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Intracellular water

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713809/a-perspective-on-reagent-diversity-and-non-covalent-binding-of-reactive-carbonyl-species-rcs-and-effector-reagents-in-non-enzymatic-glycation-neg-mechanistic-considerations-and-implications-for-future-research
#1
Kenneth J Rodnick, R W Holman, Pamela S Ropski, Mingdong Huang, Arthur L M Swislocki
This perspective focuses on illustrating the underappreciated connections between reactive carbonyl species (RCS), initial binding in the nonenzymatic glycation (NEG) process, and nonenzymatic covalent protein modification (here termed NECPM). While glucose is the central species involved in NEG, recent studies indicate that the initially-bound glucose species in the NEG of human hemoglobin (HbA) and human serum albumin (HSA) are non-RCS ring-closed isomers. The ring-opened glucose, an RCS structure that reacts in the NEG process, is most likely generated from previously-bound ring-closed isomers undergoing concerted acid/base reactions while bound to protein...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709850/removal-of-microcystins-in-water-by-ultrasound-coupled-advanced-oxidation-techniques
#2
Gökçe Tezcanlı Güyer, Fjolle Kabashi
Microcystis Aeruginosa, is one of the typical toxin producing cyanobacteria, has increased attention for immediate removal due to toxin release, which has adverse effects both in the environment and humans. In this study, suspensions of Microcystis Aeruginosa were sonicated at the following frequencies 582kHz (0,055W/mL), 861kHz (0,094W/mL) and 1136kHz (0,060W/mL) for 60min. The study examined the removal of intracellular microcystin (intra MC-LR) and extracellular microcystin (extra MC-LR) release during sonication...
May 4, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709144/the-spectrum-of-peri-ictal-mri-changes-four-illustrative-cases
#3
Jennifer Williams, Gerard Mullins, Norman Delanty, Bede Peter, Colin P Doherty
PURPOSE: Seizure induced neuronal hyperexcitability and increased unmet metabolic neuronal demand results in failure of the sodium/potassium ATP pump. Sodium and water accumulates intracellularly with cellular swelling and reduced extracellular volume demonstrating hyperintensity on DWI and reduced ADC. The aim of this study was to describe 4 clinical cases where we identified abnormalities in diffusion restriction in the acute peri-ictal period and followed them longitudinally. METHODS: Patients were recruited from the emergency department, clinical consultation service and epilepsy monitoring unit of two tertiary referral centres...
July 6, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701677/mechanisms-of-diuresis-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-by-tolvaptan
#4
Hidetsugu Nomoto, Yasuhiro Satoh, Mayu Kamiyama, Kento Yabe, Mayumi Masumura, Atsushi Sakakibara, Shu Yamashita, Masahito Suzuki, Tomoyo Sugiyama, Tetsuo Oumi, Masakazu Ohno, Yoshihide Takahashi, Mitsuaki Isobe
Tolvaptan, a vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, does not affect kidney circulation or cause worsening of renal function (WRF) in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) can be used to evaluate intravascular volume by calculating the ratio of extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW). There have been no reports examining the mechanisms of tolvaptan-induced diuresis using BIA. We investigated whether tolvaptan decreases excess volume while maintaining intravascular volume in ADHF patients...
July 13, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699923/the-effects-of-moderate-versus-high-load-resistance-training-on-muscle-growth-body-composition-and-performance-in-collegiate-women
#5
Jason M Cholewa, Fabricio E Rossi, Christopher MacDonald, Amy Hewins, Samantha Gallo, Ashley Micenski, Layne Norton, Bill I Campbell
Twenty young women (20.3+1.5 years, 164+6 cm, 68.7+13.8 kg) without prior structured resistance training experience were recruited for this study. Body composition (BodPod), compartmental water (Bioelectrical Impedance), 7-site skinfold, and arm and thigh CSA were assessed pre- and post- 8 week training. Performance testing consisted of vertical jump, 3 kg chest pass initial velocity, squat 1RM and overhead press 1RM. Following 2 weeks of familiarization training, subjects were matched for body composition and relative squat strength, and randomly assigned to either a high- (HL: n=10; 4 sets of 5-7 repetitions) or moderate-load (ML: n=10; 2 sets of 10-14 repetitions) group that completed 6-7 exercises per day performed to momentary muscular failure...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699735/%C3%AF-conjugate-fluorophore-tagged-and-enzyme-responsive-l-amino-acid-polymer-nano-carrier-and-their-colour-tunable-intracellular-fret-probe-in-cancer-cells
#6
Sonashree Saxena, Manickam Jayakannan
The present investigation accounts one of the first example of enzyme-responsive and π-conjugate-tagged L-amino acid amphiphilic polymer and their fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes for colour-tunable intracellular bio-imaging in cancer cells. Melt polymerizable oligo-phenylenevinylene (OPV) -conjugated diol was tailor-made and subjected to thermo-selective melt transesterification reaction with multi-functional L-aspartic acid monomer to yield OPV-tagged amphiphilic luminescent polyesters...
July 12, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697564/an-intracellular-amyloid-%C3%AE-a%C3%AE-pp-epitope-correlates-with-neurodegeneration-in-those-neuronal-populations-early-involved-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Gisela Esquerda-Canals, Joaquim Martí-Clúa, Alejandro R Roda, Sandra Villegas
The main histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the extracellular deposition of neuritic amyloid plaques, composed of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, and the intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. Both traits are emulated in the 3xTg-AD mouse model. Because the relevance of this model in the bibliography and the main role of Aβ in neuronal impairment, here we have detailed the brain Aβ/AβPP distribution to subsequently quantify cellular density and intracellular burden for specific neuronal populations in the early stages of the disease...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694767/development-of-a-new-rutin-nanoemulsion-and-its-application-on-prostate-carcinoma-pc3-cell-line
#8
Mohammad Ahmad, - Sahabjada, Juber Akhtar, Arshad Hussain, - Badaruddeen, Md Arshad, Anuradha Mishra
Biological effects of rutin bioactive are limited due to its poor oral bioavailability and its degradation in aqueous environments. For the purpose of bioenhancement, different nanoemulsion systems of rutin were developed by aqueous titration method using water as dispersion media. The nanoemulsion systems were characterized for surface morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, in vitro release profile and the formulations were optimized. The anticancer potential of optimized nanoemulsion was evaluated by cells viability (MTT) assay, nuclear condensation, and ROS activity using human prostate cancer (PC3) cell line...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692767/reactive-oxygen-species-regulating-polymersome-as-an-antiviral-agent-against-influenza-virus
#9
Hyun-Ouk Kim, Minjoo Yeom, Jihye Kim, Aastha Kukreja, Woonsung Na, Jihye Choi, Aram Kang, Dayeon Yun, Jong-Woo Lim, Daesub Song, Seungjoo Haam
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation play an important role as signal messengers in the immune system and also regulate signal transduction. ROS production, initiated as a consequence of microbial invasion, if generated at high levels, induces activation of the MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway to promote cell survival and proliferation. However, viruses hijack the host cells' pathways, causing biphasic activation of the MEK/ERK cascade...
July 10, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691402/osmolality-and-blood-pressure-stability-during-hemodialysis
#10
Anika T Singh, Finnian R Mc Causland
Homeostatic regulation of plasma osmolality (POsm) is critical for normal cellular function in humans. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the major hormone responsible for the maintenance of POsm and acts to promote renal water retention in conditions of increased POsm. However, AVP also exerts pressor effects, and its release can be stimulated by the development of effective arterial blood volume depletion. Patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, particularly those with minimal or no residual renal function, have impaired ability to regulate water retention in response to AVP...
July 9, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690388/-23-na-mri-and-myometry-to-compare-eplerenone-vs-glucocorticoid-treatment-in-duchenne-dystrophy
#11
Philip A Glemser, Heike Jaeger, Armin M Nagel, Andreas E Ziegler, David Simons, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Frank Lehmann-Horn, Karin Jurkat-Rott, Marc-André Weber
In this pilot study we tested whether a low dose application of a mild diuretic substance such as eplerenone is beneficial in early stages of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using (23)Na und (1)H imaging, myometry, and clinical testing versus the glucocorticoid gold standard. Two 7-years old patients with DMD were examined on a 3T MRI system. (1)H MRI and (23)Na density-adapted 3-dimensional radial MRI sequences were performed both before and 1, 3 and 6 months after therapy with eplerenone respectively cortisone...
March 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690251/reversible-fluorescence-probe-based-on-n-doped-carbon-dots-for-the-determination-of-mercury-ion-and-glutathione-in-waters-and-living-cells
#12
Xiaohan Sun, Shenghong Yang, Mingzhen Guo, Shuang Ma, Mingda Zheng, Jiang He
An "on-off-on" mode was developed for the detection of mercury ion (Hg(2+)) and glutathione (GSH) with high sensitivity and selectivity based on the nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) fluorescent probe. The N-CDs were synthesized through microwave treatment of citric acid and diethylenetriamine for 2 min, and exhibited excellent fluorescence properties and high quantum yield (27.7%). The fluorescence intensity of the N-CDs could be significantly quenched by Hg(2+) (turn-off). Upon addition of GSH, the fluorescence intensity of the N-CDs-Hg(2+) system could be recovered clearly (turn-on)...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689412/bexarotene-does-not-clear-amyloid-beta-plaques-but-delays-fibril-growth-molecular-mechanisms
#13
Pham Dinh Quoc Huy, Nguyen Quoc Thai, Zuzana Bednarikova, Le Huu Phuc, Huynh Quang Linh, Zuzana Gazova, Mai Suan Li
In 2012, it was reported that anti-cancer drug bexarotene reduced amyloid plaque and improved mental functioning in a small sample of mice engineered to exhibit Alzheimer's like symptoms. It has been suggested that bexarotene stimulates expression of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) leading to intracellular clearance of amyloid beta (Aβ). However the effect of bexarotene on clearance of plaques has not been seen in some mouse models. Two interesting questions that emerge are: can bexarotene destroy Aβ fibrils via direct interaction with them and how this compound impacts the lag phase in the fibril growth process...
July 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682780/intestinal-coccidian-parasites-as-an-underestimated-cause-of-travellers-diarrhoea-in-polish-immunocompetent-patients
#14
Matylda Kłudkowska, Łukasz Pielok, Krystyna Frąckowiak, Małgorzata Paul
Intestinal coccidian parasites are intracellular protozoa most frequently transmitted during food-borne and water-borne infections. This group of parasites is responsible for acute diarrhoeal illnesses especially among immunocompromised patients. However, they are more frequently detected in immunocompetent individuals including travellers, and they should also be considered as important etiologic factors of travellers' diarrhoea. We examined 221 immunocompetent patients hospitalized due to acute or chronic diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal symptoms after returning from international journeys to hot climates...
September 26, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678468/near-infrared-light-activated-photochemical-internalization-of-reduction-responsive-polyprodrug-vesicles-for-synergistic-photodynamic-and-chemotherapy
#15
Kangning Zhu, Guhuan Liu, Jinming Hu, Shiyong Liu
The use of intracellular reductive microenvironment to control the release of therapeutic payloads has emerged as a popular approach to design and fabricate intelligent nanocarriers. However, these reduction-responsive nanocarriers are generally trapped within endolysosomes after internalization and are subjected to unwanted disintegration, remarkably compromising the therapeutic performance. Herein, amphiphilic polyprodrugs of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-EoS)-b-PCPTM were synthesized via sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, where EoS and CPTM are Eosin Y- and camptothecin (CPT)-based monomers, respectively...
July 5, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675497/intracellular-water-preexchange-lifetime-in-neurons-and-astrocytes
#16
Donghan M Yang, James E Huettner, G Larry Bretthorst, Jeffrey J Neil, Joel R Garbow, Joseph J H Ackerman
PURPOSE: To determine the intracellular water preexchange lifetime, τi , the "average residence time" of water, in the intracellular milieu of neurons and astrocytes. The preexchange lifetime is important for modeling a variety of MR data sets, including relaxation, diffusion-sensitive, and dynamic contrast-enhanced data sets. METHODS: Herein, τi in neurons and astrocytes is determined in a microbead-adherent, cultured cell system. In concert with thin-slice selection, rapid flow of extracellular media suppresses extracellular signal, allowing determination of the transcytolemmal-exchange-dominated, intracellular T1 ...
July 4, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674514/aspects-on-the-physiological-and-biochemical-foundations-of-neurocritical-care
#17
REVIEW
Carl-Henrik Nordström, Lars-Owe Koskinen, Magnus Olivecrona
Neurocritical care (NCC) is a branch of intensive care medicine characterized by specific physiological and biochemical monitoring techniques necessary for identifying cerebral adverse events and for evaluating specific therapies. Information is primarily obtained from physiological variables related to intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and from physiological and biochemical variables related to cerebral energy metabolism. Non-surgical therapies developed for treating increased ICP are based on knowledge regarding transport of water across the intact and injured blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the regulation of CBF...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670944/acid-labile-poly-amino-alcohol-ortho-ester-based-on-low-molecular-weight-polyethyleneimine-for-gene-delivery
#18
Jun Wang, Lei Zhang, Xin Wang, Shengxiang Fu, Guoqing Yan
A series of acid-labile poly(amino alcohol ortho ester) (POEeis) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization between diglycidyl ethers with ortho ester bonded and low molecular weight polyethyleneimine by various feed molar ratios. The obtain POEei 1 and POEei 2 exhibited clear kinetic of degradation and condensed plasmid DNA into nanoparticles of suitable sizes (250-300 nm) and positive zeta potentials (+20-30 mV) while protecting DNA from enzymatic digestion. Further, these polymers have uniform distribution of abundant hydroxyl groups, which could improve their water solubility, biocompatibility, and lower protein adsorption...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669718/cold-stress-induced-brain-injury-regulates-trpv1-channels-and-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#19
Ying Liu, Yunen Liu, Hongxu Jin, Peifang Cong, Yubiao Zhang, Changci Tong, Xiuyun Shi, Xuelei Liu, Zhou Tong, Lin Shi, Mingxiao Hou
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel that interacts with several intracellular proteins in vivo, including calmodulin and Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt). TRPV1 activation has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cold stress on the mouse brain and the underlying mechanisms of TRPV1 involvement. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cold stress (4°C for 8 h per day for 2 weeks)...
June 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662489/viable-but-non-culturable-e-%C3%A2-coli-induced-by-low-level-chlorination-have-higher-persistence-to-antibiotics-than-their-culturable-counterparts
#20
Huirong Lin, Chengsong Ye, Sheng Chen, Shenghua Zhang, Xin Yu
Disinfectant used in drinking water treatment and distribution system can induce culturable bacteria, including various kinds of pathogenic bacteria, into viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. The loss of cultural state, resuscitation and environmental persistence of VBNC bacteria will severely damage drinking water microbiological safety and thus pose a risk to public health. The manner in which chlorination treatment induced a VBNC state in Escherichia coli and the antibiotic persistence of VBNC bacteria was investigated...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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