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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727018/evaluation-of-electrical-broad-bandwidth-impedance-spectroscopy-as-a-tool-for-body-composition-measurement-in-cows-in-comparison-with-body-measurements-and-the-deuterium-oxide-dilution-method
#1
C T Schäff, U Pliquett, A Tuchscherer, R Pfuhl, S Görs, C C Metges, H M Hammon, C Kröger-Koch
Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method and from body conformation measurements...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722029/effects-of-procedure-upright-equilibrium-time-sex-and-bmi-on-the-precision-of-body-fluid-measurements-using-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis
#2
S Thurlow, G Taylor-Covill, P Sahota, B Oldroyd, K Hind
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Extensive work has addressed the validity of bioimpedance (BIA) measurements and the effect of posture on fluid homeostasis. However, limited research has investigated effects of subject preparation. This study aimed to determine the precision of total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) measurements using a stand-on multifrequency BIA (MFBIA seca mBCA 514/515), in three pre-test procedures: supine, sitting, and following walking, with specific reference to the influence of sex and body mass index (BMI)...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721505/distinct-bloom-dynamics-of-toxic-and-non-toxic-microcystis-cyanobacteria-subpopulations-in-hoedong-reservoir-korea
#3
Bum Soo Park, Zhun Li, Yoon-Ho Kang, Hyeon Ho Shin, Jae-Hyoung Joo, Myung-Soo Han
Despite the importance of understanding the bloom mechanisms that influence cyanobacterial toxin production, the dynamics of toxic Microcystis subpopulations are largely unknown. Here, we quantified both toxic and entire (i.e., toxic and non-toxic) Microcystis populations based on the microcystin synthetase E (mcyE) and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Samples were collected from pelagic water and sediments twice per week from October to December 2011, and we investigated the effects of physicochemical factors (pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, etc...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713996/downregulation-of-aqp2-in-the-anterior-vaginal-wall-is-associated-with-the-pathogenesis-of-female-stress-urinary-incontinence
#4
Zujuan Zhang, Pan Xu, Zhenwei Xie, Fengxian Shen, Ning Chen, Liming Yu, Ronghuan He
The pathogenesis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is unclear. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of transmembrane proteins that transport water and small solutes, including glycerol, across cell membranes. AQPs have been demonstrated to serve a role in skin hydration, cellular proliferation, migration, immunity, wound healing and vascular remodeling in multiple organs. Furthermore, studies have confirmed that abnormal synthesis and degradation of collagens in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling contributes to SUI, by altering normal tissue architecture and mechanical properties...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713809/a-perspective-on-reagent-diversity-and-non-covalent-binding-of-reactive-carbonyl-species-rcs-and-effector-reagents-in-non-enzymatic-glycation-neg-mechanistic-considerations-and-implications-for-future-research
#5
Kenneth J Rodnick, R W Holman, Pamela S Ropski, Mingdong Huang, Arthur L M Swislocki
This perspective focuses on illustrating the underappreciated connections between reactive carbonyl species (RCS), initial binding in the nonenzymatic glycation (NEG) process, and nonenzymatic covalent protein modification (here termed NECPM). While glucose is the central species involved in NEG, recent studies indicate that the initially-bound glucose species in the NEG of human hemoglobin (HbA) and human serum albumin (HSA) are non-RCS ring-closed isomers. The ring-opened glucose, an RCS structure that reacts in the NEG process, is most likely generated from previously-bound ring-closed isomers undergoing concerted acid/base reactions while bound to protein...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711473/interaction-of-reelin-and-stress-on-immobility-in-the-forced-swim-test-but-not-dopamine-mediated-locomotor-hyperactivity-or-prepulse-inhibition-disruption-relevance-to-psychotic-and-mood-disorders
#6
Michael J Notaras, Billie Vivian, Carey Wilson, Maarten van den Buuse
RATIONALE: Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, as well as some mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder, have been suggested to share common biological risk factors. One such factor is reelin, a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration during development as well as numerous activity-dependent processes in the adult brain. The current study sought to evaluate whether a history of stress exposure interacts with endogenous reelin levels to modify behavioural endophenotypes of relevance to psychotic and mood disorders...
July 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710125/visualization-of-extracellular-dna-released-during-border-cell-separation-from-the-root-cap
#7
Fushi Wen, Gilberto Curlango-Rivera, David A Huskey, Zhongguo Xiong, Martha C Hawes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Root border cells are programmed to separate from the root cap as it penetrates the soil environment, where the cells actively secrete >100 extracellular proteins into the surrounding mucilage. The detached cells function in defense of the root tip by an extracellular trapping process that also requires DNA, as in mammalian white blood cells. Trapping in animals and plants is reversed by treatment with DNase, which results in increased infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of DNA in the structural integrity of extracellular structures released as border cells disperse from the root tip upon contact with water...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709850/removal-of-microcystins-in-water-by-ultrasound-coupled-advanced-oxidation-techniques
#8
Gökçe Tezcanlı Güyer, Fjolle Kabashi
Microcystis Aeruginosa, is one of the typical toxin producing cyanobacteria, has increased attention for immediate removal due to toxin release, which has adverse effects both in the environment and humans. In this study, suspensions of Microcystis Aeruginosa were sonicated at the following frequencies 582kHz (0,055W/mL), 861kHz (0,094W/mL) and 1136kHz (0,060W/mL) for 60min. The study examined the removal of intracellular microcystin (intra MC-LR) and extracellular microcystin (extra MC-LR) release during sonication...
May 4, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709144/the-spectrum-of-peri-ictal-mri-changes-four-illustrative-cases
#9
Jennifer Williams, Gerard Mullins, Norman Delanty, Bede Peter, Colin P Doherty
PURPOSE: Seizure induced neuronal hyperexcitability and increased unmet metabolic neuronal demand results in failure of the sodium/potassium ATP pump. Sodium and water accumulates intracellularly with cellular swelling and reduced extracellular volume demonstrating hyperintensity on DWI and reduced ADC. The aim of this study was to describe 4 clinical cases where we identified abnormalities in diffusion restriction in the acute peri-ictal period and followed them longitudinally. METHODS: Patients were recruited from the emergency department, clinical consultation service and epilepsy monitoring unit of two tertiary referral centres...
July 6, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709069/characterization-of-changes-in-floc-morphology-extracellular-polymeric-substances-and-heavy-metals-speciation-of-anaerobically-digested-biosolid-under-treatment-with-a-novel-chelated-fe-2-catalyzed-fenton-process
#10
Juanjuan He, Peng Yang, Weijun Zhang, Bingdi Cao, Hua Xia, Xi Luo, Dongsheng Wang
A novel chelated-Fe(2+) catalyzed Fenton process (CCFP) was developed to enhance dewatering performance of anaerobically digested biosolid, and changes in floc morphology, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and heavy metals speciation were also investigated. The results showed that addition of chelating agents caused EPS solubilization by binding multivalent cations. Like traditional Fenton, CCFP performed well in improving anaerobically digested sludge dewatering property. The highly active radicals (OH, O2(-)) produced in classical Fenton and CCFP were responsible for sludge flocs destruction and consequently degradation of biopolymers into small molecules...
July 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708257/aquaporin1-and-3-modification-as-a-result-of-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell
#11
Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Rosanna Avola, Giovanna Pannuzzo, Venera Cardile
Chondrocytes are cells of articular cartilage particularly sensitive to water transport and ionic and osmotic changes from extracellular environment and responsible for the production of the synovial fluid. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water and small solute transport channel proteins identified in several tissues, involved in physiological pathways and in manifold human diseases. In a recent period, AQP1 and 3 seem to have a role in metabolic water regulation in articular cartilage of load bearing joints...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706307/effect-of-shock-induced-cavitation-bubble-collapse-on-the-damage-in-the-simulated-perineuronal-net-of-the-brain
#12
Yuan-Ting Wu, Ashfaq Adnan
The purpose of this study is to conduct modeling and simulation to understand the effect of shock-induced mechanical loading, in the form of cavitation bubble collapse, on damage to the brain's perineuronal nets (PNNs). It is known that high-energy implosion due to cavitation collapse is responsible for corrosion or surface damage in many mechanical devices. In this case, cavitation refers to the bubble created by pressure drop. The presence of a similar damage mechanism in biophysical systems has long being suspected but not well-explored...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705715/acute-treatment-with-doxorubicin-affects-glutamate-neurotransmission-in-the-mouse-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#13
Theresa Currier Thomas, Joshua A Beitchman, Francois Pomerleau, Teresa Noel, Paiboon Jungsuwadee, D Allan Butterfield, Daret K St Clair, Mary Vore, Greg A Gerhardt
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapeutic agent known to cause acute and long-term cognitive impairments in cancer patients. Cognitive function is presumed to be primarily mediated by neuronal circuitry in the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus, where glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Mice treated with DOX (25 mg/kg i.p.) were subjected to in vivo recordings under urethane anesthesia at 24h post-DOX injection or 5 consecutive days of cognitive testing (Morris Water Maze; MWM). Using novel glutamate-selective microelectrode arrays, amperometric recordings measured parameters of extracellular glutamate clearance and potassium-evoked release of glutamate within the medial FC and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702846/characterization-of-the-encoding-properties-of-intraspinal-mechanosensory-neurons-in-the-lamprey
#14
Nicole Massarelli, Allan L Yau, Kathleen A Hoffman, Tim Kiemel, Eric D Tytell
Proprioceptive sensory inputs are an integral part of the closed-loop system of locomotion. In the lamprey, a model organism for vertebrate locomotion, such sensory inputs come from intraspinal mechanosensory cells called "edge cells". These edge cells synapse directly onto interneurons in the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) circuit and allow the CPG to adjust the motor output according to how the body is bending. However, the encoding properties of the edge cells have never been fully characterized...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701677/mechanisms-of-diuresis-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-by-tolvaptan
#15
Hidetsugu Nomoto, Yasuhiro Satoh, Mayu Kamiyama, Kento Yabe, Mayumi Masumura, Atsushi Sakakibara, Shu Yamashita, Masahito Suzuki, Tomoyo Sugiyama, Tetsuo Oumi, Masakazu Ohno, Yoshihide Takahashi, Mitsuaki Isobe
Tolvaptan, a vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, does not affect kidney circulation or cause worsening of renal function (WRF) in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) can be used to evaluate intravascular volume by calculating the ratio of extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW). There have been no reports examining the mechanisms of tolvaptan-induced diuresis using BIA. We investigated whether tolvaptan decreases excess volume while maintaining intravascular volume in ADHF patients...
July 13, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701036/characterization-of-surface-active-biofilm-protein-bsla-in-self-assembling-langmuir-monolayer-at-the-air-water-interface
#16
Wei Liu, Shanghao Li, Zhuguang Wang, Elsa C Y Yan, Roger M Leblanc
Biofilm is an extracellular matrix of bacteria and serves as a protective shield of bacterial communities. It is crucial for microbial growth and one of the leading causes of human chronic infections as well. However, the structures and molecular mechanism of biofilm formation remain largely unknown. Here, we examined a protein, BslA, expressed in the biofilms of Bacillus subtilis. We characterized the Langmuir monolayers of BslA at the air/water interface. Using techniques in surface chemistry and spectroscopy, we found that BslA forms a stable and robust Langmuir monolayer at the air/water interface...
July 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699925/quantifying-baseline-fixed-charge-density-in-healthy-human-cartilage-endplate-a-two-point-electrical-conductivity-method
#17
Yongren Wu, Sarah E Cisewski, Yi Sun, Brooke J Damon, Barton L Sachs, Vincent D Pellegrini, Elizabeth H Slate, Hai Yao
STUDY DESIGN: Regional measurements of fixed charge densities (FCDs) of healthy human cartilage endplate (CEP) using a two-point electrical conductivity approach. OBJECTIVE: To determine the FCDs at four different regions (central, lateral, anterior, and posterior) of human CEP, and correlate the FCDs with tissue biochemical composition. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The CEP, a thin layer of hyaline cartilage on the cranial and caudal surfaces of the intervertebral disc, plays an irreplaceable role in maintaining the unique physiological mechano-electrochemical environment inside the disc...
January 5, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697564/an-intracellular-amyloid-%C3%AE-a%C3%AE-pp-epitope-correlates-with-neurodegeneration-in-those-neuronal-populations-early-involved-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Gisela Esquerda-Canals, Joaquim Martí-Clúa, Alejandro R Roda, Sandra Villegas
The main histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the extracellular deposition of neuritic amyloid plaques, composed of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, and the intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. Both traits are emulated in the 3xTg-AD mouse model. Because the relevance of this model in the bibliography and the main role of Aβ in neuronal impairment, here we have detailed the brain Aβ/AβPP distribution to subsequently quantify cellular density and intracellular burden for specific neuronal populations in the early stages of the disease...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696993/special-communication-of-a-case-of-hypovolemic-associated-eah-lessons-learned-during-recovery
#19
Tamara Hew-Butler, Rus Hamilton, Bridget Hamilton, Zachary Colesa
Severe exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is largely dilutional, whereas contributions of sodium loss remain equivocal. We present a case of EAH with encephalopathy involving an experienced male cyclist with no recollection of the event. We thereby conducted a retrospective analysis of biochemical trajectories during hospital recovery. The normalization of serum [Na], in context with changes in other variables, offered a 'reverse' perspective of the underlying pathophysiology. The following biochemical changes were temporally observed, with the return of normonatremia: 1) a decrease in serum potassium and calcium concentrations (absence of extracellular fluid dilution); 2) a decrease in total protein, blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit and hemoglobin (plasma volume expansion); and 3) an increase in mean platelet and red cell corpuscular volumes (cellular expansion after total body water and sodium deficits)...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696961/current-body-composition-measurement-techniques
#20
Thaisa Lemos, Dympna Gallagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews the most innovative and precise, available methods for quantification of in-vivo human body composition. RECENT FINDINGS: Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected. Ongoing efforts involve multisegmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, quantitative magnetic resonance for total body water, fat, and lean tissue measurements, imaging to further define ectopic fat depots...
July 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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