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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451381/from-a-highly-disordered-to-a-metastable-state-uncovering-insights-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#1
Yoann Cote, Patrice Delarue, Harold Abraham Scheraga, Patrick Senet, Gia G Maisuradze
α-synuclein (αS) is a major constituent of Lewy bodies, the insoluble aggregates that are the hallmark of one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders - Parkinson's disease (PD). The vast majority of experiments in vitro and in vivo provide extensive evidence that a disordered monomeric form is the predominant state of αS in water solution, and it undergoes a large-scale disorder-to-helix transition upon binding to vesicles of different types. Recently, another form, tetrameric, of αS with a stable helical structure was identified experimentally...
February 16, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449809/digging-into-lipid-membrane-permeation-for-cardiac-ion-channel-blocker-d-sotalol-with-all-atom-simulations
#2
Kevin R DeMarco, Slava Bekker, Colleen E Clancy, Sergei Y Noskov, Igor Vorobyov
Interactions of drug molecules with lipid membranes play crucial role in their accessibility of cellular targets and can be an important predictor of their therapeutic and safety profiles. Very little is known about spatial localization of various drugs in the lipid bilayers, their active form (ionization state) or translocation rates and therefore potency to bind to different sites in membrane proteins. All-atom molecular simulations may help to map drug partitioning kinetics and thermodynamics, thus providing in-depth assessment of drug lipophilicity...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449791/influence-of-acute-consumption-of-caffeine-vs-placebo-over-bia-derived-measurements-of-body-composition-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-design
#3
Cassie M Williamson, Brett S Nickerson, Emily E Bechke, Cherilyn N McLester, Brian M Kliszczewicz
Background: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is often used to estimate total body water (TBW), intracellular body water (ICW), extracellular body water (ECW), and body fat percentage (BF%). A common restriction for BIA analysis is abstinence from caffeine 12-h prior to testing. However, research has yet to determine whether the consumption of caffeine influences BIA testing results. The purpose of this study was to determine if the consumption of caffeine influences BIA-derived BF% and body water values in habitual caffeine users...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448638/delivery-of-abscisic-acid-to-plants-using-glutathione-responsive-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#4
Dequan Sun, Hashmath I Hussain, Zhifeng Yi, James E Rookes, Lingxue Kong, David M Cahill
An intracellular glutathione (GSH) responsive phytochemical delivery system based on thiol gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was developed and tested on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, monodispersed MSNs with particle diameters of ~20 nm and pore sizes of ~2.87 nm were synthesized and modified. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone, was entrapped in the mesopores of MSNs and then the pore entrances of MSNs were covered with decanethiol gatekeepers through GSH-cleavable disulfide linkages...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444592/antidepressant-like-effects-of-vaccinium-bracteatum-in-chronic-restraint-stress-mice-functional-actions-and-mechanism-explorations
#5
Dool-Ri Oh, Yujin Kim, Eun-Jin Choi, Myung-A Jung, Kyo-Nyeo Oh, Ji-Ae Hong, Donghyuck Bae, Kwangsu Kim, Huwon Kang, Jaeyong Kim, Young Ran Kim, Seung Sik Cho, Chul-Young Choi
The fruit of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. (VBF) is commonly known as the oriental blueberry in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of water VBF extract (VBFW) in a mouse model of chronic restraint stress (CRS) and to identify the underlying mechanisms of its action. The behavioral effects of VBFW were assessed in the forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT). The levels of serum corticosterone (CORT), brain monoamines, in addition to the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway were evaluated...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444319/beneficial-effects-of-water-soluble-chestnut-castanea-sativa-mill-tannin-extract-on-chicken-small-intestinal-epithelial-cell-culture
#6
M Brus, L Gradišnik, M Trapecar, D Škorjanc, R Frangež
Feed and water supplementation with powdered hydrolyzable tannins from chestnut represents a valuable alternative strategy to antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we evaluated the effects and safety of a water-soluble form of chestnut tannin (WST) in an in vitro model of chicken small intestinal epithelial cells (CSIEC). A chicken cell culture was established, and WST in concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% were tested for cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, metabolic activity, production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidative potential, genotoxicity, and influence on the epithelia cell cycle...
February 12, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440394/structure-function-analysis-of-manganese-exporter-proteins-across-bacteria
#7
Rilee Zeinert, Eli Martinez, Jennifer Schmitz, Katherine Senn, Bakhtawar Usman, Vivek Anantharaman, L Aravind, Lauren S Waters
Manganese is an essential trace nutrient for organisms, because of its role in cofactoring enzymes and providing protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many bacteria require manganese to form pathogenic or symbiotic interactions with eukaryotic host cells. However, excess manganese is toxic, requiring cells to have manganese export mechanisms. Bacteria are currently known to possess two widely-distributed classes of manganese export proteins, MntP and MntE, but other types of transporters likely exist...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434260/circulating-exosomal-micrornas-reveal-the-mechanism-of-fructus-meliae-toosendan-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#8
Jie Zheng, Lingqi Yu, Wen Chen, Xiaoyan Lu, Xiaohui Fan
The toxicological mechanisms of liver injury caused by most traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain largely unknown. Due to the unique features, exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are currently attracting major interests to provide further insights into toxicological mechanisms. Thus, taking Fructus Meliae Toosendan as an example of hepatoxic TCM, this study aimed to elucidate its hepatotoxicity mechanisms through profiling miRNAs in circulating exosomes of Fructus Meliae Toosendan water extract (FMT)-exposed mice...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433273/transport-of-cellular-water-during-drying-an-understanding-of-cell-rupturing-mechanism-in-apple-tissue
#9
Md Imran H Khan, Szilvia Anett Nagy, M A Karim
The cellular structure of food tissue is complex, and it is difficult to understand the morphological changes during drying. Three different cellular environments, namely intracellular space, intercellular space, and cell wall in food tissue contain a different proportion of water. It is crucial to understand the moisture migration mechanisms from different cellular environments during drying for improving energy efficiency and for ensuring better quality dried foods. Due to the lack of sufficient understanding of transport mechanisms of different types of water, existing mathematical models for food drying have been developed without considering these components separately...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432911/tephrosin-attenuates-sepsis-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-rats-by-impeding-expression-of-icam-1-and-mip-2
#10
Jiaorong Yang, Helan Tian, Xiaomo Huang
Acute lung injury (ALI), a devastating form of respiratory infections, is characterized by increased edema, release of cytokines, weakened arterial oxygenation and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The objective of the research envisaged was to reveal protective effects of tephrosin (TP) in ALI. In the present investigation, sepsis was triggered in rats by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method, and TP was administered intraperitonially. Five groups - Group A (control), Group B (Sham group) Group C (infected and untreated), and Group D and E (infected and treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg TP respectively) - of ten rats each, were used for the investigation...
February 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431989/folate-conjugated-polyphosphoester-with-reversible-cross-linkage-and-reduction-sensitivity-for-drug-delivery
#11
Youwen Cao, Jinlin He, Jie Liu, Mingzu Zhang, Peihong Ni
To improve the therapeutic efficacy and circulation stability in vivo, we synthesized a new kind of drug delivery carrier based on folic acid-conjugated polyphosphoester via the combined reactions of Michael addition polymerization and esteri-fication. The produced amphiphilic polymer, abbreviated as P(EAEP-AP)-LA-FA, could self-assemble into nanoparticles (NPs) with core-shell structure in water and reversible core cross-linked by lipoyl groups. Using the core cross-linked FA-conjugated nanoparticles (CCL-FA NPs) to encapsulate hydrophobic anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), we studied the stability of NPs, in vitro drug release, cellular uptake and targeting intracellular release, compared with both uncross-linked FA-conjugated nanoparticles (UCL-FA NPs) and core cross-linked nanoparticles without FA-conjugated (CCL NPs)...
February 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428811/ir780-dye-loaded-gold-nanoparticles-as-new-near-infrared-activatable-nanotheranostic-agents-for-simultaneous-photodynamic-and-photothermal-therapy-and-intracellular-tracking-by-surface-enhanced-resonant-raman-scattering-imaging
#12
T Nagy-Simon, M Potara, A-M Craciun, E Licarete, S Astilean
Due to the good transparency of the human tissue in the biological spectral window, near-infrared (NIR)-dye loaded nanosystems enable more effective light-activated therapy and better contrast imaging with major impact on nanomedicine. Herein, we prepare Pluronic coated gold nanoparticles incorporating the hydrophobic NIR dye, IR780 iodide (GNP-Plu-IR780) to provide water-solubility and stability and demonstrate the proficiency of combining photodynamic and photothermal therapeutic activity with surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) imaging facility...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428531/vitrification-of-one-cell-mouse-embryos-in-cryotubes
#13
Shinsuke Seki, Keita Basaki, Yukie Komatsu, Yasuyoshi Fukuda, Megumi Yano, Yuhei Matsuo, Takahiro Obata, Yukihisa Matsuda, Kazutoshi Nishijima
Preventing intracellular ice formation is essential to cryopreserve cells. Prevention can be achieved by converting cell water into a non-crystalline glass, that is, to vitrify. The prevailing belief is that to achieve vitrification, cells must be suspended in a solution containing a high concentration of glass-inducing solutes and cooled rapidly. In this study, we vitrified 1-cell mouse embryos and examined the effect of the cooling rate, the warming rate, and the concentration of cryoprotectant on cell survival...
February 8, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427430/multiple-environmental-factors-influence-the-importance-of-the-phosphodiesterase-dipa-upon-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-swarming
#14
Anne E Mattingly, Nachiket Kamatkar, Bradley R Borlee, Joshua D Shrout
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits flagellar-mediated swimming in liquid and swarming on hydrated surfaces under diverse nutrient conditions. Prior studies have implicated a phosphodiesterase, DipA, in regulating these flagella-mediated motilities, but collectively, the necessity for DipA was unclear. In this study, we find that the media composition conditionally constrains the influence of DipA on flagellar motility. We show that DipA exhibits more influence on minimal media supplemented with glutamate or glucose where flagellar motility was negated for the dipA mutant...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425049/polysaccharide-sub-microcarrier-for-improved-pulmonary-delivery-of-poorly-soluble-anti-infective-ciprofloxacin-preparation-characterization-and-influence-of-size-on-cellular-uptake
#15
Duy-Khiet Ho, Ana Costa, Chiara De Rossi, Cristiane de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Brigitta Loretz, Claus-Michael Lehr
The majority of the currently used and developed anti-infectives are poorly water-soluble molecules. The poor solubility might lead to limited bioavailability and pharmacological action of the drug. Novel pharmaceutical materials have thus been designed to solve those problems and improve drug delivery. In this study, we propose a facile method to produce sub-microcarriers (sMCs) by electrostatic gelation of anionic ß-Cyclodextrin (aß-CD) and chitosan. The average hydrodynamic size ranged from 400-900 nm by carefully adjusting polymer concentrations and N/C ratio...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424564/oxidative-stress-impairs-cgmp-dependent-protein-kinase-activation-and-vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein-serine-phosphorylation
#16
Anees A Banday, Mustafa F Lokhandwala
Reactive oxygen species induce vascular dysfunction and hypertension by directly interacting with nitric oxide (NO) which leads to NO inactivation. In addition to a decrease in NO bioavailability, there is evidence that oxidative stress can also modulate NO signaling during hypertension. Here, we investigated the effect of oxidative stress on NO signaling molecules cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) which are known to mediate vasodilatory actions of NO. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were provided with tap water (control), 30 mM L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a pro-oxidant), 1 mM tempol (T, an antioxidant) and BSO + T for 3 wks...
February 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424521/deep-eutectic-solvent-assisted-preparation-of-nitrogen-chloride-doped-carbon-dots-for-intracellular-biological-sensing-and-live-cell-imaging
#17
Ning Wang, An-Qi Zheng, Xun Liu, Junjie Chen, Ting Yang, Ming-Li Chen, Jian-Hua Wang
A novel approach for the preparation of dual-functional carbon dots, i.e., nitrogen and chloride doped carbon dots, shortly as N/Cl-CDs, is developed with the assistance of a choline chloride-glycerine deep eutectic solvent (DES). The carbon source is provided by urea and the DES serves as a solvent for controlling the preparation of CDs in the absence of water. The dual-element doped carbon dots are oxygen-rich with hydroxyl and amine groups. They exhibit an average particle size of ca. 3.88 nm, and give rise to strong and pH-sensitive fluorescent emission at λex/λem=340/430 nm with a quantum yield of 16...
February 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420948/double-labelling-of-intracellular-mitochondria-and-nucleolus-using-thiophene-pyridium-salt-with-high-quantum-yield-as-biosensor-and-its-application-in-stimulated-emission-depletion-nanoscopy
#18
Xiaohe Tian, Hui Wang, Qiong Zhang, Mingzhu Zhang, Yingzhong Zhu, Yan Chen, Jieying Wu, Yupeng Tian
Probe for dual-site target distinct subcellular compartments from cytosol and nucleus is an attractive approach, however, which was scarcely reported. Herein, a series of small-molecular thiophene pyridium salt derivatives (MitoNuc1-4) possessing water-soluble, high quantum yield and two-photon activity were rationally designed, and their structures were crystallographic confirmed. Systematic photophysical and biological imaging property investigations were carried out for them. It was found that MitoNuc1-4 exhibit two-photon absorption properties in the near infrared region, and MitoNuc1 has membrane permeability and cationic nature, rendering it to be double labelling of mitochondria and nucleolus in living cells with superb photo-stability and non-invasiveness...
May 30, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420149/muscle-glycogen-depletion-does-not-alter-segmental-extracellular-and-intracellular-water-distribution-measured-using-bioimpedance-spectroscopy
#19
Keisuke Shiose, Yosuke Yamada, Keiko Motonaga, Hideyuki Takahashi
Although each gram of glycogen is well known to bind 2.7-4.0 g of water, no studies have been conducted on the effect of muscle glycogen depletion on body water distribution. We investigated changes in extracellular and intracellular water (ECW and ICW) distribution in each body segment in muscle glycogen-depletion and glycogen-recovery condition using segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS). Twelve male subjects consumed 7.0 g.kg body mass-1 of indigestible (glycogen-depleted group) or digestible (glycogen-recovered group) carbohydrate for 24 hours after a glycogen-depletion cycling exercise...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415677/expression-profiling-and-intracellular-localization-studies-of-the-novel-proline-histidine-and-glycine-rich-protein-1-suggest-an-essential-role-in-gastro-intestinal-epithelium-and-a-potential-clinical-application-in-colorectal-cancer-diagnostics
#20
Satu Oltedal, Ivar Skaland, Jodi Maple-Grødem, Kjersti Tjensvoll, Emiel A M Janssen, Bjørnar Gilje, Rune Smaaland, Reino Heikkilä, Oddmund Nordgård
BACKGROUND: The primary function of the intestines is the absorption of water and nutrients. Although our knowledge about these processes on the cellular level is extensive, a number of important intracellular elements remain unknown. Here, we characterize the novel proline-, histidine-, glycine-rich 1 (PHGR1) mRNA and protein on the molecular level and propose a functional role of the PHGR1 protein in the intestinal and gastric epithelium. METHODS: PHGR1 mRNA and protein expression in human tissues and cell lines were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, Northern blotting, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry...
February 7, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
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