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Neuroprotective effect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036371/additive-effect-of-cigarette-smoking-on-gray-matter-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia
#1
Naoto Yokoyama, Hitoshi Sasaki, Yasuo Mori, Miki Ono, Kousuke Tsurumi, Ryosaku Kawada, Yukiko Matsumoto, Yujiro Yoshihara, Genichi Sugihara, Jun Miyata, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
It is widely known that there is a high prevalence of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia. One of the explanations is the self-medication hypothesis. Based on this hypothesis, it has been suggested that nicotine has procognitive effect or even neuroprotective effect in schizophrenia. However, cigarettes contain numerous neurotoxic substances, making the net effect of cigarette smoking on brain function and structure complex. Indeed, recent studies have called into question the self-medication hypothesis. We aimed to test whether there is an interaction between diagnosis and smoking status in gray matter volume, ie, whether smoking has specific effects on gray matter or whether main effects of these 2 variables additively affect common brain regions...
July 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035776/dammarane-type-saponins-from-the-leaves-of-panax-notoginseng-and-their-neuroprotective-effects-on-damaged-sh-sy5y-cells
#2
Xin-Yi Liu, Shan Wang, Chuang-Jun Li, Jie Ma, Fang-You Chen, Ying Peng, Xiao-Liang Wang, Dong-Ming Zhang
Seven dammarane-type saponins previously undescribed (notoginsenosides Fh1-Fh7) were isolated from the aqueous extract leaves of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H.Chen (Araliaceae), together with eleven known saponins. Their structures of were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (NMR, UV, IR, ect.), HR-ESI-MS techniques and chemical methods. Screening results indicated that compounds 4, 5, 12, 13 showed moderate neuroprotective effects on H2O2-induced cellular damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (10 μM)...
October 13, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035676/the-molecular-mechanism-and-neuroprotective-effect-of-dihydrocapsaicin-induced-mild-hypothermia-after-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-rats
#3
Xiaopeng Zhong, Xiujuan Wang, Fei Fei, ManCui Zhang, Po Ding, Shiwu Zhang
To investigate the molecular mechanism of dihydrocapsaicin (DHC)-induced mild hypothermia in rats, and to compare its protective effect on the central nervous system with that of a conventional method of inducing hypothermia, 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups based on the following conditions: control group, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) group, body surface cooling group, and DHC group. Tracheal clipping was used to mimic asphyxia arrest. Rats were assessed for their neurological deficit scores...
October 16, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034965/role-of-serum-albumin-as-a-nanoparticulate-carrier-for-nose-to-brain-delivery-of-r-flurbiprofen-implications-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Ling Rong Wong, Paul C Ho
OBJECTIVES: R-flurbiprofen (R-FP) was found to offer neuroprotective effects by inhibiting mitochondrial calcium overload induced by β-amyloid peptide toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, poor brain penetration after oral administration posed a challenge to its further development for AD treatment. In this study, we investigated the potential of serum albumin as nanoparticulate carriers for nose-to-brain delivery of R-FP to improve its brain accumulation. METHODS: Mice were subjected to three treatment groups: (1) intranasal R-FP solution, (2) oral R-FP solution and (3) intranasal R-FP albumin nanoparticles...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034608/nanoparticle-based-therapeutics-for-brain-injury
#5
REVIEW
Vimala N Bharadwaj, Duong T Nguyen, Vikram D Kodibagkar, Sarah E Stabenfeldt
Brain injuries affect a large patient population with major physical and emotional suffering for patients and their relatives; at a significant cost to the society. Effective diagnostic and therapeutic options available for brain injuries are limited by the complex brain injury pathology involving blood-brain barrier (BBB). Brain injuries, including ischemic stroke and brain trauma, initiate BBB opening for a short period of time, which is followed by a second reopening for an extended time. The leaky BBB and/or the alterations in the receptor expression on BBB may provide opportunities for therapeutic delivery via nanoparticles (NPs)...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034506/microglial-induced-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-gliosis-is-attenuated-by-progesterone-in-a-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#6
Sarah L Roche, Ana M Ruiz-Lopez, Jennifer N Moloney, Ashleigh M Byrne, Thomas G Cotter
Norgestrel, a progesterone analogue, has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Neuroprotection is achieved in part through Norgestrels anti-inflammatory properties, alleviating detrimental microglial activity. Gliosis is a feature of many neurodegenerative diseases of the retina, including retinitis pigmentosa. Müller glia, a type of macroglia found in the retina, are major contributors of gliosis, characterized by the upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
October 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034441/the-oral-pretreatment-of-glycyrrhizin-prevents-surgery-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-aged-mice-by-reducing-neuroinflammation-and-alzheimer-s-related-pathology-via-hmgb1-inhibition
#7
Zhong-Hong Kong, Xin Chen, Hui-Po Hua, Liang Liang, Long-Juan Liu
Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's-related pathology play essential roles in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is well known as a pivotal mediator in neuroinflammation, and its associations with Alzheimer's-related pathology and POCD have been also revealed. Glycyrrhizin is a nature inhibitor of HMGB1 and is reported with neuroprotective effects through oral administration. Therefore, the present study aims to test the hypothesis that the oral pretreatment of glycyrrhizin prevents POCD by inhibiting HMGB1-induced neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's-related pathology in aged mice...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034205/kaempferia-parviflora-rhizome-extract-and-myristica-fragrans-volatile-oil-increase-the-levels-of-monoamine-neurotransmitters-and-impact-the-proteomic-profiles-in-the-rat-hippocampus-mechanistic-insights-into-their-neuroprotective-effects
#8
Waluga Plaingam, Siriporn Sangsuthum, Wannee Angkhasirisap, Tewin Tencomnao
Potentially useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, Kaempferia parviflora and Myristica fragrans have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of neuropharmacological activities and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we determined whether and how K. parviflora ethanolic extract and M. fragrans volatile oil could influence the levels of neurotransmitters and the whole proteomic profile in the hippocampus of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The effects of K. parviflora and M...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034183/alzheimer-disease-clues-from-traditional-and-complementary-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Edwin L Cooper, Melissa J Ma
Despite modern medicine's incredible innovation and resulting accumulation of valuable knowledge, many of the world's most problematic diseases such as Alzheimer Disease (AD) still lack effective cures and treatments. Western medicine has revealed many genetic, cellular, and molecular processes that characterize AD such as protein aggregation and inflammation. As the need for novel and effective treatments increases, researchers have turned towards traditional medicine as a resource. Modern, evidence based research examining traditional and complementary remedies for AD has generated promising results within the last decade...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033541/dexmedetomidine-reduces-the-neuronal-apoptosis-related-to-cardiopulmonary-bypass-by-inhibiting-activation-of-the-jak2-stat3-pathway
#10
Yanhua Chen, Xu Zhang, Bingdong Zhang, Guodong He, Lifang Zhou, Yubo Xie
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) constitutes one of the primary methodologies pertaining to cardiac surgery. However, this form of surgery can cause damage to the body. Many studies have reported that dexmedetomidine confers cerebral protection. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of dexmedetomidine on neuronal apoptosis caused by CPB. Here, rats were treated with different doses of dexmedetomidine by intravenous infusion 2 hours after CPB. We observed that dexmedetomidine treatment to rats reduces the S100β, NSE levels in plasma, and neuronal apoptosis following CPB in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033348/design-and-synthesis-of-benzimidazole-based-rho-kinase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-glaucoma
#11
Vasudha Abbhi, Lovneet Saini, Srishti Mishra, Gautam Sethi, Alan Prem Kumar, Poonam Piplani
Rho kinase inhibitors (ROCK II) play a key role in glaucoma management attributed to their IOP lowering ability and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, a series of novel benzimidazole derivatives (9a-m) has been synthesized and evaluated for their IOP lowering, Rho kinase inhibitory and antioxidant properties. The synthesized compounds were found to be lipophilic and showed a significant IOP lowering effect both in the treated and the contralateral eye comparable to the reference standard fasudil...
October 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032758/multifaceted-effects-of-delta-opioid-receptors-and-dadle-in-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#12
Jea-Young Lee, M Grant Liska, Marci Crowley, Kaya Xu, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan, Vivian A Guedes
The opioid system is considered a potential therapeutic target in a variety of neurological disorders. Delta opioid receptors (DOPs) are broadly expressed in the brain, and their activation protects cells from hypoxic/ischemic insults by counteracting disruptions of ionic homeostasis and initiating neuroprotective pathways. The DOP agonist D-Ala2-D-Leu2-Enkephalin (DADLE) promotes neuronal survival, mitigates apoptotic pathways, and protects neurons and glial cells from ischemia-induced cell death, thus making DADLE a promising therapeutic option for stroke...
October 10, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032754/pharmacological-neuroprotection-in-cardiac-surgery-effectiveness-of-pharmacologic-preconditioning-with-erythromycin
#13
Charilaos-Panagiotis C Koutsogiannidis, Elizabeth O Johnson
Regardless of the degree of advances in neuroprotective strategies, and despite the technological progress in neuromonitoring, brain injury still remains the "Achilles' heel" in cardiac surgery. A large number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions have been investigated during the last two decades. Recently, both theoretical and experimental findings suggest benefits of pharmacological cerebral protection, although, there is no conclusive evidence of clinical superiority of specific agents that have been applied as neuroprotectants, in human randomized controlled trials...
October 10, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032429/dna-damage-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-seizures-are-decreased-by-anticonvulsant-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-lobeline-a-candidate-to-treat-alcoholism
#14
Liana Dantas da Costa E Silva, Patrícia Pereira, Gabriela Gregory Regner, Fernanda Brião Menezes Boaretto, Cleonice Hoffmann, Pricila Pflüger, Lucas Lima da Silva, Luiza Reinhardt Steffens, Ana Moira Morás, Dinara Jaqueline Moura, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada
The alkaloid lobeline (Lob) has been studied due to its potential use in treatment of drug abuse. This study evaluates the possible anticonvulsant and neuroprotective activities of Lob to obtain new information on its properties that could confirm it as a candidate in the treatment of alcohol addiction. The anticonvulsant effect of Lob was evaluated using a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. In addition, possible neuroprotective effects were investigated measuring DNA damage using the comet assay, assessing free radical levels by dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF) oxidation, and measuring the antioxidant potential using the α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, besides measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities in brain tissues...
October 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032222/molecular-mechanisms-of-nickel-induced-neurotoxicity-and-chemoprevention
#15
REVIEW
Xin Song, Samuel Selorm Fiatikenston, Lu Kong, Jinshun Zhao
Nickel (Ni) is widely used in many industrial sectors such as alloy, welding, printing inks, electrical and electronics industries. Excessive environmental or occupational exposure to Ni may result in tumor, contact dermatitis, as well as damages to the nervous system. In recent years, more and more research has demonstrated that Ni induced nerve damages are related to mitochondrial dysfunction. In this paper, we try to characterize Ni induced neurotoxicity as well as the underlying mechanisms, and how to find new drugs for chemoprevention, by reviewing chemicals with neuroprotective effects on Ni induced neurotoxicity...
October 11, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032054/role-of-ethanolic-extract-of-bacopa-monnieri-against-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-induced-mice-model-via-inhibition-of-apoptotic-pathways-of-dopaminergic-neurons
#16
Babita Singh, Shivani Pandey, Satyndra Kumar Yadav, Rajesh Verma, Surya Pratap Singh, Abbas Ali Mahdi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease which causes rigidity, resting tremor and postural instability. The neuroprotective effects of an ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (BM) were evaluated in a Parkinsonian mice model induced by the MPTP. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by BM, an herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic extract of BM was co-treated with the MPTP induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue the motor behaviour (Rotarod, Grip Strength and Foot Printing test)...
October 12, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032011/sitagliptin-enhances-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-pregabalin-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-acute-epileptogenesis-in-mice-implication-of-oxidative-inflammatory-apoptotic-and-autophagy-pathways
#17
Manar A Nader, Hayam Ateyya, Mohamed El-Shafey, Nagla A El-Sherbeeny
The current investigation aimed at studying the anti-epileptogenic effect of sitagliptin. The possible effect of the drug in combination with pregabalin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced seizures was studied. In addition, the postulated mechanisms that could mediate such effect were explored namely, suppression of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammatory markers, autophagy and apoptosis. Seven days prior to PTZ (60 mg/kg, sc) injection, mice were treated with sitagliptin (5, 15, and 60 mg/kg, twice daily, orally) or pregabalin (30 mg/kg, once daily, orally) or their combination...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031957/exercise-training-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-peripheral-immunomodulation-rather-than-direct-neuroprotection
#18
Ofira Einstein, Nina Fainstein, Olga Touloumi, Roza Lagoudaki, Ester Hanya, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Abram Katz, Tamir Ben-Hur
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results exist on the effects of exercise training (ET) on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), nor is it known how exercise impacts on disease progression. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether ET ameliorates the development of EAE by modulating the systemic immune system or exerting direct neuroprotective effects on the CNS. METHODS: Healthy mice were subjected to 6weeks of motorized treadmill running. The Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE model in mice was utilized...
October 11, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031902/chrysophanol-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-mice
#19
Yongmei Zhao, Yalan Fang, Haiping Zhao, Jincheng Li, Yunxia Duan, Wenjuan Shi, Yuyou Huang, Li Gao, Yumin Luo
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in mediating ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage in the brain. Our previous study showed that Chrysophanol (CHR) alleviated cerebral ischemic injury in mice and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) involved in its neuroprotective effect, but the precise mechanism remains not fully understood. The present study investigated the effect of CHR treatment on I/R-induced ER stress. Mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 45min and received either vehicle or CHR (0...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031144/senegenin-exerts-anti-depression-effect-in-mice-induced-by-chronic-un-predictable-mild-stress-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-regulating-nlrp3-signal-pathway
#20
Hongwei Li, Shiyi Lin, Tingting Qin, Hongyan Li, Zhanqiang Ma, Shiping Ma
Depressive disorder is a kind of affective disturbance disease. Emerging evidence has suggested that inflammation may contribute to the pathologic process of depressive disorder. Senegenin (SEN), a major bioactive constituent in Polygala tenuifolia Willd, has much bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection effects. However, the mechanism of its anti-depressant effect in mice remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the anti-depressant effects of SEN on behavioral changes and inflammatory responses in mice induced by chronic un-predictable mild stress (CUMS)...
October 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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