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Extracellular water

Christoph Kopp, Peter Linz, Carolin Maier, Peter Wabel, Matthias Hammon, Armin M Nagel, Daniela Rosenhauer, Stephan Horn, Michael Uder, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze, Anke Dahlmann
Long-term elevated blood sugar levels result in tissue matrix compositional changes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). We hypothesized that hemodialysis patients with T2DM might accumulate more tissue sodium than control hemodialysis patients. To test this,23 Na magnetic resonance imaging (23 Na MRI) was used to estimate sodium in skin and muscle tissue in hemodialysis patients with or without T2DM. Muscle fat content was estimated by1 H MRI and tissue sodium content by23 Na MRI pre- and post-hemodialysis in ten hemodialysis patients with T2DM and in 30 matched control hemodialysis patients...
February 15, 2018: Kidney International
M B Albro, M S Bergholt, J P St-Pierre, A Vinals Guitart, H M Zlotnick, E G Evita, M M Stevens
Articular cartilage possesses a remarkable, mechanically-robust extracellular matrix (ECM) that is organized and distributed throughout the tissue to resist physiologic strains and provide low friction during articulation. The ability to characterize the make-up and distribution of the cartilage ECM is critical to both understand the process by which articular cartilage undergoes disease-related degeneration and to develop novel tissue repair strategies to restore tissue functionality. However, the ability to quantitatively measure the spatial distribution of cartilage ECM constituents throughout the tissue has remained a major challenge...
2018: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
Cassie M Williamson, Brett S Nickerson, Emily E Bechke, Cherilyn N McLester, Brian M Kliszczewicz
Background: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is often used to estimate total body water (TBW), intracellular body water (ICW), extracellular body water (ECW), and body fat percentage (BF%). A common restriction for BIA analysis is abstinence from caffeine 12-h prior to testing. However, research has yet to determine whether the consumption of caffeine influences BIA testing results. The purpose of this study was to determine if the consumption of caffeine influences BIA-derived BF% and body water values in habitual caffeine users...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Rodrigo Zuloaga, Oscar Almarza, Juan A Valdés, Alfredo Molina, José Pulgar
Few studies have addressed the impact of the upwelling oceanographical conditions on biological processes, such as growth, using a molecular and physiological approach. Upwelling conditions are characterized by low temperature seawater and high nutrient availability, which represents an ideal opportunity to understand how habitat modulates animal performance at different levels of biological complexity. We aimed to assess intraspecific variations in weight, oxygen consumption, protein content, and key signaling pathways involved in muscle-growth (protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)) under experimental trials considering high/low seawater temperatures with full/restricted food rations...
February 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Benjamin Kostiuk, Daniel Unterweger, Daniele Provenzano, Stefan Pukatzki
Vibrio cholerae is a diverse species that inhabits a wide range of environments from copepods in brackish water to the intestines of humans. In order to remain competitive, V. cholerae uses the versatile type-VI secretion system (T6SS) to secrete anti-prokaryotic and anti-eukaryotic effectors. In addition to competing with other bacterial species, V. cholerae strains also compete with one another. Some strains are able to coexist, and are referred to as belonging to the same compatibility group. Challenged by diverse competitors in various environments, different V...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Tom Hilbert, Tilman J Sumpf, Elisabeth Weiland, Jens Frahm, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Reto Meuli, Tobias Kober, Gunnar Krueger
BACKGROUND: Quantitative T 2 measurements are sensitive to intra- and extracellular water accumulation and myelin loss. Therefore, quantitative T 2 promises to be a good biomarker of disease. However, T 2 measurements require long acquisition times. PURPOSE: To accelerate T 2 quantification and subsequent generation of synthetic T 2 -weighted (T 2 -w) image contrast for clinical research and routine. To that end, a recently developed model-based approach for rapid T 2 and M 0 quantification (MARTINI) based on undersampling k-space, was extended by parallel imaging (GRAPPA) to enable high-resolution T 2 mapping with access to T 2 -w images in less than 2 minutes acquisition time for the entire brain...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Guilherme Roncari Rocha, Elkin Jahir Florez Salamanca, Ana Letícia de Barros, Carmélia Isabel Vitorino Lobo, Marlise Inêz Klein
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is considered a multifactorial disease, in which microorganisms play an important role. The diet is decisive in the biofilm formation because it provides the necessary resources for cellular growth and exopolysaccharides synthesis. Exopolysaccharides are the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM provides a 3D structure, support for the microorganisms and form diffusion-limited environments (acidic niches) that cause demineralization of the dental enamel...
February 14, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Dool-Ri Oh, Yujin Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Myung-A Jung, Kyo-Nyeo Oh, Ji-Ae Hong, Donghyuck Bae, Kwangsu Kim, Huwon Kang, Jaeyong Kim, Young Ran Kim, Seung Sik Cho, Chul-Young Choi
The fruit of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. (VBF) is commonly known as the oriental blueberry in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of water VBF extract (VBFW) in a mouse model of chronic restraint stress (CRS) and to identify the underlying mechanisms of its action. The behavioral effects of VBFW were assessed in the forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT). The levels of serum corticosterone (CORT), brain monoamines, in addition to the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway were evaluated...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Ignasi Casanellas, Anna Lagunas, Iro Tsintzou, Yolanda Vida, Daniel Collado, Ezequiel Pérez-Inestrosa, Cristina Rodríguez-Pereira, Joana Magalhaes, Pau Gorostiza, José A Andrades, José Becerra, Josep Samitier
Cellular adhesion and differentiation is conditioned by the nanoscale disposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components, with local concentrations having a major effect. Here we present a method to obtain large-scale uneven nanopatterns of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-functionalized dendrimers that permit the nanoscale control of local RGD surface density. Nanopatterns are formed by surface adsorption of dendrimers from solutions at different initial concentrations and are characterized by water contact angle (CA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning probe microscopy techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hao Liu, Rong Lu, Shani Shastri, Mark Sonderman, Peter Noel Van Buren
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Extracellular volume (ECV) overload is a mortality risk factor in hemodialysis patients, but no standard approach exists to objectively assess this clinically. We aimed to quantify relationships between slopes of repeated intradialytic blood pressure (BP) measurements and ECV. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 71 hemodialysis patients, we calculated BP slopes from all intradialytic measurements using Gaussian regression. We measured extracellular and total body water (TBW) with bioimpedance spectroscopy...
February 13, 2018: Nephron
Meiqiang Cai, Jianqiang Hu, Guanghu Lian, Ruiyang Xiao, Zhijun Song, Micong Jin, Chunying Dong, Quanyuan Wang, Dewen Luo, Zongsu Wei
The dewatering of waste activated sludge by integrated hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and Fenton reaction was explored in this study. We first investigated the effects of initial pH, sludge concentration, flow rate, and H2O2 concentration on the sludge dewaterability represented by water content, capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration. The results of dewatering tests showed that acidic pH and low sludge concentration were favorable to improve dewatering performance in the HC/Fenton system, whereas optimal flow rate and H2O2 concentration applied depended on the system operation...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
E Tsagkari, W T Sloan
Biofilms are found at the inner surfaces of drinking water pipes and, therefore, it is essential to understand biofilm processes to control their formation. Hydrodynamics play a crucial role in shaping biofilms. Thus, knowing how biofilms form, develop and disperse under different flow conditions is critical in the successful management of these systems. Here, the development of biofilms after 4 weeks, the initial formation of biofilms within 10 h and finally, the response of already established biofilms within 24-h intervals in which the flow regime was changed, were studied using a rotating annular reactor under three different flow regimes: turbulent, transition and laminar...
February 10, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
N Joan Abbott, Michelle E Pizzo, Jane E Preston, Damir Janigro, Robert G Thorne
Brain fluids are rigidly regulated to provide stable environments for neuronal function, e.g., low K+, Ca2+, and protein to optimise signalling and minimise neurotoxicity. At the same time, neuronal and astroglial waste must be promptly removed. The interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathing the CNS are integral to this homeostasis and the idea of a glia-lymph or 'glymphatic' system for waste clearance from brain has developed over the last 5 years. This links bulk (convective) flow of CSF into brain along the outside of penetrating arteries, glia-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes through the brain extracellular space (ECS) involving the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, and finally delivery of fluid to venules for clearance along peri-venous spaces...
February 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Yuhang Zhang, Xuesong Wang, Xingchao Chang, Mingyang Sun, Yanzheng Zhang, Wenbin Li, Yongguang Li
Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are ubiquitous water-soluble glycoproteins that are located in the extracellular matrix. These proteins have been reported to play vital roles in diverse biological processes. In the present study, a GLP in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), GmGLP10, was characterized. Sequence analysis revealed that the GmGLP10 gene (GenBank Accession Number EU916258) encodes a 213-amino acid (aa) protein, which contains a N-terminal signal peptide at 1-22 aa and is highly homologous to the members of the GER2 subfamily...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Duy-Khiet Ho, Ana Costa, Chiara De Rossi, Cristiane de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Brigitta Loretz, Claus-Michael Lehr
The majority of the currently used and developed anti-infectives are poorly water-soluble molecules. The poor solubility might lead to limited bioavailability and pharmacological action of the drug. Novel pharmaceutical materials have thus been designed to solve those problems and improve drug delivery. In this study, we propose a facile method to produce sub-microcarriers (sMCs) by electrostatic gelation of anionic ß-Cyclodextrin (aß-CD) and chitosan. The average hydrodynamic size ranged from 400-900 nm by carefully adjusting polymer concentrations and N/C ratio...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Keisuke Shiose, Yosuke Yamada, Keiko Motonaga, Hideyuki Takahashi
Although each gram of glycogen is well known to bind 2.7-4.0 g of water, no studies have been conducted on the effect of muscle glycogen depletion on body water distribution. We investigated changes in extracellular and intracellular water (ECW and ICW) distribution in each body segment in muscle glycogen-depletion and glycogen-recovery condition using segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS). Twelve male subjects consumed 7.0 body mass-1 of indigestible (glycogen-depleted group) or digestible (glycogen-recovered group) carbohydrate for 24 hours after a glycogen-depletion cycling exercise...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Alexandru Zabara, Josephine Tse Yin Chong, Isabelle Martiel, Laura Stark, Brett A Cromer, Chiara Speziale, Calum John Drummond, Raffaele Mezzenga
In meso crystallization of membrane proteins from lipidic mesophases is central to protein structural biology but limited to membrane proteins with small extracellular domains (ECDs), comparable to the water channels (3-5 nm) of the mesophase. Here we present a strategy expanding the scope of in meso crystallization to membrane proteins with very large ECDs. We combine monoacylglycerols and phospholipids to design thermodynamically stable ultra-swollen bicontinuous cubic phases of double-gyroid (Ia3d), double-diamond (Pn3m), and double-primitive (Im3m) space groups, with water channels five times larger than traditional lipidic mesophases, and showing re-entrant behavior upon increasing hydration, of sequences Ia3d→Pn3m→Ia3d and Pn3m→Im3m→Pn3m, unknown in lipid self-assembly...
February 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Yongpeng Zhang, Zhiguang Niu, Ying Zhang, Kai Zhang
Coastal areas are the transition zones between ocean and land where intracellular antibiotic resistance genes (iARGs) and extracellular antibiotic resistance genes (eARGs) could spread among marine organisms, and between humans and marine organisms. However, little attention has been paid to the combined research on iARGs and eARGs in marine environment. In this context, we collected water and sediment samples from the coastal areas of the Bohai Bay in China and performed molecular and chemical analyses. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) showed that the relative abundance of eARGs was up to 4...
January 29, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Man Jin, Manyuan Guo, Guangzhen Yue, Junlin Li, Shunying Yang, Pengshu Zhao, Yanhua Su
Water deficit is one of the main environmental constraints that limit plant growth. Accordingly, plants evoke rather complex strategies to respond and/or acclimate to such frustrating circumstances. Due to insufficient understandings of acclimatory mechanisms of plants' tolerance to persistent water deficit, a desert shrub of an ancient origin, Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, has recently attracted growing attentions. Differed from Arabidopsis, the opening of stomata of A. mongolicus is constrained by low external K+ concentration of the guard cells...
January 30, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Aniruddha Das, Sooram Banesh, Vishal Trivedi, Shyam Biswas
An Al(iii) metal-organic framework (MOF) called Al-MIL-53-N3 (1) was synthesized under solvothermal reaction conditions using Al(NO3)3·9H2O and H2BDC-N3 (H2BDC-N3 = 2-azido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) ligand in a DMF/water (DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) mixture. Phase purity was checked by performing X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis suggests that 1 is highly stable up to 300 °C under air atmosphere. The activated 1 (called 1') showed a very fast fluorescence response to H2S (turn-on) and Fe(iii) ions (turn-off) in an aqueous medium with excellent sensitivity and selectivity even in the presence of other potentially intrusive analytes...
February 7, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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