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Extracellular water

Saleha Patel, Alice M Barkell, Deepti Gupta, Sarah L Strong, Shaun Bruton, Frederick W Muskett, Philip W Addis, Philip S Renshaw, Patrick M Slocombe, Carl Doyle, Alison Clargo, Richard J Taylor, Christine E Prosser, Alistair J Henry, Martyn K Robinson, Lorna C Waters, Gill Holdsworth, Mark David Carr
Dickkopf (Dkk) family proteins are important regulators of Wnt signalling pathways, which play key roles in many essential biological processes. Here we report the first detailed structural and dynamics study of a full-length mature Dkk protein (Dkk4, residues 19-224), including determination of the first atomic resolution structure for the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD1) conserved among Dkk proteins. We discovered that CRD1 has significant structural homology to the Dkk C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD2), pointing to multiple gene duplication events during Dkk family evolution...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Conor F Underwood, Jacqueline K Phillips, Cara M Hildreth
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a group of monogenetic conditions characterised by the progressive accumulation of multiple renal cysts and hypertension. One of the earliest features of PKD is a reduction in urinary concentrating capacity that impairs extracellular fluid conservation. Urinary concentrating impairment predisposes PKD patients to periods of hypohydration when fluid loss is not adequately compensated by fluid intake. The hypohydrated state provides a blood hyperosmotic stimulus for vasopressin release to minimise further water loss...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Michael L De Ieso, Andrea J Yool
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and its incidence is rising with numbers expected to increase 70% in the next two decades. The fact that current mainline treatments for cancer patients are accompanied by debilitating side effects prompts a growing demand for new therapies that not only inhibit growth and proliferation of cancer cells, but also control invasion and metastasis. One class of targets gaining international attention is the aquaporins, a family of membrane-spanning water channels with diverse physiological functions and extensive tissue-specific distributions in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Yuan Gao, Ming-Yang Zhang, Tao Wang, Yan-Yan Fan, Lin-Sheng Yu, Guang-Hua Ye, Zu-Feng Wang, Cheng Gao, Hao-Chen Wang, Cheng-Liang Luo, Lu-Yang Tao
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family and an extracellular ligand for the orphan IL-1 receptor ST2. Accumulated evidence shows that the IL-33/ST2 axis plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the roles and molecular mechanisms of the IL-33/ST2 axis after TBI remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-33/ST2 signaling in mouse TBI-induced brain edema and neurobehavioral deficits, and further exploited underlying mechanisms, using salubrinal (SAL), the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor and anti-ST2L...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
J T Lennon, M E Muscarella, S A Placella, B K Lehmkuhl
Extracellular or "relic" DNA is one of the largest pools of nucleic acids in the biosphere. Relic DNA can influence a number of important ecological and evolutionary processes, but it may also affect estimates of microbial abundance and diversity, which has implications for understanding environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. We developed models capturing the fundamental processes that regulate the size and composition of the relic DNA pools to identify scenarios leading to biased estimates of biodiversity...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Boran Wu, Meng Zhou, Xiaohu Dai, Xiaoli Chai
This study visually tracked the micro-spatial water distribution in bio-flocs of waste activated sludge through in situ synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography. Primarily, the two fractions of bound water, the vicinal water adhering to the surface of organic compositions and the interstitial water mechanically trapped in the net-like structure of bio-flocs, were proposed based on the cross-section imaging results. Furthermore, the determinants on bound water occurrences were explored in terms of viscoelastic acoustic responses of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)...
June 5, 2018: Water Research
Christine M Egli, Elisabeth M L Janssen
Extracellular enzymes are major drivers of biogeochemical nutrient and carbon cycling in surface water. While photoinactivation is regarded as a major inactivation process of these enzymes, the underlying molecular changes have received little attention. This study demonstrate how light exposure leads to a rapid loss of phosphatase, aminopeptidase and glucosidase activities of biofilm samples and model enzymes. Here, an optimized proteomics approach allowed simultaneous observation of inactivation and molecular changes...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Catarina Leite Pereira, Graciosa Q Teixeira, Joana R Ferreira, Matteo D'Este, David Eglin, Mauro Alini, Sibylle Grad, Mario Barbosa, Raquel Goncalves
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is characterized by an unbalanced cell catabolic/anabolic activity and cell death, resulting in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and water loss. Repopulating the IVD with new cells may help recovering tissue homeostasis and revert the degenerative process. Here the regenerative potential of a hyaluronan based (HA)-chemoattractant delivery system able to recruit Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) seeded on the cartilaginous endplate (CEP) of IVD was explored...
June 19, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
W W Y Voon, B J Muhialdin, N L Yusof, Y Rukayadi, A S Meor Hussin
Bio-cellulose is the microbial extracellular cellulose that is produced by growing several microorganisms on agriculture by-products, and it is used in several food applications. This study aims to utilize sago by-product, coconut water, and the standard medium Hestrin-Schramm as the carbon sources in the culture medium for bio-cellulose production. The bacteria Beijerinkia fluminensis WAUPM53 and Gluconacetobacter xylinus 0416 were selected based on their bio-cellulose production activity. The structure was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while the toxicity safety was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality test...
June 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jiongming Sun, Hangzhou Xu, Haiyan Pei, Yan Jin, Hongmin Li, Chunxia Ma
Benthic Oscillatoria sp. may form dense surface blooms especially under eutrophic and calm conditions, which poses a threat to drinking water safety because it can produce toxic and odorous metabolites. This is the first study to investigate the effect of the conventional coagulant polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) on removal of Oscillatoria sp., and the behavior of Oscillatoria sp. cells in sludges formed from different dosages of PAFC (control, optimum, and overdose system) during storage was also studied...
June 9, 2018: Water Research
Agnès Sallé, Emilie Dalmayrac, Christophe Baufreton
BACKGROUND: Experiencing loss of appetite after cardiac surgery is often noted during daily care and has been described by several studies. However, no information is available on either energy needs or spontaneous food intake following aortic valve replacement surgery. The goal of this study was to assess the risk of early postoperative undernutrition following aortic valve replacement in a group of patients who were preoperatively well-nourished. METHODS: Anthropometrics data (body mass index, fat free mass index, albuminemia and prealbuminemia, extracellular water), energy balance and appetite were assessed in a cross-over prospective observational study...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Liang Shi, Jiawang Xue, Binhao Liu, Pengcheng Dong, Zhugui Wen, Zhenguo Shen, Yahua Chen
Pisolithus sp1 is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi that was chosen during a screening test of six strains of ECM fungi due to its ability to tolerate and remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The physiological responses of Pisolithus sp1 to Cr(VI) exposure, the relationship between Pisolithus sp1 and exogenously added organic acids (EAOAs) or Na3 VO4 (H+ -ATPase inhibitor) and the ability of Pisolithus sp1 to reduce Cr(VI) in liquid culture were also investigated. Hydrogen ions (H+ ), which were produced directly by Pisolithus sp1, reduced the pH of the medium and played an important role in Cr(VI) reduction; however, Na3 VO4 significantly inhibited this process and resulted in a decrease in the Cr(VI) reduction rates...
June 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shuo Wang, Cong Ma, Yin Zhu, Yangkun Yang, Guocheng Du, Ji Li
FeCl3 , quick lime, and cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) were used for excess sludge conditioning from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the dewatering performance by different chemical conditioners was investigated. Experimental results showed that FeCl3 could make small and concentrated sludge particles. Furthermore, new mineral phase structures for building a dewatering framework were obtained by the addition of quick lime, and the coagulation capacity was enhanced by the formation of colloid hydroxyl polymer, which was induced due to the alkaline environment...
June 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Keke Tan, Xiuxiu Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhigang Zhuang, Tieli Dong
Objective: To investigate the possibility and effect of chitosan porous scaffolds combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in repair of neurological deficit after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Methods: BMSCs were isolated, cultured, and passaged by the method of bone marrow adherent culture. The 3rd generation BMSCs were identified by the CD29 and CD45 surface antigens and marked by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). The chitosan porous scaffolds were produced by the method of freeze-drying...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Quxiu Dai, Liping Ma, Nanqi Ren, Ping Ning, Zhiying Guo, Longgui Xie, Haijun Gao
Modified phosphogypsum (MPG) was developed to improve dewaterability of sewage sludge, and dewatering performance, properties of treated sludge, composition and morphology distribution of EPS, dynamic analysis and multiple regression model on bound water release were investigated. The results showed that addition of MPG caused extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) disintegration through charge neutralization. Destruction of EPS promoted the formation of larger sludge flocs and the release of bound water into supernatant...
June 6, 2018: Water Research
Sundaravelpandian Kalaipandian, Gang-Ping Xue, Anne L Rae, Donna Glassop, Graham D Bonnett, Lynne C McIntyre
Calcium (Ca2+ ) is a universal messenger that mediates intracellular responses to extracellular stimuli in living organisms. Calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) are the important Ca2+ sensors in plants that decode Ca2+ -signatures to execute downstream intracellular level responses. Several studies indicate the interlinking of Ca2+ and sugar signalling in plants, however, no genes have been functionally characterized to provide molecular evidence. Our study found that expression of TaCML20 was significantly correlated with water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations in recombinant inbred lines in wheat...
June 14, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Vitor Ramos, João Morais, Raquel Castelo-Branco, Ângela Pinheiro, Joana Martins, Ana Regueiras, Ana L Pereira, Viviana R Lopes, Bárbara Frazão, Dina Gomes, Cristiana Moreira, Maria Sofia Costa, Sébastien Brûle, Silvia Faustino, Rosário Martins, Martin Saker, Joana Osswald, Pedro N Leão, Vitor M Vasconcelos
Cyanobacteria are a well-known source of bioproducts which renders culturable strains a valuable resource for biotechnology purposes. We describe here the establishment of a cyanobacterial culture collection (CC) and present the first version of the strain catalog and its online database ( The LEGE CC holds 386 strains, mainly collected in coastal (48%), estuarine (11%), and fresh (34%) water bodies, for the most part from Portugal (84%). By following the most recent taxonomic classification, LEGE CC strains were classified into at least 46 genera from six orders (41% belong to the Synechococcales), several of them are unique among the phylogenetic diversity of the cyanobacteria...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Patrick Kaiser, Steffen Reich, Andreas Greiner, Ruth Freitag
Biocomposites, i.e., materials consisting of metabolically active microorganisms embedded in a synthetic extracellular matrix, may find applications as highly specific catalysts in bioproduction and bioremediation. 3D constructs based on fibrous biocomposites, so-called "artificial biofilms," are of particular interest in this context. The inability to produce biocomposite fibers of sufficient mechanical strength for processing into bioactive fabrics has so far hindered progress in the area. Herein a method is proposed for the direct wet spinning of microfibers suitable for weaving and knitting...
June 12, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Craig A Shoemaker, Benjamin R LaFrentz, Eric Peatman, Benjamin H Beck
Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease of farmed and wild freshwater fish. Skin mucus is an important factor in early stages of columnaris pathogenesis, albeit little studied. Our objectives were to (a) characterize the terminal glycosylation pattern (TGP) of catfish mucus, (b) determine the growth of F. columnare in formulated water (FW)-containing channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) or hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus X Ictalurus furcatus) mucus and (c) examine extracellular protease activity of two F...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Tasneem Kausar, Shahid M Nayeem
GDF-5 mediated signal transduction regulating chondrogenesis and skeletogenesis involves three different type-I receptors viz. Act-RI, BMPRIA and BMPRIB. BMPRIA and BMPRIB generally shows temporal and spatial co-expression but some spatially different expression pattern has also been observed. BMPRIA receptor is the key receptor implicated in BMP signalling during osteogenesis and is expressed in osteoblasts during the course of bone formation. However, BMPRIB appears to be primarily expressed in mesenchymal pre-cartilage condensations and also found in differentiated osteoblast and chondrocytes...
May 26, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
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