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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691785/colorimetric-method-for-determining-viability-of-sea-urchin-sperm-applied-in-toxicity-tests
#1
Charrid Resgalla, Marcus Vinícius Máximo, Mirella do Nascimento Brasil, Marcos Luiz Pessatti
The aim of this study was to improve the methodological procedure for the evaluation of sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) sperm sensitivity in MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) enzyme reduction assays with the formation of formazan (purple color) in the interior of viable cells. Assays were carried out with the reference toxicants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), copper, zinc, cadmium and ammonium, using a sperm solution previously activated in sea water and a sperm solution prepared in sea water containing 400 μg L-1 verapamil, which enabled activation of the sperm to occur only when exposed to the toxicants...
April 24, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691716/properties-and-structure-of-a-low-potential-penta-heme-cytochrome-c-552-from-a-thermophilic-purple-sulfur-photosynthetic-bacterium-thermochromatium-tepidum
#2
Jing-Hua Chen, Long-Jiang Yu, Alain Boussac, Zheng-Yu Wang-Otomo, Tingyun Kuang, Jian-Ren Shen
The thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum possesses four main water-soluble redox proteins involved in the electron transfer behavior. Crystal structures have been reported for three of them: a high potential iron-sulfur protein, cytochrome c', and one of two low-potential cytochrome c 552 (which is a flavocytochrome c) have been determined. In this study, we purified another low-potential cytochrome c 552 (LPC), determined its N-terminal amino acid sequence and the whole gene sequence, characterized it with absorption and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy, and solved its high-resolution crystal structure...
April 24, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688713/development-of-a-series-of-practical-fluorescent-chemical-tools-to-measure-ph-values-in-living-samples
#3
Shodai Takahashi, Yu Kagami, Kenjiro Hanaoka, Takuya Terai, Toru Komatsu, Tasuku Ueno, Masanobu Uchiyama, Ikuko Koyama-Honda, Noboru Mizushima, Tomohiko Taguchi, Hiroyuki Arai, Tetsuo Nagano, Yasuteru Urano
In biological systems, the pH in intracellular organelles or tissues is strictly regulated, and differences of pH are deeply related to key biological events such as protein degradation, intracellular trafficking, renal failure, and cancer. Ratiometric fluorescence imaging is useful for determination of precise pH values, but existing fluorescence probes have substantial limitations, such as inappropriate p Ka for imaging in the physiological pH range, inadequate photobleaching resistance, and insufficiently long excitation and emission wavelengths...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687889/slc9-gene-family-function-expression-and-regulation
#4
Hua Xu, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
The Slc9 family of Na+ /H+ exchangers (NHEs) plays a critical role in electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+ in the mammalian intestine as well as other absorptive and secretory epithelia of digestive organs. These transport proteins contribute to the transepithelial Na+ and water absorption, intracellular pH and cellular volume regulation as well as the electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid volume homeostasis at the systemic level. They also influence the function of other membrane transport mechanisms, affect cellular proliferation and apoptosis as well as cell migration, adherence to the extracellular matrix, and tissue repair...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686894/acute-consumption-of-bordo-grape-juice-and-wine-improves-serum-antioxidant-status-in-healthy-individuals-and-inhibits-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-human-neuron-like-cells
#5
Cristiane Copetti, Fernanda Wouters Franco, Eduarda da Rosa Machado, Marcela Bromberger Soquetta, Andréia Quatrin, Vitor de Miranda Ramos, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Tatiana Emanuelli, Cláudia Kaehler Sautter, Neidi Garcia Penna
Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes ( Vitis labrusca ) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA) and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT) were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) to juice or wine...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684505/protective-effects-of-sulforaphane-on-cognitive-impairments-and-ad-like-lesions-in-diabetic-mice-are-associated-with-the-upregulation-of-nrf2-transcription-activity
#6
Die Pu, Yuxing Zhao, Jinliang Chen, Yue Sun, Ankang Lv, Shiyu Zhu, Cheng Luo, Kexiang Zhao, Qian Xiao
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-associated oxidative stress contributes to cognitive deficiencies and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sulforaphane (SFN) is a pharmacological activator of Nrf2 that provokes Nrf2-mediated intracellular defenses, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, under oxidative stress (OS) conditions. This study investigated the effects of SFN on DM-related cognitive decline and its potential mechanisms. Morris water maze (MWM) tests showed that SFN (1 mg/kg i.p. for 28 days) mitigated the cognitive decline of db/db mice, a transgenic mouse model of T2DM...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682859/semiconducting-polymer-nanocavities-porogenic-synthesis-tunable-host-guest-interactions-and-enhanced-drug-sirna-delivery
#7
Haobin Chen, Xiaofeng Fang, Yue Jin, Xin Hu, Min Yin, Xiaoju Men, Nan Chen, Chunhai Fan, Daniel T Chiu, Youzhong Wan, Changfeng Wu
Nanocavities composed of lipids and block polymers have demonstrated great potential in biomedical applications such as sensors, nanoreactors, and delivery vectors. However, it remains a great challenge to produce nanocavities from fluorescent semiconducting polymers owing to their hydrophobic rigid polymer backbones. Here, we describe a facile, yet general strategy that combines photocrosslinking with nanophase separation to fabricate multicolor, water-dispersible semiconducting polymer nanocavities (PNCs)...
April 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681008/micromanaging-freeze-tolerance-the-biogenesis-and-regulation-of-neuroprotective-micrornas-in-frozen-brains
#8
Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
When temperatures plummet below 0 °C, wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) can endure the freezing of up to ~ 65% of their body water in extracellular ice masses, displaying no measurable brain activity, no breathing, no movement, and a flat-lined heart. To aid survival, frogs retreat into a state of suspended animation characterized by global suppression of metabolic functions and reprioritization of energy usage to essential survival processes that is elicited, in part, by the regulatory controls of microRNAs...
April 21, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680502/evaluation-of-hyaluronic-acid-combined-ternary-complexes-for-serum-resistant-and-targeted-gene-delivery-system
#9
Woong-Gil Hong, Gyeong-Won Jeong, Jae-Woon Nah
Branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) was well known as high transfection agent, which has many amine group. However, utilization of bPEI was limited due to high toxicity. To solve these problems, bPEI was introduced to low molecular weight water-soluble chitosan (LMWSC) with coupling agent. In addition, hyaluronic acid (HA), one of natural anion polymer, was introduced to binary complex of pDNA/bPEI-grafted LMWSC (LMPEI) to target the specific cancer cell and impart the serum resistant. Ternary complexes of pDNA/LMPEI/HA were prepared by electrostatic charge interaction and their binding affinity and DNase protection assay were conducted by gel retardation assay...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679666/glutathione-sensitive-hollow-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-controlled-drug-delivery
#10
Seyyed Pouya Hadipour Moghaddam, Mostafa Yazdimamaghani, Hamidreza Ghandehari
Tunable glutathione (GSH)-sensitive hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSiO2 NPs) were developed using a structural difference-based selective etching strategy. These organosilica hollow nanoparticles contained disulfide linkages (S-S) in the outer shell which were degraded by GSH. The particles were compared with their nonGSH-sensitive tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) HMSiO2 counterparts in terms of their synthesis method, characterization, DOX release profile, and in vitro cytotoxicity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675407/pancreatic-aquaporin-7-a-novel-target-for-anti-diabetic-drugs
#11
REVIEW
Leire Méndez-Giménez, Silvia Ezquerro, Inês V da Silva, Graça Soveral, Gema Frühbeck, Amaia Rodríguez
Aquaporins comprise a family of 13 members of water channels (AQP0-12) that facilitate a rapid transport of water across cell membranes. In some cases, these pores are also permeated by small solutes, particularly glycerol, urea or nitric oxide, among other solutes. Several aquaporins have been identified in the pancreas, an exocrine and endocrine organ that plays an essential role in the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The exocrine pancreas, which accounts for 90% of the total pancreas, secretes daily large volumes of a near-isotonic fluid containing digestive enzymes into the duodenum...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670331/cell-penetrating-peptide-conjugates-of-gambogic-acid-enhance-the-antitumor-effect-on-human-bladder-cancer-ej-cells-through-ros-mediated-apoptosis
#12
Lei Lyu, Lu-Qi Huang, Tao Huang, Wei Xiang, Jing-Dong Yuan, Chuan-Hua Zhang
Background: Gambogic acid (GA) is the main active ingredient of resin gamboges and possesses anti-cancer activity toward various human cancer cells. However, clinical application of GA has been limited by its poor aqueous solubility and dose-limiting toxicities. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are widely used to deliver anti-cancer drugs into cancer cells and to enhance the water solubility of drugs. Purpose: The object of this study was to synthesize peptide-drug conjugates in which the cell-penetrating peptide TAT (trans-activator of transcription) was conjugated to GA and evaluated the anti-cancer activity of this GA-CPP conjugate (GA-TAT) in EJ bladder cancer cells...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667293/enhanced-in-vitro-biocompatibility-and-water-dispersibility-of-magnetite-and-cobalt-ferrite-nanoparticles-employed-as-ros-formation-enhancer-in-radiation-cancer-therapy
#13
Stefanie Klein, Melek Kızaloğlu, Luis Portilla, Hyoungwon Park, Tobias Rejek, Julian Hümmer, Karsten Meyer, Rainer Hock, Luitpold V R Distel, Marcus Halik, Carola Kryschi
Efficient magnetic reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation enhancing agents after X-ray treatment are realized by functionalizing superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) and Co-ferrite (CoFe2 O4 ) nanoparticles with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The Fe3 O4 and CoFe2 O4 nanoparticles are synthesized using Massart's coprecipitation technique. Successful surface modification with the SAM forming compounds 1-methyl-3-(dodecylphosphonic acid) imidazolium bromide, or (2-{2-[2-hydroxy-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-ethyl phosphonic acid provides biocompatibility and long-term stability of the Fe3 O4 and CoFe2 O4 nanoparticles in cell media...
April 18, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663711/dilution-of-oral-d-3-creatine-to-measure-creatine-pool-size-and-estimate-skeletal-muscle-mass-development-of-a-correction-algorithm
#14
Mahalakshmi Shankaran, Gregg Czerwieniec, Chancy Fessler, Po-Yin Anne Wong, Salena Killion, Scott M Turner, Marc K Hellerstein, William J Evans
BACKGROUND: Muscle mass can be measured directly in vivo by isotope dilution, using Creatine-(methyl-d3 ) monohydrate (D3 -Cr) by mouth followed by measurement of the steady-state enrichment of D3 -creatinine (D3 -Crn) in urine. Isotope dilution methods require knowledge of the amount of tracer delivered to the pool of interest. In a subset of human subjects, a small amount of orally administered D3 -Cr 'spills' into urine after absorption and prior to transport into skeletal muscle cells...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660508/estrone-modified-ph-sensitive-glycol-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-drug-delivery-in-breast-cancer
#15
Huan Yang, Cui Tang, Chunhua Yin
Estrone-modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles (GCNP-ES) based on the mechanisms of ES-mediated endocytosis and intracellular pH-responsive drug release were developed for the treatment of breast cancer. GCNP-ES were prepared by grafting copolymerization of glycol chitosan with 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate to generate GCNP prior to ES conjugation. The particle size, zeta potential, and paclitaxel (PTX) encapsulation efficiency of GCNP-ES were characterized. In particular, GCNP-ES exhibited pH-responsive dissociation properties while maintaining stability under long-term storage and lyophilization...
April 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660445/development-of-a-new-tool-for-the-long-term-in-vitro-ecotoxicity-testing-of-nanomaterials-using-a-rainbow-trout-cell-line-rtl-w1
#16
L Galbis-Martínez, M L Fernández-Cruz, L Alte, A Valdehita, I Rucandio, J M Navas
The current wide use of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) is leading to the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to water bodies. Aquatic organisms, including fish, are exposed to low concentrations of NPs for long periods of time being necessary to develop laboratory toxicity tests reflecting realistic conditions. Additionally, today there is a demand of in vitro assays respecting the 3Rs principle. Thus, the main aim of this work was to stablish an in vitro tool for the assessment of long-term NPs ecotoxicity. Considering the key role of liver in detoxification, a rainbow trout liver cell line, RTL-W1, was used...
April 13, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660240/ros-signaling-and-stomatal-movement-in-plant-responses-to-drought-stress-and-pathogen-attack
#17
REVIEW
Junsheng Qi, Chun-Peng Song, Baoshan Wang, Jianmin Zhou, Jaakko Kangasjärvi, Jian-Kang Zhu, Zhizhong Gong
Stomata, the pores formed by a pair of guard cells, are the main gateways for water transpiration and photosynthetic CO2 exchange, as well as pathogen invasion in land plants. Guard cell movement is regulated by a combination of environmental factors including water status, light, CO2 levels and pathogen attack, as well as endogenous signals such as abscisic acid and apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under abiotic and biotic stress conditions, extracellular ROS are mainly produced by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, whereas intracellular ROS are produced in multiple organelles...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643996/selective-lysis-of-breast-carcinomas-by-simultaneous-stimulation-of-sodium-channels-and-blockade-of-sodium-pumps
#18
Harry J Gould, Jack Norleans, T David Ward, Chasiti Reid, Dennis Paul
Sodium influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) coupled with balanced removal of sodium ions via Na+ , K+ -ATPase is a major determinant of cellular homeostasis and intracellular ionic concentration. Interestingly, many metastatic carcinomas express high levels of these channels. We hypothesized that if excess VGSCs are activated and Na+ , K+ -ATPase is simultaneously blocked, the intracellular Na+ concentration should increase, resulting in water movement into the cell, causing swelling and lytic cell death...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628263/structure-characterization-and-antitumor-activity-of-the-extracellular-polysaccharide-from-the-marine-fungus-hansfordia-sinuosae
#19
Hongyan Li, Kewei Cao, Peixu Cong, Yanjun Liu, Huanhuan Cui, Changhu Xue
A neutral water soluble polysaccharide (HPA) was isolated from the marine fungus Hansfordia sinuosae. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that HPA was mainly composed of mannose with minor amounts of galactose and glucose. The molecular weight of HPA was approximately 22.5 kDa as analyzed by HPGPC. Structure analysis of HPA with methylation and 1D, 2D NMR indicated that HPA was composed of [α-d-Manp(1→], [→2)-α-d-Manp(1→], [→3)-α-d-Manp(1→] and [→2,6)-α-d-Manp(1→] with [α-d-Manp(1→] linked to C-6 position of [→2,6)-α-d-Manp(1→]...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626110/impaired-endocrine-metabolic-homeostasis-underlying-mechanism-of-its-induction-by-unbalanced-diet
#20
Bárbara Maiztegui, Carolina Lisi Román, Juan José Gagliardino, Luis Emilio Flores
Aim : to characterize the intrinsic mechanism by which sucrose induces β-cell dysfunction. Methods : Normal rats received for 3 weeks a standard diet supplemented with 10% sucrose in the drinking water (HS) with/out an antioxidant agent (R/S α-lipoic acid). We measured plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, leptin and lipid peroxidation levels; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-β indexes were also determined. Insulin secretion, β-cell apoptosis, intracellular insulin and leptin mediators, and oxidative stress (OS) markers were also measured in islets isolated from each experimental group...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
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