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Paracrine effect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156254/xenografted-tissue-models-for-the-study-of-human-endometrial-biology
#1
REVIEW
Satu Kuokkanen, Liyin Zhu, Jeffrey W Pollard
The human endometrium undergoes extensive morphological, biochemical and molecular changes under the influence of female sex steroid hormones. Besides the fact that estrogen stimulates endometrial cell proliferation and progesterone inhibits this proliferation and induces differentiation, there is limited knowledge about precise molecular mechanisms underlying human endometrial biology. The importance of paracrine signaling in endometrial physiology explains why in vitro culture of endometrial cells has been challenging...
November 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148520/an-in-vitro-prototype-of-a-porcine-biomimetic-testis-like-cell-culture-system-a-novel-tool-for-the-study-of-reassembled-sertoli-and-leydig-cells
#2
Iva Arato, Giovanni Luca, Francesca Mancuso, Catia Bellucci, Cinzia Lilli, Mario Calvitti, Barbara C Hansen, Domenico Milardi, Giuseppe Grande, Riccardo Calafiore
At present, there is no reliable in vitro assembled prepubertal testis-like biomimetic organ culture system designed to assess the functional effects of human gonadotropins on Sertoli and Leydig cells. Spermatogenesis is regulated by endocrine, paracrine, and juxtacrine factors (testicular cross-talk), mainly orchestrated by gonadotropins such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) that play a pivotal role by stimulating Leydig and Sertoli cells, respectively. The aim of our study was to set up an in vitro prepubertal porcine bioengineered construct as a new model for experimental studies on reassembled Sertoli and Leydig cells...
November 10, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141446/myocardial-reparative-functions-of-exosomes-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-are-enhanced-by-hypoxia-treatment-of-the-cells-via-transferring-microrna-210-in-an-nsmase2-dependent-way
#3
Jinyun Zhu, Kai Lu, Ning Zhang, Yun Zhao, Qunchao Ma, Jian Shen, Yinuo Lin, Pingping Xiang, Yaoliang Tang, Xinyang Hu, Jinghai Chen, Wei Zhu, Keith A Webster, Jian'an Wang, Hong Yu
Hypoxia treatment enhances paracrine effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether exosomes from hypoxia-treated MSCs (Exo(H)) are superior to those from normoxia-treated MSCs (Exo(N)) for myocardial repair. Mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs were cultured under hypoxia or normoxia for 24 h, and exosomes from conditioned media were intramyocardially injected into infarcted heart of C57BL/6 mouse. Exo(H) resulted in significantly higher survival, smaller scar size and better cardiac functions recovery...
November 16, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138984/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-and-hypertension-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Matthew A Bailey
The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors-visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension-that increases mortality related to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of these concurrent comorbidities is ~ 25-30% worldwide, and metabolic syndrome therefore presents a significant global public health burden. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that glucocorticoid excess is a key causal feature of metabolic syndrome...
November 14, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138837/vegf-secreted-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mediates-the-differentiation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-into-endothelial-cells-via-paracrine-mechanisms
#5
Quanhu Ge, Hongwei Zhang, Jixue Hou, Longfei Wan, Wenzhe Cheng, Xiaoyi Wang, Dan Dong, Congzhe Chen, Jie Xia, Jun Guo, Xueling Chen, Xiangwei Wu
Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment strategy for ischemic diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) adhere to each other in the bone marrow cavity and in in vitro cultures. We have previously demonstrated that the adhesion between MSCs and EPCs is critical for MSC self‑renewal and their multi‑differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. In the present study, the influence of the indirect communication between EPCs and MSCs on the endothelial differentiation potential of EPCs was investigated, and the molecular mechanisms underlying MSC‑mediated EPC differentiation were explored...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134682/differential-effects-of-follistatin-on-porcine-oocyte-competence-and-cumulus-cell-gene-expression-in-vitro
#6
Z Guo, M S Islam, D Liu, G Liu, L Lv, Y Yang, B Fu, L Wang, Z Liu, H He, H Wu
Several oocyte-derived genes/proteins are essential to early embryonic development. The expression and stability of these proteins are influenced by the autocrine/paracrine activity of factors released by oocytes and cumulus cells. This study investigated the paracrine and autocrine activity of follistatin (FS), which is secreted by oocytes and cumulus cells as part of porcine embryogenesis. Immunohistochemical (IHC) localization of follistatin was conducted on 100 randomly selected early- and late-cleaving two-cell embryos...
November 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134515/neuroprotective-potential-and-paracrine-activity-of-stromal-vs-culture-expanded-hmsc-derived-from-wharton-jelly-under-co-cultured-with-hippocampal-organotypic-slices
#7
Sylwia Dabrowska, Joanna Sypecka, Anna Jablonska, Lukasz Strojek, Miroslaw Wielgos, Krystyna Domanska-Janik, Anna Sarnowska
Regardless of enormous translational progress in stem cell clinical application, our knowledge about biological determinants of transplantation-related protection is still limited. In addition to adequate selection of the cell source well dedicated to a specific disease and optimal standardization of all other pre-transplant procedures, we have decided to focus more attention to the impact of culture time and environment itself on molecular properties and regenerative capacity of cell cultured in vitro. The aim of this investigation was to determine neuroprotection-linked cell phenotypic and functional changes that could spontaneously take place when freshly isolated Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cell (WJ-MSC) undergo standard selection, growth, and spontaneous differentiation throughout passaging in vitro...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133134/sensing-the-breaks-cytosolic-chromatin-in-senescence-and-cancer
#8
Raffaella Di Micco
Cellular senescence constitutes a stable growth arrest characterized by DNA damage response (DDR) activation and by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP, through its paracrine effects, stimulates the immune system for senescence eradication. Similarly, chemotherapy-treated cancers activate an interferon-mediated response to induce anti-tumor immunity. Recent studies now uncover a new role for the innate DNA sensing pathway in the recognition of cytosolic chromatin in senescence and cancer...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131029/rapid-induction-of-osteogenic-markers-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-adipose-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells
#9
Jung-Won Choi, Sunhye Shin, Chang Youn Lee, Jiyun Lee, Hyang-Hee Seo, Soyeon Lim, Seahyoung Lee, Il-Kwon Kim, Hoon-Bum Lee, Sang Woo Kim, Ki-Chul Hwang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells are a mixed cell population, and their regenerative capacity has been validated in various therapeutic models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regenerative mechanisms utilized by implanted SVF cells. Using an in vitro co-culture system, we sought to determine whether SVF implantation into impaired tissue affects endogenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation; MSCs can differentiate into a variety of cell types, and they have a strong regenerative capacity despite their low numbers in impaired tissue...
November 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129566/pediatric-glioblastoma-cells-inhibit-neurogenesis-and-promote-astrogenesis-phenotypic-transformation-and-migration-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-within-cocultures
#10
Kurt Farrell, Gautam Mahajan, Parthasarathy Srinivasan, Moo-Yeal Lee, Chandrasekhar R Kothapalli
Neural progenitor cell (NPC) fate is influenced by a variety of biological cues elicited from the surrounding microenvironment and recent studies suggest their possible role in pediatric glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) development. Since a few GBM cells also display NPC characteristics, it is not clear whether NPCs transform to tumor cell phenotype leading to the onset of GBM formation, or NPCs migrate to developing tumor sites in response to paracrine signaling from GBM cells. Elucidating the paracrine interactions between GBM cells and NPCs in vivo is challenging due to the inherent complexity of the CNS...
November 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128399/nitric-oxide-production-by-glomerular-podocytes
#11
Oleg Palygin, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Vladislav Levchenko, Bradley T Endres, Aron M Geurts, Alexander Staruschenko
Nitric Oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator and vital signaling molecule, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of glomerular ultrafiltration. However, whether changes in NO occur in podocytes during the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension has not yet been thoroughly examined. We showed here that podocytes produce NO, and further hypothesized that hypertensive animals would exhibit reduced NO production in these cells in response to various paracrine factors, which might contribute to the damage of glomeruli filtration barrier and development of proteinuria...
November 8, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127200/steroid-receptor-coactivator-2-src-2-coordinates-cardiomyocyte-paracrine-signaling-to-promote-pressure-overload-induced-angiogenesis
#12
Ji Ho Suh, Li Lai, Deokhwa Nam, Jong Kim, Juyeon Jo, George E Taffet, Eunah Kim, Jason T Kaelber, Hyun-Kyoung Lee, Mark L Entman, John P Cooke, Erin L Reineke
Pressure overload-induced cardiac stress induces left ventricular hypertrophy driven by increased cardiomyocyte mass. The increased energetic demand and cardiomyocyte size during hypertrophy necessitate increased fuel and oxygen delivery and stimulate angiogenesis in the left ventricular wall. We have previously shown that the transcriptional regulator steroid receptor coactivator-2 (SRC-2) controls activation of several key cardiac transcription factors and that SRC-2 loss results in extensive cardiac transcriptional remodeling...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126233/endothelin-1-promotes-human-germinal-vesicle-stage-oocyte-maturation-by-downregulating-connexin-26-expression-in-cumulus-cells
#13
Long Cui, Jiajie Shen, Li Fang, Xiaodan Mao, Hanzhi Wang, Yinghui Ye
STUDY QUESTION: Does endothelin-1 (ET-1) promote human oocyte maturation and by what mechanism? SUMMARY ANSWER: Addition of ET-1 to the medium in which human germinal vesicle (GV)-stage immature oocytes are cultured enhances the GV breakdown (GVBD) rate; the resumption of meiosis may be initiated by ET-1 downregulating the expression of connexin-26 (Cx26) in cumulus cells via endothelin receptor type B (ETRB), leading to decreased cAMP levels in the oocyte. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The paracrine factor ET-1 is secreted by ovarian somatic cells in pre-ovulatory follicles and regulates oocyte maturation in mice...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123544/non-coding-rnas-in-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-deciphering-regulatory-roles-in-stem-cell-potency-inflammatory-resolve-and-tissue-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Farah Fatima, Karin Ekstrom, Irina Nazarenko, Marco Maugeri, Hadi Valadi, Andrew F Hill, Giovanni Camussi, Muhammad Nawaz
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous populations of nano- and micro-sized vesicles secreted by various cell types. There is mounting evidence that EVs have widespread roles in transporting proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between cells and serve as mediators of intercellular communication. EVs secreted from stem cells could function as paracrine factors, and appear to mimic and recapitulate several features of their secreting cells. EV-mediated transport of regulatory RNAs provides a novel source of trans-regulation between cells...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120660/-adenosine-a-mediator-with-multisystemic-effects-or-a-hormone
#15
Zora Lazúrová, Peter Mitro
Adenosine is a nucleoside regulating many physiological and pathological processes in human organism. It is produced by almost all cells and is metabolised by adenosinedeaminase enzyme. Effect of adenosine is mediated by three types of adenosine receptors. Adenosinergic system significantly influences function of cardiovascular system, furthemore it plays a key role in sleep homeostasis, in regulation of bone metabolism and activation of immune system. Adenosine mediates effect of various hormones, but also adenosine itself has its own autocrine, paracrine and systemic effects...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115987/cancer-cell-soluble-factors-reprogram-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-to-slow-cycling-chemoresistant-cells-with-a-more-stem-like-state
#16
Ahmed El-Badawy, Mohamed A Ghoneim, Mahmoud M Gabr, Radwa Ayman Salah, Ihab K Mohamed, Marwa Amer, Nagwa El-Badri
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play different roles in modulating tumor progression, growth, and metastasis. MSCs are recruited to the tumor site in large numbers and subsequently have an important microenvironmental role in modulating tumor progression and drug sensitivity. However, the effect of the tumor microenvironment on MSC plasticity remains poorly understood. Herein, we report a paracrine effect of cancer cells, in which they secrete soluble factors that promote a more stem-like state in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs)...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115853/extracellular-vesicles-new-players-in-lung-immunity
#17
Yu Fujita, Tsukasa Kadota, Jun Araya, Takahiro Ochiya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, play an important autocrine/paracrine role in intercellular communication. Details on the involvement of EVs in the pathogenesis of lung diseases have emerged over the past several years. Moreover, EVs package numerous DNA, proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that can regulate immune responses in recipient cells. Almost all respiratory cells release EVs, and these EVs can have protective or detrimental functions depending on the type of donor cells, type of stimuli, and components...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113105/the-molecular-and-phenotypic-basis-of-the-glioma-invasive-perivascular-niche
#18
REVIEW
Mohammed Diksin, Stuart J Smith, Ruman Rahman
Gliomas are devastating brain cancers that have poor prognostic outcomes for their patients. Short overall patient survival is due to a lack of durable, efficacious treatment options. Such therapeutic difficulties exist, in part, due to several glioma survival adaptations and mechanisms, which allow glioma cells to repurpose paracrine signalling pathways and ion channels within discreet microenvironments. These Darwinian adaptations facilitate invasion into brain parenchyma and perivascular space or promote evasion from anti-cancer defence mechanisms...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109742/effects-of-neuropeptide-y-on-stem-cells-and-their-potential-applications-in-disease-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Song Peng, You-Li Zhou, Zhi-Yuan Song, Shu Lin
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-amino acid peptide, is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and other peripheral tissues. It takes part in regulating various biological processes including food intake, circadian rhythm, energy metabolism, and neuroendocrine secretion. Increasing evidence indicates that NPY exerts multiple regulatory effects on stem cells. As a kind of primitive and undifferentiated cells, stem cells have the therapeutic potential to replace damaged cells, secret paracrine molecules, promote angiogenesis, and modulate immunity...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107793/sustained-%C3%AE-ar-stimulation-induces-synthesis-and-secretion-of-growth-factors-in-cardiac-myocytes-that-affect-on-cardiac-fibroblast-activation
#20
Narawat Nuamnaichati, Vilasinee Hirunpanich Sato, Primchanien Moongkarndi, Warisara Parichatikanond, Supachoke Mangmool
Paracrine factors, including growth factors and cytokines, released from cardiac myocytes following β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation regulate cardiac fibroblasts. Activated cardiac fibroblasts have the ability to increase collagen synthesis, cell proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation, leading to cardiac fibrosis. However, it is unknown which β-AR subtypes and signaling pathways mediate the upregulation of paracrine factors in cardiac myocytes. In this study, we demonstrated that sustained stimulation of β-ARs significantly induced synthesis and secretion of growth factors, including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), via the cAMP-dependent and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathways...
October 28, 2017: Life Sciences
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