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MRI for Neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542743/neuroimaging-cardiovascular-physiology-and-functional-outcomes-in-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease
#1
REVIEW
Nathalie H P Claessens, Christopher J Kelly, Serena J Counsell, Manon J N L Benders
This review integrates data on brain dysmaturation and acquired brain injury using fetal and neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including the contribution of cardiovascular physiology to differences in brain development, and the relationship between brain abnormalities and subsequent neurological impairments in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). The antenatal and neonatal period are critical for optimal brain development; the developing brain is particularly vulnerable to haemodynamic disturbances during this time...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530209/reproducible-3d-printed-head-tanks-for-electrical-impedance-tomography-with-realistic-shape-and-conductivity-distribution
#2
James Avery, Kirill Aristovich, Barney Low, David Holder
OBJECTIVE: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has many promising applications in brain injury monitoring. To evaluate both instrumentation and reconstruction algorithms, experiments are first performed in head tanks. Existing methods, whilst accurate, produce a discontinuous conductivity, and are often made by hand, making it hard for other researchers to replicate. APPROACH: We have developed a method for constructing head tanks directly in a 3D printer. Conductivity was controlled through perforations in the skull surface, which allow for saline to pass through...
May 22, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526882/prediction-of-cognitive-and-motor-outcome-of-preterm-infants-based-on-automatic-quantitative-descriptors-from-neonatal-mr-brain-images
#3
Pim Moeskops, Ivana Išgum, Kristin Keunen, Nathalie H P Claessens, Ingrid C van Haastert, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Max A Viergever, Manon J N L Benders
This study investigates the predictive ability of automatic quantitative brain MRI descriptors for the identification of infants with low cognitive and/or motor outcome at 2-3 years chronological age. MR brain images of 173 patients were acquired at 30 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (n = 86) and 40 weeks PMA (n = 153) between 2008 and 2013. Eight tissue volumes and measures of cortical morphology were automatically computed. A support vector machine classifier was employed to identify infants who exhibit low cognitive and/or motor outcome (<85) at 2-3 years chronological age as assessed by the Bayley scales...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500367/evolution-of-posterior-fossa-and-brain-morphology-after-in-utero-repair-of-open-neural-tube-defects-assessed-by-mri
#4
Christin Rethmann, Ianina Scheer, Martin Meuli, Luca Mazzone, Ueli Moehrlen, Christian Johannes Kellenberger
OBJECTIVES: To describe characteristics of foetuses undergoing in utero repair of open neural tube defects (ONTD) and assess postoperative evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology. METHODS: Analysis of pre- and postoperative foetal as well as neonatal MRI of 27 foetuses who underwent in utero repair of ONTD. Type and level of ONTD, hindbrain configuration, posterior fossa and liquor space dimensions, and detection of associated findings were compared between MRI studies and to age-matched controls...
May 12, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491493/brainstem-shape-is-affected-by-clinical-course-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#5
Marcus Lo, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Conor Wild, Annika C Linke, David S C Lee, Victor K Han, Rhodri Cusack
The brainstem, critical for motor function, autonomic regulation, and many neurocognitive functions, undergoes rapid development from the third trimester. Accordingly, we hypothesized it would be vulnerable to insult during this period, and that a difficult clinical course in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) would affect development, and be reflected through atypical shape. Our study population consisted of 66 neonates - all inpatients from the NICU at Victoria Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, ON, Canada, of which 45 entered the final analysis...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483254/teratoma-of-the-neonatal-head-and-neck-a-41-year-experience
#6
Jacob R Brodsky, Alexandria L Irace, Amanda Didas, Karen Watters, Judy A Estroff, Carol E Barnewolt, Antonio Perez-Atayde, Reza Rahbar
OBJECTIVE: To review our institution's experience with the presentation, evaluation, and management of teratoma of the head and neck in the neonatal population. DESIGN: Retrospective case series (November 1970 through September 2011). SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: 14 patients (12 boys and 2 girls). INTERVENTION: Detailed review of presentation, diagnostic approaches, surgical management, and outcomes...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479101/the-frequency-and-severity-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-abnormalities-in-infants-with-mild-neonatal-encephalopathy
#7
Brian H Walsh, Jeffrey Neil, JoAnn Morey, Edward Yang, Michelle V Silvera, Terrie E Inder, Cynthia Ortinau
OBJECTIVE: To assess and contrast the incidence and severity of abnormalities on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort studied infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia at a single tertiary neonatal intensive care unit between 2013 and 2015. Two neuroradiologists masked to the clinical condition evaluated brain MRIs for cerebral injury after therapeutic hypothermia using the Barkovich classification system...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470772/validation-of-the-ultrasonographic-assessment-of-the-femoral-trochlea-epiphyseal-cartilage-in-foals-at-osteochondrosis-predilected-sites-with-mri-and-histology
#8
G Martel, C Forget, G Gilbert, H Richard, T Moser, J Olive, S Laverty
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive imaging tools are needed to screen foal femoropatellar joints to detect subclinical osteochondrosis lesions due to focal failure of endochondral ossification to enhance early management to optimise intrinsic healing events. Recently investigations employing 3T susceptibility-weighted MRI (3T SWI MRI) and CT have demonstrated their capacity for early osteochondrosis diagnosis, but these technologies are not practical for field screening. We postulate that ultrasonography is a valuable field tool for the detection of subclinical osteochondrosis lesions...
May 4, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470389/neonatal-imaging-using-an-on-site-small-footprint-mr-scanner
#9
Stephanie L Merhar, Jean A Tkach, Jason C Woods, Andrew P South, Emily L Wiland, Mantosh S Rattan, Charles L Dumoulin, Beth M Kline-Fath
With its soft-tissue definition, multiplanar capabilities and advanced imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for neonatal care can provide better understanding of pathology, allowing for improved care and counseling to families. However, MR imaging in neonates is often difficult due to patient instability and the complex support necessary for survival. In our institution, we have installed a small footprint magnet in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to minimize patient risks and provide the ability to perform MR imaging safely in this population...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470384/first-60-fetal-in-utero-myelomeningocele-repairs-at-saint-louis-fetal-care-institute-in-the-post-moms-trial-era-hydrocephalus-treatment-outcomes-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-versus-ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt
#10
Samer K Elbabaa, Anne M Gildehaus, Matthew J Pierson, J Andrew Albers, Emanuel J Vlastos
INTRODUCTION: The published results of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) trial in 2011 showed improved outcomes (reduced need for shunting, decreased incidence of Chiari II malformation, and improved scores of mental development and motor function) in the fetal prenatal repair group compared to the postnatal group. Historically, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) remains as a controversial hydrocephalus treatment option with high failure rates in pediatric patients with a history of myelomeningocele (MMC)...
May 3, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455093/-giant-mesocolic-cystic-lymphangioma-a-treacherous-prenatal-presentation-case-report
#11
J Chevreau, P Naepels, P Buisson, L Razafimanantsoa, J Gondry, E Haraux
Cystic lymphangiomas are usually located in the neck region. Less frequently, they can be found in the abdomen. In those cases, pre- and neonatal diagnosis is extremely difficult. We report on the case of a giant mesocolic cystic lymphangioma, diagnosed at birth, in a child who had been monitored during the prenatal period for what was believed to be a digestive dilatation. The progression was marked by excellent tolerance despite a complete lack of regression in the first 10 months of life. The authors discuss the prenatal signs that should suggest this diagnosis and an MRI, as well as management during the 1st year of life...
April 25, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445905/prenatal-diagnosis-of-galen-vein-aneurysm-using-ultrasonography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-perinatal-and-long-term-neurological-outcomes-a-case-series
#12
Pedro Pires, Larisse de Brito Aurélio Martins, Norma Maria Tenório Brito Pires, Heron Werner, Adilson Cunha Ferreira, Edward Araujo Júnior
Objective To describe the prenatal diagnosis of Galen vein aneurysm (GVA) based on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a series of cases, as well as its postnatal outcomes and follow-up until 4 years of age. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study was performed, analyzing a database comprising seven cases of prenatal diagnosis of GVA at two Brazilian institutions from February of 2000 to May of 2012. The following data were evaluated: gestational age at diagnosis, GVA dimensions on ultrasonography, associated fetal changes, findings on fetal echocardiography, gestational age at delivery, type of delivery, birth weight, Apgar score at the 1st and 5th minutes, neonatal outcomes, and survival with follow-up until 4 years of age...
April 26, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438223/extrastriatal-changes-in-patients-with-late-onset-glutaric-aciduria-type-i-highlight-the-risk-of-long-term-neurotoxicity
#13
Nikolas Boy, Jana Heringer, Renate Brackmann, Olaf Bodamer, Angelika Seitz, Stefan Kölker, Inga Harting
BACKGROUND: Without neonatal initiation of treatment, 80-90% of patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) develop striatal injury during the first six years of life resulting in a complex, predominantly dystonic movement disorder. Onset of motor symptoms may be acute following encephalopathic crisis or insidious without apparent crisis. Additionally, so-called late-onset GA1 has been described in single patients diagnosed after the age of 6 years. With the aim of better characterizing and understanding late-onset GA1 we analyzed clinical findings, biochemical phenotype, and MRI changes of eight late-onset patients and compared these to eight control patients over the age of 6 years with early diagnosis and start of treatment...
April 24, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424010/olfactory-development-part-1-function-from-fetal-perception-to-adult-wine-tasting
#14
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat, Xing-Chang Wei
Discrimination of odorous molecules in amniotic fluid occur after 30 weeks' gestation; fetuses exhibit differential responses to maternal diet. Olfactory reflexes enable reliable neonatal testing. Olfactory bulbs can be demonstrated reliably by MRI after 30 weeks' gestation, and their hypoplasia or aplasia also documented by late prenatal and postnatal MRI. Olfactory axons project from nasal epithelium to telencephalon before olfactory bulbs form. Fetal olfactory maturation remains incomplete at term for neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and persistence of the transitory fetal ventricular recess...
May 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422948/beyond-the-uterine-environment-nonhuman-primate-model-to-investigate-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-following-chronic-intrauterine-infection
#15
Meredith A Kelleher, Zheng Liu, Xiaojie Wang, Christopher D Kroenke, Lisa A Houser, Brandy L Dozier, Lauren D Martin, Ken B Waites, Cindy McEvoy, Robert L Schelonka, Peta L Grigsby
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection is a significant cause of early preterm birth. We have developed a fetal-neonatal model in the rhesus macaque to determine the impact of chronic intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum on early neonatal reflexes and brain development. METHODS: Time-mated, pregnant rhesus macaques were randomized to be inoculated with U. parvum (serovar 1; 10(5)cfu) or control media at ~120 dGA. Neonates were delivered by elective hysterotomy at 135-147 dGA (term=167d) stabilized and cared for in our nonhuman primate neonatal intensive care unit...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422947/factors-affecting-the-cognitive-profile-of-11-year-old-children-born-very-preterm
#16
Anna Nyman, Tapio Korhonen, Petriina Munck, Riitta Parkkola, Liisa Lehtonen, Leena Haataja
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a risk for cognitive development. This study assessed the cognitive profile of children born very preterm at the age of 11 years as well as associated risk factors. METHODS: A total of 128 children born very preterm were included. MRI was performed at term age. Cognitive development was assessed using the full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and four domains of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV), Finnish translation...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419634/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-and-elastography-imaging-of-the-neonatal-brain-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Christopher Bailey, Thierry A G M Huisman, Robert M de Jong, Misun Hwang
Neonates presenting with neurologic symptoms require rapid, noninvasive imaging with high spatial resolution and tissue contrast. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for evaluation of neurological pathology. This modality does come with several challenges in the neonatal population, namely, the need to transport a possibly critically sick neonate to the MRI suite and the necessity of the neonate to remain still for a significant length of time, occasionally requiring sedation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412496/magnesium-sulfate-mg-prevents-maternal-inflammation-induced-offspring-cerebral-injury-evident-on-mri-but-not-via-il-1%C3%AE
#18
Yuval Ginsberg, Nizar Khatib, Boaz Weiss, Shay Arison, Michael G Ross, Zeev Weiner, Ron Beloosesky
OBJECTIVE: As maternal treatment with magnesium sulfate (MG) may protect the fetal brain, we sought to assess the inflammation associated neuroprotective potential of MG and its association to interleukin 1β (IL-1β). METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 18-day gestation received i.p. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline. Dams were randomized to treatment with s.c. saline (control), or MG prior to or following the i.p. injection, resulting in three groups. At the end of the treatment, fetal brain IL-1β was quantified for 18 pregnant rats (six of each group)...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409761/the-question-of-whether-or-not-to-perform-therapeutic-hypothermia-a-case-of-neonatal-spinal-cord-injury
#19
K Yokoi, S Kobayashi, K Muramatsu, S Suzuki, H Gotou
Neonatal spinal cord injury is an extremely rare perinatal complication that often occurs concurrently with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), further complicating diagnosis of spinal cord injury. Although therapeutic hypothermia for moderate to severe HIE is widely recommended in Japan, it is difficult to determine whether it satisfies the neurological findings-related entry criteria in some patients.We describe a female infant with neonatal spinal cord injury after forceps delivery, who underwent therapeutic hypothermia upon diagnosis of HIE...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394816/brain-mri-findings-in-pediatric-patients-post-ecmo
#20
Venessa L Pinto, Sumit Pruthi, Ashly C Westrick, Chevis N Shannon, Brian C Bridges, Truc M Le
Neurologic complications can occur with ECMO due to several factors. Prior studies identified neonates as having unique risk factors and neuro-imaging findings post-ECMO. The aim of this study is to describe brain MRI findings of pediatric patients treated with ECMO. We conducted a retrospective study of non-neonatal pediatric patients who underwent a comprehensive brain MRI after ECMO, between January 2000 and July 2015. We identified 47 pediatric patients in the study cohort with a median age of 8 months (IQR 3-170mo) and a median ECMO run duration of 7...
April 6, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
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