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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222871/myelin-extracellular-leaflet-compaction-requires-apolipoprotein-d-membrane-management-to-optimize-lysosomal-dependent-recycling-and-glycocalyx-removal
#1
Nadia García-Mateo, Raquel Pascua-Maestro, Alberto Pérez-Castellanos, Concepción Lillo, Diego Sanchez, Maria D Ganfornina
To compact the extracellular sides of myelin, an important transition must take place: from membrane sliding, while building the wraps, to membrane adhesion and water exclusion. Removal of the negatively charged glycocalyx becomes the limiting factor in such transition. What is required to initiate this membrane-zipping process? Knocking-out the Lipocalin Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), essential for lysosomal functional integrity in glial cells, results in a specific defect in myelin extracellular leaflet compaction in peripheral and central nervous system, which results in reduced conduction velocity and suboptimal behavioral outputs: motor learning is compromised...
December 9, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221166/high-salt-induced-hypertension-leads-to-cognitive-defect
#2
Cui-Ping Guo, Zhen Wei, Fang Huang, Min Qin, Xing Li, Yu-Man Wang, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Rong Liu, Bin Zhang, Hong-Lian Li, Xiao-Chuan Wang
Although increasing evidences suggest a relationship between hypertension and brain function for years, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a risk factor for cognitive decline and its underlying mechanism. In the present study, an experimental animal model of hypertension simply by feeding rats with high salt diet was employed. We found that long-term high salt intake caused a marked increase of systolic blood pressure linked to a declined regional cerebral blood flow. Fear conditioning and morris water maze behavioral test revealed that high salt diet induced hippocampal dependent spatial reference memory deficits, while a decreased synaptogenesis without neuronal loss in hippocampus was observed in high salt treated rats...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217922/effect-of-solanum-nigrun-on-uterus-of-non-gravid-rats
#3
Freddy O Agoreyo, B Rita Ohimai, Magdalene I Omigie
Background: Solanum nigrum is a widely used plant in oriental medicine where it is considered to be antioxidant, anti- inflammatory and diuretic. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Solanum Nigrum on uterine contractions. Method: Female Wistar Wister albino rats were used for the study. They were housed in a single large cage in an atmospheric controlled environment. Twenty-four hours before every experiment, 0.2 mg/kg of diethylstilbesterol constituted in 1:1 ethanol/water solution, was administered intraperitoneally as a pre-treatment to the rats to induce oestrus...
May 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215947/co-metabolic-degradation-of-iomeprol-by-a-pseudomonas-sp-and-its-application-in-biological-aerated-filter-systems
#4
Bingjie Xu, Bin Xu, Shiwei Shan, Gang Xue, Tianfeng Wang, Xiuwen Qiu, Changchao Zhan
The non-ionic water-soluble X-ray contrast agent iomeprol (IOM) enters the water supply through sewage treatment plants, which can cause considerable environmental harm. In this study, Pseudomonas sp. I-24 (I-24) was tested for its ability to remove IOM from water via co-metabolic pathways. The optimum removal rate of IOM by I-24 was 38.43% ± 3.70% when starch served as the source of external carbon, and its co-metabolism of IOM conformed to the first-order kinetics. The highest activity of intracellular enzyme (degrading enzyme) extracted from I-24 was 0...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212765/changes-in-the-fluid-volume-balance-between-intra-and-extracellular-water-in-a-sample-of-japanese-adults-aged-15-88-years-old-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Yasushi Ohashi, Nobuhiko Joki, Keisuke Yamazaki, Takeshi Kawamura, Reibin Tai, Hideyo Oguchi, Rena Yuasa, Ken Sakai
The fluid volume balance between intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) gradually changes with age and various medical conditions. Comprehension of these physiological changes would aid in clinical decision-making related to body fluid assessments. A total of 1,992 individuals (753 men and 1,239 women) aged ≥15 years included in this study had their body composition measurements performed at training gyms in 2014. We developed a regression formula to assess the association of age with the ratio of ECW to ICW in these subjects...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212347/oxidative-stress-a-unifying-mechanism-for-cell-damage-induced-by-noise-water-pipe-smoking-and-emotional-stress-therapeutic-strategies-targeting-redox-imbalance
#6
Saeid Golbidi, Huige Li, Ismail Laher
SIGNIFICANCE: Modern technologies have eased our lives but these conveniences can impact our lifestyles in destructive ways. Noise pollution, mental stresses, and smoking (as a stress-relieving solution) are some environmental hazards which affect our well-being and health care budgets. Scrutinizing their pathophysiology could lead to solutions to reduce their harmful effects. Recent advances: Oxidative stress plays an important role in initiating local and systemic inflammation following noise pollution, mental stress, and smoking...
December 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210709/alphaxalone-binds-in-inner-transmembrane-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-interfaces-of-%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptors
#7
Alexis M Ziemba, Andrea Szabo, David W Pierce, Marian Haburcak, Alex T Stern, Anahita Nourmahnad, Elizabeth S Halpin, Stuart A Forman
BACKGROUND: Neurosteroids like alphaxalone are potent anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, amnestics, and sedative-hypnotics, with effects linked to enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor gating in the central nervous system. Data locating neurosteroid binding sites on synaptic αβγ GABAA receptors are sparse and inconsistent. Some evidence points to outer transmembrane β-α interfacial pockets, near sites that bind the anesthetics etomidate and propofol. Other evidence suggests that steroids bind more intracellularly in β-α interfaces...
November 28, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210121/proanthocyanidin-rich-pinus-radiata-bark-extract-inhibits-mast-cell-mediated-anaphylaxis-like-reactions
#8
Yun Ho Choi, Chang Ho Song, Sung Phil Mun
Mast cells play a critical role in the effector phase of immediate hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. Pinus radiata bark extract exerts multiple biological effects and exhibits immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. However, its role in mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of proanthocyanidin-rich water extract (PAWE) isolated from P. radiata bark on compound 48/80-induced or antidinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions in vivo...
December 6, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209914/a-mathematical-model-supports-a-key-role-for-ae4-slc4a9-in-salivary-gland-secretion
#9
Elías Vera-Sigüenza, Marcelo A Catalán, Gaspar Peña-Münzenmayer, James E Melvin, James Sneyd
We develop a mathematical model of a salivary gland acinar cell with the objective of investigating the role of two [Formula: see text] exchangers from the solute carrier family 4 (Slc4), Ae2 (Slc4a2) and Ae4 (Slc4a9), in fluid secretion. Water transport in this type of cell is predominantly driven by [Formula: see text] movement. Here, a basolateral [Formula: see text] adenosine triphosphatase pump (NaK-ATPase) and a [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] cotransporter (Nkcc1) are primarily responsible for concentrating the intracellular space with [Formula: see text] well above its equilibrium potential...
December 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209224/na-h-exchanger-3-is-expressed-in-two-distinct-types-of-ionocyte-and-probably-augments-ammonia-excretion-in-one-of-them-in-the-gills-of-the-climbing-perch-exposed-to-seawater
#10
Xiu L Chen, Biyan Zhang, You R Chng, Jasmine L Y Ong, Shit F Chew, Wai P Wong, Siew H Lam, Yuen K Ip
The freshwater climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, is an euryhaline teleost and an obligate air-breather with the ability to actively excrete ammonia. Members of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) family help maintain intracellular pH homeostasis and ionic balance through the electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+. This study aimed to obtain, from the gills of A. testudineus, the full cDNA coding sequence of nhe3, and to determine the effects of exposure to seawater or 100 mmol l-1 of NH4Cl in fresh water on its mRNA and protein expression levels...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200739/a-study-of-the-anti-cancer-effects-of-the-hexane-fraction-of-the-methanol-extract-of-forsythiae-fructus
#11
Se-Eun Lee, Chiyeon Lim, Soon-Cheol Ahn, Suin Cho
Background: Forsythiae Fructus (FF) is a well-known medicinal herb derived from the dried fruits of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. (Oleaceae). Recently, bioactive compounds isolated from hydrophobic solvent fractions of FF have been reported to have anti-oxidant, antibacterial, and anti-cancer effects. Objective: Almost all herbal medicines are derived from water extracts, which suggests different extraction methods might enhance the practical efficacies of herbal medicines...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198705/tilapia-and-human-clic2-structures-are-highly-conserved
#12
Jiao Zeng, Zhengjun Li, Eei Yin Lui, Siew Hong Lam, Kunchithapadam Swaminathan
Chloride intracellular channels (CLICs) exist in soluble and membrane bound forms. We have determined the crystal structure of soluble Clic2 from the euryhaline teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Structural comparison of tilapia and human CLIC2 with other CLICs shows that these proteins are highly conserved. We have also compared the expression levels of clic2 in selected osmoregulatory organs of tilapia, acclimated to freshwater, seawater and hypersaline water. Structural conservation of vertebrate CLICs implies that they might play conserved roles...
November 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198074/comparison-of-muscle-lean-mass-measurement-methods-correlation-with-functional-and-biochemical-testing
#13
B Buehring, E Siglinsky, D Krueger, W Evans, M Hellerstein, Y Yamada, N Binkley
DXA-measured lean mass is often used to assess muscle mass but has limitations. Thus, we compared DXA lean mass with two novel methods-bioelectric impedance spectroscopy and creatine (methyl-d3) dilution. The examined methodologies did not measure lean mass similarly and the correlation with muscle biomarkers/function varied. INTRODUCTION: Muscle function tests predict adverse health outcomes better than lean mass measurement. This may reflect limitations of current mass measurement methods...
December 2, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196765/aquaporin-0-modulates-lens-gap-junctions-in-the-presence-of-lens-specific-beaded-filament-proteins
#14
Sindhu Kumari, Junyuan Gao, Richard T Mathias, Xiurong Sun, Amizhdini Eswaramoorthy, Nicholas Browne, Nigel Zhang, Kulandaiappan Varadaraj
Purpose: The objective of this study was to understand the molecular and physiologic mechanisms behind the lens cataract differences in Aquaporin 0-knockout-Heterozygous (AQP0-Htz) mice developed in C57 and FVB (lacks beaded filaments [BFs]) strains. Methods: Lens transparency was studied using dark field light microscopy. Water permeability (Pf) was measured in fiber cell membrane vesicles. Western blotting/immunostaining was performed to verify expression of BF proteins and connexins...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189762/synthesis-and-in-vitro-antimycobacterial-activity-of-novel-n-arylpiperazines-containing-an-ethane-1-2-diyl-connecting-chain
#15
Tomáš Goněc, Ivan Malík, Jozef Csöllei, Josef Jampílek, Jiřina Stolaříková, Ivan Solovič, Peter Mikuš, Stanislava Keltošová, Peter Kollár, Jim O'Mahony, Aidan Coffey
Novel 1-(2-{3-/4-[(alkoxycarbonyl)amino]phenyl}-2-hydroxyethyl)-4-(2-fluorophenyl)-piperazin-1-ium chlorides (alkoxy = methoxy to butoxy; 8a-h) have been designed and synthesized through multistep reactions as a part of on-going research programme focused on finding new antimycobacterials. Lipophilic properties of these compounds were estimated by RP-HPLC using methanol/water mobile phases with a various volume fraction of the organic modifier. The log kw values, which were extrapolated from intercepts of a linear relationship between the logarithm of a retention factor k (log k) and volume fraction of a mobile phase modifier (ϕM), varied from 2...
November 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186911/prostaglandin-e2-in-the-regulation-of-water-transport-in-renal-collecting-ducts
#16
REVIEW
Yuyuan Li, Yuanyi Wei, Feng Zheng, Youfei Guan, Xiaoyan Zhang
The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of the body water balance. The process of targeting the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) on the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct (CD) principal cells is mainly regulated by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is responsible for the maintenance of water homeostasis. Recently, much attention has been focused on the local factors modulating renal water reabsorption by AQP2 in the collecting ducts, especially prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂)...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182426/effects-of-single-set-resistance-training-with-different-frequencies-on-a-cellular-health-indicator-in-older-women
#17
Alex S Ribeiro, Matheus A Nascimento, Brad J Schoenfeld, João Pedro Nunes, Andreo F Aguiar, Edilaine F Cavalcante, Analiza M Silva, Luís B Sardinha, Steven J Fleck, Edilson S Cyrino
The main purpose of this study was compare the effects of resistance training (RT) performed two versus three times per week on phase angle (a cellular health indicator) in older women. Thirty-nine women (69.1±5.5 years) were randomly assigned to perform a RT program two (G2X) or three (G3X) days per week for 12 weeks. The RT was a whole-body program (8 exercises, 1 set, 10-15 repetitions). Phase angle, resistance, reactance, and total body water were assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy. Intracellular water, reactance, and phase angle increased significantly in G2X (2...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176686/the-dynamics-of-intracellular-water-constrains-glycolytic-oscillations-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
Henrik S Thoke, Sigmundur Thorsteinsson, Roberto P Stock, Luis A Bagatolli, Lars F Olsen
We explored the dynamic coupling of intracellular water with metabolism in yeast cells. Using the polarity-sensitive probe 6-acetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (ACDAN), we show that glycolytic oscillations in the yeast S. cerevisiae BY4743 wild-type strain are coupled to the generalized polarization (GP) function of ACDAN, which measures the physical state of intracellular water. We analysed the oscillatory dynamics in wild type and 24 mutant strains with mutations in many different enzymes and proteins. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we measured the amplitude and frequency of the metabolic oscillations and ACDAN GP in the resting state of all 25 strains...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176398/the-role-of-the-globular-heads-of-the-c1q-receptor-in-paclitaxel-induced-human-ovarian-cancer-cells-apoptosis-by-a-mitochondria-dependent-pathway
#19
Kang-Tai Lv, Ling-Juan Gao, Xiangdong Hua, Fengshan Li, Yun Gu, Wei Wang
As a mitochondrial membrane protein, globular C1q receptor (gC1qR) can mediate a variety of biological responses. Our study aims to investigate the role of gC1qR in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells and to elucidate its potential molecular mechanism. The level of gC1qR was examined using real-time PCR and western blot analyses. Human ovarian cancer cells viability, migration, and proliferation were detected using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay, the transwell assay, and H-thymidine incorporation into DNA (H-TdR) assay, respectively...
November 23, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175411/mechanistic-pbpk-model-of-the-heart-accounting-for-inter-individual-variability-development-and-performance-verification
#20
Zofia Tylutki, Aleksander Mendyk, Sebastian Polak
Modern model-based approaches to cardiac safety and efficacy assessment require accurate drug concentration-effect relationship establishment. Thus, knowledge of the active concentration of drugs in heart tissue is desirable along with inter-subject variability influence estimation. To that end, we developed a mechanistic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of the heart. The models were described with literature-derived parameters and written in R v.3.4.0. Five parameters were estimated. The model was fitted to amitriptyline and nortriptyline concentrations after an intravenous infusion of amitriptyline...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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