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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101446/hypertonicity-clinical-entities-manifestations-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Christos Argyropoulos, Todd S Ing, Dominic S Raj, Deepak Malhotra, Emmanuel I Agaba, Mark Rohrscheib, Zeid J Khitan, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Hypertonicity causes severe clinical manifestations and is associated with mortality and severe short-term and long-term neurological sequelae. The main clinical syndromes of hypertonicity are hypernatremia and hyperglycemia. Hypernatremia results from relative excess of body sodium over body water. Loss of water in excess of intake, gain of sodium salts in excess of losses or a combination of the two are the main mechanisms of hypernatremia. Hypernatremia can be hypervolemic, euvolemic or hypovolemic. The management of hypernatremia addresses both a quantitative replacement of water and, if present, sodium deficit, and correction of the underlying pathophysiologic process that led to hypernatremia...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098283/high-precision-localized-proton-gradients-and-fluxes-generated-by-a-microelectrode-device-induce-differential-growth-behaviors-of-pollen-tubes
#2
Chengzhi Hu, Hannes Vogler, Marianne Aellen, Naveen Shamsudhin, Bumjin Jang, Jan T Burri, Nino Läubli, Ueli Grossniklaus, Salvador Pané, Bradley J Nelson
Pollen tubes are tip-growing plant cells that deliver the sperm cells to the ovules for double fertilization of the egg cell and the endosperm. Various directional cues can trigger the reorientation of pollen tube growth direction on their passage through the female tissues. Among the external stimuli, protons serve an important, regulatory role in the control of pollen tube growth. The generation of local guidance cues has been challenging when investigating the mechanisms of perception and processing of such directional triggers in pollen tubes...
January 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095064/adipokines-induce-catabolism-of-newly-synthesized-matrix-in-cartilage-and-meniscus-tissues
#3
James F Nishimuta, Marc E Levenston
PURPOSE: Altered synovial levels of various adipokines (factors secreted by fat as well as other tissues) have been associated with osteoarthritis onset and progression. However, the metabolic effects of adipokines on joint tissues, in particular the fibrocartilaginous menisci, are not well understood. This study investigated effects of several adipokines on release of recently synthesized extracellular matrix in bovine cartilage and meniscus tissue explants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After labeling newly synthesized proteins and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) with (3)H-proline and (35)S-sulfate, respectively, bovine cartilage and meniscus tissue explants were cultured for 6 days in basal medium (control) or media supplemented with adipokines (1 µg/ml of leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, or resistin) or 20ng/ml interleukin-1 (IL-1)...
January 17, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093894/importance-of-body-water-in-the-efficacy-of-convective-solute-transport-in-online-hemodiafiltration
#4
Nicolás Macías, Alba Santos García, Almudena Vega Martínez, Soraya Abad Estébanez, Marian Goicoechea Diezhandino, Juan Manuel López Gómez
High-volume online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) has been associated with improved patient survival compared to conventional hemodialysis in recent trials, where the importance of convective volume (CV) in this benefit is noted. The purpose of this study was to determine the corporal composition parameters influencing the efficacy of CV in the removal of different molecular weight (MW) molecules. Demographic data, corporal composition parameters with bioimpedance spectroscopy, dialysis features and the reduction rates of different MW molecules in a four-hour OL-HDF session were collected in 61 patients...
January 16, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091789/comparative-investigation-on-a-hexane-degrading-strain-with-different-cell-surface-hydrophobicities-mediated-by-starch-and-chitosan
#5
Dong-Zhi Chen, Ning-Xin Jiang, Jie-Xu Ye, Zhuo-Wei Cheng, Shi-Han Zhang, Jian-Meng Chen
Bioremediation usually exhibits low removal efficiency toward hexane because of poor water solubility, which limits the mass transfer rate between the substrate and microorganism. This work aimed to enhance the hexane degradation rate by increasing cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of the degrader, Pseudomonas mendocina NX-1. The CSH of P. mendocina NX-1 was manipulated by treatment with starch and chitosan solution of varied concentrations, reaching a maximum hydrophobicity of 52%. The biodegradation of hexane conformed to the Haldane inhibition model, and the maximum degradation rate (ν max) of the cells with 52% CSH was 0...
January 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091787/production-of-water-soluble-yellow-pigments-via-high-glucose-stress-fermentation-of-monascus-ruber-cgmcc-10910
#6
Meihua Wang, Tao Huang, Gong Chen, Zhenqiang Wu
Monascus pigments are secondary metabolites of Monascus species and are mainly composed of yellow pigments, orange pigments and red pigments. In this study, a larger proportion of Monascus yellow pigments could be obtained through the selection of the carbon source. Hydrophilic yellow pigments can be largely produced extracellularly by Monascus ruber CGMCC 10910 under conditions of high glucose fermentation with low oxidoreduction potential (ORP). However, keeping high glucose levels later in the culture causes translation or a reduction of yellow pigment...
January 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089477/bioimpedance-and-fluid-status-in-children-and-adolescents-treated-with-dialysis
#7
Gregorio P Milani, Jaap W Groothoff, Federica A Vianello, Emilio F Fossali, Fabio Paglialonga, Alberto Edefonti, Carlo Agostoni, Dario Consonni, Dewi van Harskamp, Johannes B van Goudoever, Henk Schierbeek, Michiel J S Oosterveld
BACKGROUND: Assessment of hydration status in patients with chronic kidney failure treated by dialysis is crucial for clinical management decisions. Dilution techniques are considered the gold standard for measurement of body fluid volumes, but they are unfit for day-to-day care. Multifrequency bioimpedance has been shown to be of help in clinical practice in adults and its use in children and adolescents has been advocated. We investigated whether application of multifrequency bioimpedance is appropriate for total-body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) measurement in children and adolescents on dialysis therapy...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088651/limitations-in-biexponential-fitting-of-nmr-inversion-recovery-curves
#8
Mohammed Salman Shazeeb, Christopher H Sotak
NMR relaxation agents have long been employed as contrast agents in MRI. In many cases, the contrast agent is confined to either (i) the vascular and/or extracellular compartment (EC), as is the case with gadolinium(III)-based agents, or (ii) the intracellular compartment (IC), as is the case with manganese(II) ions. The compartmentalization of contrast agents often results in tissue-water (1)H relaxation profiles that are well modeled as biexponential. It has long been recognized that water exchange between compartments modifies the biexponential relaxation parameters (amplitudes and rate constants) from those that would be found in the absence of exchange...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088542/interaction-of-earthworms-microbe-facilitating-biofilm-dewaterability-performance-during-wasted-activated-sludge-reduction-and-stabilization
#9
Yadan Zheng, Meiyan Xing, Luziyu Cai, Tao Xiao, Yufan Lu, Jinzhou Jiang
Sludge dewaterability was chemically and morphologically explored during sewage sludge treatment by vermifiltration. The results, with a conventional biofilter (BF, no earthworms) as a control, demonstrated that the capillary suction time(CST) and specific resistance of filtration(SRF) of vermifilter (VF, with earthworms) treated sludge were 64.9±1.7s and (23.1±1.3)×10(12)m/kg,16.8% and 36.0% lower than that of the BF, respectively. Additionally, the VF could efficiently decompose loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), releasing more water trapped inside biofilm...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081203/mechanism-and-parameter-optimization-of-fenton-s-reagent-integrated-with-surfactant-pretreatment-to-improve-sludge-dewaterability
#10
Yi Xing, Zhiqiang Wang, Chen Hong, Qiang Yang, Lihui Feng, Mengmeng Jia, Yifei Li
Sludge dewatering can effectively reduce the volume and mass of sludge for subsequent treatment and disposal. The work validated the potential of Fenton's reagent combined with dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC) in improving sludge dewaterability and proposed the mechanism of joint conditioning. The composite conditioner dosage was optimized using response surface methodology. Results indicated the good conditioning capability of the composite conditioners. The optimum dosages for H2O2, Fe2+, and DDBAC were 44...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078912/unaltered-glutamate-transporter-1-protein-levels-in-aquaporin-4-knockout-mice
#11
Jacqueline A Hubbard, Devin K Binder
Maintenance of glutamate and water homeostasis in the brain is crucial to healthy brain activity. Astrocytic glutamate transporter-1 (GLT1) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are the main regulators of extracellular glutamate and osmolarity, respectively. Several studies have reported colocalization of GLT1 and AQP4, but the existence of a physical interaction between the two has not been well studied. Therefore, we used coimmunoprecipitation to determine whether a strong interaction exists between these two important molecules in mice on both a CD1 and C57BL/6 background...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078187/bioelectric-field-enhancement-the-influence-on-membrane-potential-and-cell-migration-in-vitro
#12
Marcy C Purnell, Terence J Skrinjar
Objective: The extracellular matrix consists of critical components that affect fibroblast polarization and migration. The existence of both intrinsic and extrinsic electrical signals that play essential roles in the development, physiology, regeneration, and pathology of cells was discovered over a century ago. In this study, we study how the Bioelectric Field Enhancement (BEFE) device and its generated electromagnetic field (EMF) by continuous direct current (DC) significantly affect the membrane potential and cell migration of fibroblasts in vitro...
December 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077200/expression-of-heat-shock-protein-70-in-transport-stressed-broiler-pectoralis-major-muscle-and-its-relationship-with-meat-quality
#13
T Xing, M F Wang, M Y Han, X S Zhu, X L Xu, G H Zhou
Omics research has indicated that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a potential biomarker of meat quality. However, the specific changes and the potential role of HSP70 in postmortem meat quality development need to be further defined. In this study, Arbor Acres broiler chickens (n=126) were randomly categorized into three treatment groups of unstressed control (C), 0.5-h transport (T) and subsequent water shower spray following transport (T/W). Each treatment consisted of six replicates with seven birds each...
January 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076758/polysaccharides-from-ganoderma-lucidum-promote-cognitive-function-and%C3%A2-neural-progenitor-proliferation-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Shichao Huang, Jianxin Mao, Kan Ding, Yue Zhou, Xianglu Zeng, Wenjuan Yang, Peipei Wang, Cun Zhao, Jian Yao, Peng Xia, Gang Pei
Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073559/characterization-of-total-retinoid-like-activity-of-compounds-produced-by-three-common-phytoplankton-species
#15
Eliška Sychrová, Jana Priebojová, Marie Smutná, Kateřina Nováková, Jiří Kohoutek, Klára Hilscherová
Phytoplankton can produce various bioactive metabolites, which may affect other organisms in the aquatic environment. This study provides the first information on the total retinoid-like activity associated with both intracellular and extracellular metabolites produced by selected phytoplankton species that could play a role in teratogenic effects and developmental disruption in exposed organisms. The studied species included a coccoid cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), a filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) and a green alga (Desmodesmus quadricauda), all of which commonly occur in freshwater bodies in Europe...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073534/turbulence-increases-the-risk-of-microcystin-exposure-in-a-eutrophic-lake-lake-taihu-during-cyanobacterial-bloom-periods
#16
Jian Zhou, Boqiang Qin, Xiaoxia Han, Lin Zhu
Toxic cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) have posed serious water use and public health threats because of the toxins they produce, such as the microcystins (MCs). The direct physical effects of turbulence on MCs, however, have not yet been addressed and is still poorly elucidated. In this study, a 6-day mesocosm experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of wind wave turbulence on the competition of toxic Microcystis and MCs production in highly eutrophicated and turbulent Lake Taihu, China...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063102/quantitative-analyses-of-the-bacterial-microbiota-of-rearing-environment-tilapia-and-common-carp-cultured-in-earthen-ponds-and-inhibitory-activity-of-its-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-fish-spoilage-and-pathogenic-bacteria
#17
Pierre Marie Kaktcham, Jules-Bocamdé Temgoua, François Ngoufack Zambou, Gloria Diaz-Ruiz, Carmen Wacher, María de Lourdes Pérez-Chabela
The present study aimed to evaluate the bacterial load of water, Nile Tilapia and common Carp intestines from earthen ponds, isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and assess their antimicrobial activity against fish spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Following enumeration and isolation of microorganisms the antimicrobial activity of the LAB isolates was evaluated. Taxonomic identification of selected antagonistic LAB strains was assessed, followed by partial characterisation of their antimicrobial metabolites. Results showed that high counts (>4 log c...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058277/raman-spectroscopy-reveals-new-insights-into-the-zonal-organization-of-native-and-tissue-engineered-articular-cartilage
#18
Mads S Bergholt, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Giovanni S Offeddu, Paresh A Parmar, Michael B Albro, Jennifer L Puetzer, Michelle L Oyen, Molly M Stevens
Tissue architecture is intimately linked with its functions, and loss of tissue organization is often associated with pathologies. The intricate depth-dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) arrangement in articular cartilage is critical to its biomechanical functions. In this study, we developed a Raman spectroscopic imaging approach to gain new insight into the depth-dependent arrangement of native and tissue-engineered articular cartilage using bovine tissues and cells. Our results revealed previously unreported tissue complexity into at least six zones above the tidemark based on a principal component analysis and k-means clustering analysis of the distribution and orientation of the main ECM components...
December 28, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046833/su-f-j-155-evaluation-of-transcytolemmal-water-exchange-analysis-for-therapeutic-response-assessment-using-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#19
C Wang, E Subashi, X Liang, F Yin, Z Chang
PURPOSE: To compare the performance of shutter-speed(SS) model with transcytolemmal water exchange analysis against the Tofts model in the study of the efficacy of an anti-angiogenesis drug METHODS: 16 mice with LS-174T implanted were randomly assigned into treatment/control groups (n=8/group) and received bevacizumab/saline three times (Day1/Day4/Day8). All mice received one pre- (Day0) and two post-treatment (Day2/Day9) DCE scans. For each scan, the CA extravasation rate constant KT(trans) /KS(trans) from the Tofts/SS model were calculated...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039592/loss-or-mislocalization-of-aquaporin-4-affects-diffusion-properties-and-intermediary-metabolism-in-gray-matter-of-mice
#20
T Pavlin, E A Nagelhus, C Brekken, E M Eyjolfsson, A Thoren, O Haraldseth, U Sonnewald, O P Ottersen, A K Håberg
The first aim of this study was to determine how complete or perivascular loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels affects membrane permeability for water in the mouse brain grey matter in the steady state. Time-dependent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed on global Aqp4 knock out (KO) and α-syntrophin (α-syn) KO mice, in the latter perivascular AQP4 are mislocalized, but still functioning. Control animals were corresponding wild type (WT) mice. By combining in vivo diffusion measurements with the effective medium theory and previously measured extra-cellular volume fractions, the effects of membrane permeability and extracellular volume fraction were uncoupled for Aqp4 and α-syn KO...
December 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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