2YRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by extracellular nucleotides. Physiological P2YR agonists include purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates, such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, nucleotide sugars, and dinucleotides. Eight subtypes exist, P2Y1 , P2Y2 , P2Y4 , P2Y6 , P2Y11 , P2Y12 , P2Y13 , and P2Y14 , which represent current or potential future drug targets. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of ligands for the subgroup of the P2YR family that is activated by uracil nucleotides: P2Y2 (UTP, also ATP and dinucleotides), P2Y4 (UTP), P2Y6 (UDP), and P2Y14 (UDP, UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose)...
April 13, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660240/ros-signaling-and-stomatal-movement-in-plant-responses-to-drought-stress-and-pathogen-attack
#15
REVIEW
Junsheng Qi, Chun-Peng Song, Baoshan Wang, Jianmin Zhou, Jaakko Kangasjärvi, Jian-Kang Zhu, Zhizhong Gong
Stomata, the pores formed by a pair of guard cells, are the main gateways for water transpiration and photosynthetic CO2 exchange, as well as pathogen invasion in land plants. Guard cell movement is regulated by a combination of environmental factors including water status, light, CO2 levels and pathogen attack, as well as endogenous signals such as abscisic acid and apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under abiotic and biotic stress conditions, extracellular ROS are mainly produced by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, whereas intracellular ROS are produced in multiple organelles...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660237/multiplexed-isobaric-tag-based-profiling-of-seven-murine-tissues-following-in-vivo-nicotine-treatment-using-a-minimalistic-proteomics-strategy
#16
Joao A Paulo, Mark P Jedrychowski, Edward T Chouchani, Lawrence Kazak, Steven P Gygi
Nicotine is a major addictive compound in tobacco and a component of smoking-related products, such as e-cigarettes. Once internalized, nicotine can perturb many cellular pathways and can induce alterations in proteins across different cell types, however the mechanisms thereof remain undetermined. We hypothesize that both tissue-specific and global protein abundance alterations result from nicotine exposure. As such, we present the first proteome analysis of multiple tissues from nicotine-exposed mice. We treat mice via oral administration of nicotine at 200μg/mL in drinking water for 21 days...
April 16, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653309/bioactive-extracellular-compounds-produced-by-the-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-minutum-are-highly-detrimental-for-oysters
#17
J Castrec, P Soudant, L Payton, D Tran, P Miner, C Lambert, N Le Goïc, A Huvet, V Quillien, F Boullot, Z Amzil, H Hégaret, C Fabioux
Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., known as producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are regularly detected on the French coastline. PSTs accumulate into harvested shellfish species, such as the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and can cause strong disorders to consumers at high doses. The impacts of Alexandrium minutum on C. gigas have often been attributed to its production of PSTs without testing separately the effects of the bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with allelopathic, hemolytic, cytotoxic or ichthyotoxic properties, which can also be produced by these algae...
March 29, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653100/vitamin-d-nanoemulsion-enhances-hapatoprotective-effect-of-conventional-vitamin-d-in-rats-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Mohamed El-Sherbiny, Mohamed Eldosoky, Mohamed El-Shafey, Gamal Othman, Hany A Elkattawy, Tamer Bedir, Nehal Mohsen Elsherbiny
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and type II diabetes. Due to increasing prevalence of these diseases globally, NAFLD is considered as a common form of chronic liver diseases. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin with reported anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immune modulating activity. Hypovitaminosis D often coexists with NAFLD and various studies reported beneficial role of vitamin D in modulating NAFLD. However, variable oral bioavailability, poor water solubility, and chemical degradation hinder the clinical application of vitamin D...
April 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652197/relationship-between-locomotive-syndrome-and-body-composition-among-community-dwelling-middle-age-and-elderly-individuals-in-japan-the-yakumo-study
#19
Satoshi Tanaka, Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Taisuke Seki, Koji Suzuki, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Masayoshi Morozumi, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Naoki Ishiguro, Yukiharu Hasegawa, Shiro Imagama
OBJECTIVES: Locomotive syndrome (LS) is a condition requiring nursing care for musculoskeletal disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between body composition, measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and LS, measured using the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Functional Scale (GLFS-25). METHODS: We enrolled 286 individuals who were undergoing regular health follow-up. All individuals completed the GLFS-25, body composition analysis by BIA, and five physical performance tests related to LS: Timed up-and-go test, 10-m gait time, maximum stride length, back strength, and grip strength...
April 13, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651280/collective-vortex-like-movement-of-bacillus-subtilis-facilitates-the-generation-of-floating-biofilms
#20
Nitai Steinberg, Gili Rosenberg, Alona Keren-Paz, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
Bacteria in nature are usually found in complex multicellular structures, called biofilms. One common form of a biofilm is pellicle -a floating mat of bacteria formed in the water-air interphase. So far, our knowledge on the basic mechanisms underlying the formation of biofilms at air-liquid interfaces is not complete. In particular, the co-occurrence of motile cells and extracellular matrix producers has not been studied. In addition, the potential involvement of chemical communication in pellicle formation remained largely undefined...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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