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MRI for Neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330415/novel-detection-of-placental-insufficiency-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#1
Jamie O Lo, Victoria H J Roberts, Matthias C Schabel, Xiaojie Wang, Terry K Morgan, Zheng Liu, Colin Studholme, Christopher D Kroenke, Antonio E Frias
The placenta is a vital organ necessary for healthy fetal development. Placental insufficiency creates an in utero environment where the fetus is at risk of insufficient oxygen or nutrient exchange. This is primarily caused by impairment of either maternal or fetal circulation or vascular thrombosis such as placental infarction. As a result of placental dysfunction, affected fetuses may be growth restricted, neurologically impaired, and at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. In a cohort of 4 pregnant Rhesus macaques, we describe antenatal detection of naturally occurring intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and aberrant fetal neurodevelopment in 1 animal...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329979/imaging-of-neck-masses-in-the-neonate
#2
Amina Ben Salem, Abir Khalfalli, Saida Jerbi, Wissem Harzallah, Fatma-Zohra Chioukh, Chiraz Hafsa, Ines Mezhoud
INTRODUCTION: Neck masses occurring in the neonatal period and early infancy consist of vascular tumors, vascular malformations, benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and other developmental lesions. Although some lesions can be diagnosed on clinical grounds, others can only be diagnosed by imaging. Beyond diagnosis, imaging plays a significant role in evaluating the location and extent of a lesion for possible intervention. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Clinical series descriptive study with a retrospective examination of neonates with masses of the neck...
March 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318741/neonatal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-without-sedation-correlates-with-injury-severity-in-brachial-plexus-birth-palsy
#3
Andrea S Bauer, Peter Y Shen, Anna E Nidecker, Paul S Lee, Michelle A James
PURPOSE: Which infants with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) should undergo microsurgical plexus reconstruction remains controversial. The current gold standard for the decision for plexus reconstruction is serial clinical examinations, but this approach obviates the possibility of early surgical treatment. We hypothesize that a new technique using 3-dimensional volumetric proton density magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without sedation can evaluate the severity of BPBP injury earlier than serial clinical examinations...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300009/prenatal-diagnosis-of-aortopulmonary-window-associated-with-aberrant-subclavian-artery
#4
Adetola F Louis-Jacques, Sarah Obican, Thieu Nguyen, Anthony Odibo
Aortopulmonary window is a rare cardiac developmental anomaly characterised by a communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery. Aortopulmonary window may be isolated or associated with cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, interrupted aortic arch, and tetralogy of Fallot. We report a case of aortopulmonary window associated with aberrant subclavian artery based on fetal two-dimensional echocardiogram. The mother was referred for fetal echocardiography because of multiple fetal anomalies...
March 16, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295833/can-we-predict-subject-specific-dynamic-cortical-thickness-maps-during-infancy-from-birth
#5
Yu Meng, Gang Li, Islem Rekik, Han Zhang, Yaozong Gao, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
Understanding the early dynamic development of the human cerebral cortex remains a challenging problem. Cortical thickness, as one of the most important morphological attributes of the cerebral cortex, is a sensitive indicator for both normal neurodevelopment and neuropsychiatric disorders, but its early postnatal development remains largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate a key question in neurodevelopmental science: can we predict the future dynamic development of cortical thickness map in an individual infant based on its available MRI data at birth? If this is possible, we might be able to better model and understand the early brain development and also early detect abnormal brain development during infancy...
March 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284800/joint-prediction-of-longitudinal-development-of-cortical-surfaces-and-white-matter-fibers-from-neonatal-mri
#6
Islem Rekik, Gang Li, Pew-Thian Yap, Geng Chen, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
The human brain can be modeled as multiple interrelated shapes (or a multishape), each for characterizing one aspect of the brain, such as the cortex and white matter pathways. Predicting the developing multishape is a very challenging task due to the contrasting nature of the developmental trajectories of the constituent shapes: smooth for the cortical surface and non-smooth for white matter tracts due to changes such as bifurcation. We recently addressed this problem and proposed an approach for predicting the multishape developmental spatiotemporal trajectories of infant brains based only on neonatal MRI data using a set of geometric, dynamic, and fiber-to-surface connectivity features...
March 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275563/neonatal-cranial-sonography-ultrasound-findings-in-neonatal-meningitis-a-pictorial-review
#7
REVIEW
Nishant Gupta, Hemal Grover, Itisha Bansal, Kusum Hooda, Joshua M Sapire, Rama Anand, Yogesh Kumar
Neonatal bacterial meningitis is a common manifestation of late onset neonatal sepsis. Cranial sonography (CRS) has a crucial role in assessment of infants with clinical suspicion of bacterial meningitis as well as follows up of its complications. CRS is performed with high frequency transducer through anterior fontanelle in both coronal and sagittal planes. Various sonographic findings range from echogenic and widened sulci, ventriculomegaly, ventriculitis, hydrocephalus, extra-axial fluid collections, cerebritis and brain abscess...
February 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273704/-clinical-and-genetic-characteristics-of-children-with-leigh-syndrome
#8
F Fang, Y Shen, D M Shen, Z M Liu, C H Ding, W C Zhang, S Z Sun, J L Lyu, T L Han, X H Wang, W H Zhang, X Y Yang, J W Li, H S Wu
Objective: To investigate the clinically and genetic characteristics of children with Leigh syndrome. Method: Patients with clinically diagnosed Leigh syndrome(LS)in the department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2013 to February 2016 underwent the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) detecting with next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The clinical data of gene confirmed cases were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The differences in the onset age, clinical manifestations, lactic acid level and MRI results between the mtDNA variation and nDNA variation were compared and analyzed...
March 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268289/a-challenging-issue-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-neonatal-brain-mri
#9
Baptiste Morel, Yongchao Xu, Alessio Virzi, Thierry Geraud, Catherine Adamsbaum, Isabelle Bloch
The progress of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for a precise exploration of the brain of premature infants at term equivalent age. The so-called DEHSI (diffuse excessive high signal intensity) of the white matter of premature brains remains a challenging issue in terms of definition, and thus of interpretation. We propose a semi-automatic detection and quantification method of white matter hyperintensities in MRI relying on morphological operators and max-tree representations, which constitutes a powerful tool to help radiologists to improve their interpretation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263044/mri-for-premature-neonatal-brain-injury-a-case-report
#10
Alexander Langham
This case report aims to extend analytical thinking and clinical reasoning of clinicians and radiographers when presented with diagnosing premature neonatal brain injuries (PNBI). The report considers the uses and merit of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the primary assessment of PNBI. The traditional technique of cranial ultrasound as the first modality of choice can have several limitations, which includes a lower temporal resolution in its ability to differentiate grey-white matter distribution patterns, lower spatial resolution in its ability to accurately map white matter fibre tracts and distribution patterns which are critical in white matter injury pathological events...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251898/pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome-a-rare-and-severe-cause-of-pituitary-deficiency-laboratory-diagnosis-of-a-newborn-case
#11
Thomas Boueilh, Corentin Bassi, Stéphanie Rouleau, Sébastien Le Crugel, Valérie Moal, Florence Boux de Casson, Régis Coutant, Delphine Mirebeau-Prunier, Pascal Reynier, Chadi Homedan
We report the case of a newborn with neonatal hypotonia associated to a micropenis and a bilateral cryptorchidia. The discovery of severe hypoglycemia at 0.22 mmol/L led to further biological investigations that revealed sharply decreased levels of several hypophyseal hormones. Altered corticotropic, somatotropic, thyreotropic, and gonadotropic axes finally suggested congenital hypophyseal insufficiency. This diagnostic was confirmed by a brain MRI (magnectic resonance imaging), which revealed a total interruption of the pituitary stalk...
March 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247416/heavy-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-is-related-to-smaller-corpus-callosum-in-newborn-mri-scans
#12
Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Christopher M R Warton, Pia Wintermark, H Eugene Hoyme, Greetje De Jong, Paul Taylor, Fleur Warton, Nadine M Lindinger, R Colin Carter, Neil C Dodge, Ellen Grant, Simon K Warfield, Lilla Zöllei, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
BACKGROUND: MRI studies have consistently demonstrated disproportionately smaller corpus callosa in individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but have not previously examined the feasibility of detecting this effect in infants. Tissue segmentation of the newborn brain is challenging because analysis techniques developed for the adult brain are not directly transferable, and segmentation for cerebral morphometry is difficult in neonates, due to the latter's incomplete myelination...
March 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230106/longitudinal-assessments-of-normal-and-perilesional-tissues-in-focal-brain-ischemia-and-partial-optic-nerve-injury-with-manganese-enhanced-mri
#13
Kevin C Chan, Iris Y Zhou, Stanley S Liu, Yolandi van der Merwe, Shu-Juan Fan, Victor K Hung, Sookja K Chung, Wu-Tian Wu, Kwok-Fai So, Ed X Wu
Although manganese (Mn) can enhance brain tissues for improving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments, the underlying neural mechanisms of Mn detection remain unclear. In this study, we used Mn-enhanced MRI to test the hypothesis that different Mn entry routes and spatiotemporal Mn distributions can reflect different mechanisms of neural circuitry and neurodegeneration in normal and injured brains. Upon systemic administration, exogenous Mn exhibited varying transport rates and continuous redistribution across healthy rodent brain nuclei over a 2-week timeframe, whereas in rodents following photothrombotic cortical injury, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, or neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, Mn preferentially accumulated in perilesional tissues expressing gliosis or oxidative stress within days...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229400/trans-synaptic-retrograde-degeneration-in-the-human-visual-system-slow-silent-and-real
#14
REVIEW
Marc Dinkin
Degeneration of neuron and axons following injury to cells with which they synapse is termed trans-synaptic degeneration. This phenomenon may be seen in postsynaptic neurons (anterograde) or in presynaptic neurons (retrograde). Retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration (RTSD) of the retinal ganglion cells and retinal nerve fiber layer following injury to the occipital lobe has been well documented histologically in animal studies, but its occurrence in the human retina was, for many years, felt to be limited to cases of neonatal injury during a critical period of neuronal development...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228908/diagnosis-of-neonatal-neuroblastoma-with-postmortem-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
James Davis, Nathan Novotny, Jacqueline Macknis, Zeynep Alpay-Savasan, Luis F Goncalves
Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a valuable tool to accompany traditional autopsy and has potential for use in cases when traditional autopsy is not possible. This case report will review the use of postmortem MRI with limited tissue sampling to differentiate between metastatic neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma which could not be clearly differentiated with prenatal ultrasound, prenatal MRI, or emergent postnatal ultrasound. The mother presented to our institution at 27 weeks gestation after an obstetric ultrasound at her obstetrician's office identified a large abdominal mass...
March 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226446/a-challenging-issue-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-neonatal-brain-mri
#16
Baptiste Morel, Yongchao Xu, Alessio Virzi, Thierry Geraud, Catherine Adamsbaum, Isabelle Bloch, Baptiste Morel, Yongchao Xu, Alessio Virzi, Thierry Geraud, Catherine Adamsbaum, Isabelle Bloch, Alessio Virzi, Yongchao Xu, Thierry Geraud, Catherine Adamsbaum, Isabelle Bloch, Baptiste Morel
The progress of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for a precise exploration of the brain of premature infants at term equivalent age. The so-called DEHSI (diffuse excessive high signal intensity) of the white matter of premature brains remains a challenging issue in terms of definition, and thus of interpretation. We propose a semi-automatic detection and quantification method of white matter hyperintensities in MRI relying on morphological operators and max-tree representations, which constitutes a powerful tool to help radiologists to improve their interpretation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217667/the-efficacy-of-pre-delivery-prophylactic-trans-catheter-arterial-balloon-occlusion-of-bilateral-internal-iliac-artery-in-patients-with-suspected-placental-adhesion
#17
Yoon Jin Cho, Yong Taek Oh, Suk Young Kim, Ju Young Kim, Sun Young Jung, Seung Joo Chon, Jeong Ho Kim, Sung Su Byun
OBJECTIVE: Prophylactic trans-catheter arterial balloon occlusion (PTABO) before cesarean section of placenta previa totalis has been introduced to prevent massive hemorrhage. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of PTABO in cases of suspected placental adhesion and to examine antepartal risk factors and perinatal outcomes in women with placental adhesion. METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2015, 77 patients who had undergone ultrasonography for evaluation of placenta previa were enrolled in this study...
January 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217152/value-of-electroencephalographic-monitoring-in-newborns-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-treated-with-hypothermia
#18
Hatem Hamed Elshorbagy, Ahmed A Azab, Naglaa M Kamal, Naglaa Fathy Barseem, Mohamed M Bassiouny, Mostafa A Elsayed, Tohamy H Elkhouly
BACKGROUND: The values of electroencephalography (EEG) in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) are still uncertain. AIMS: The aim of this study is to detect EEG background, the prevalence of seizures during cooling, and to determine different EEG patterns that can predict brain injury in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine newborns with HIE were subjected to TH. Continuous monitoring by video-EEG was carried out throughout cooling and during rewarming...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216077/prenatal-diagnosis-and-outcome-of-fetal-gastrointestinal-obstruction
#19
Patricio E Lau, Stephanie Cruz, Christopher I Cassady, Amy R Mehollin-Ray, Rodrigo Ruano, Sundeep Keswani, Timothy C Lee, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Darrell L Cass
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for fetuses with gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction with correlation to postnatal outcomes. METHODS: Fetuses diagnosed with GI obstruction (excluding esophageal and duodenal) were reviewed for those evaluated between 2006 and 2016. Prenatal diagnosis and imaging studies were compared to postnatal findings. Outcomes evaluated included diagnostic accuracy, rate of other anomalies, neonatal length of stay, incidence of short bowel syndrome, and discharge with TPN or gastrostomy...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211647/clinical-characteristics-predicting-abnormal-brain-magnetic-resonance-image-findings-in-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-infants
#20
Sook K Yum, Cheong-Jun Moon, Young-Ah Youn, In K Sung
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to elucidate the specific clinical characteristics associated with abnormal brain magnetic resonance image(MRI) findings in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy(HIE) infants in order to discern how to predict poorer outcomes more accurately. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of HIE infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital was performed. Baseline perinatal information and physical and neurological findings were compared in HIE infants according to the presence of abnormal brain MRI findings...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
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