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MRI for Neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081533/eeg-monitoring-technique-influences-the-management-of-hypoxic-ischemic-seizures-in-neonates-undergoing-therapeutic-hypothermia
#1
Saber Jan, Frances J Northington, Charlamaine M Parkinson, Carl E Stafstrom
Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring techniques for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are evolving over time, and the specific type of EEG utilized could influence seizure diagnosis and management. We examined whether the type of EEG performed affected seizure treatment decisions (e.g., the choice and number of antiseizure drugs [ASDs]) in therapeutic hypothermia-treated neonates with HI from 2007 to 2015 in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. During this period, 3 different EEG monitoring protocols were utilized: Period 1 (2007-2009), single, brief conventional EEG (1 h duration) at a variable time during therapeutic hypothermia treatment, i...
January 17, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076856/mri-differences-associated-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-preterm-infants
#2
Christie J Bruno, Shreyans Bengani, William A Gomes, Mariana Brewer, Melissa Vega, Xianhong Xie, Mimi Kim, Mamta Fuloria
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) further increases this risk. Brain imaging studies are often utilized at or near term-equivalent age to determine later prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between intrauterine growth and regional brain volume on MRI scans performed in preterm infants at or near term-equivalent age. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study of 24 infants born at gestational age ≤30 weeks and cared for in a large, inner-city, academic neonatal intensive-care unit from 2012 to 2013...
January 11, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063691/clinical-risk-factors-for-punctate-white-matter-lesions-on-early-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-preterm-newborns
#3
Nienke Wagenaar, Vann Chau, Floris Groenendaal, Karina J Kersbergen, Kenneth J Poskitt, Ruth E Grunau, Anne Synnes, Emma G Duerden, Linda S de Vries, Steven P Miller, ManonJ N L Benders
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical risk factors for punctate white matter lesions (PWML) on early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2 cohorts of newborns born extremely preterm in different neonatal centers. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 250 newborns born preterm at less than 28 weeks of gestation (mean 26.4 ± 1.1 weeks) with an early MRI were identified from 2 neonatal centers, in Vancouver, Canada (cohort A, n = 100) and Utrecht, the Netherlands (cohort B, n = 150)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061000/prediction-of-neonatal-respiratory-distress-in-pregnancies-complicated-by-fetal-lung-masses
#4
Anna I Girsen, Susan R Hintz, Rami Sammour, Aasim Naqvi, Yasser Y El-Sayed, Katie Sherwin, Alexis S Davis, Valerie Y Chock, Richard A Barth, Erika Rubesova, Karl G Sylvester, Ritu Chitkara, Yair J Blumenfeld
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of fetal lung mass imaging for predicting neonatal respiratory distress. METHOD: Pregnancies with fetal lung masses between 2009 and 2014 at a single center were analyzed. Neonatal respiratory distress was defined as: Intubation and mechanical ventilation at birth, surgery before discharge, or ECMO. The predictive utility of the initial as well as maximal lung mass volume and congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) volume ratio (CVR) by US and MRI was analyzed...
January 6, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046071/routine-magnetic-resonance-imaging-at-term-equivalent-age-detects-brain-injury-in-25-of-a-contemporary-cohort-of-very-preterm-infants
#5
Vera Neubauer, Tanja Djurdjevic, Elke Griesmaier, Marlene Biermayr, Elke Ruth Gizewski, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, significant investigation has been undertaken by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to identify preterm infants at risk for adverse outcome. The primary objective is to provide a comprehensive characterization of cerebral injury detected by conventional MRI at term-equivalent age in an unselected, consecutive, contemporary cohort of preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks. Secondly, this study aims to identify risk factors for the different injury types in this population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043688/neonatal-surgery-for-noncardiac-congenital-anomalies-neonates-at-risk-of-brain-injury
#6
Lisanne J Stolwijk, Kristin Keunen, Linda S de Vries, Floris Groenendaal, David C van der Zee, Maud Y A van Herwaarden, Petra M A Lemmers, Manon J N L Benders
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of brain injury after neonatal surgery for noncardiac congenital anomalies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). STUDY DESIGN: An MRI was obtained in 101 infants at 7 days [range: 1-115] after neonatal surgery for major noncardiac congenital anomalies. Brain injury was assessed using T1, T2, diffusion weighted imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging. RESULTS: Thirty-two preterm infants (<37 weeks of gestation) and 69 full-term infants were included...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041798/early-seizures-predict-the-development-of-epilepsy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-stroke
#7
Ina Breitweg, Celina von Stülpnagel, Tom Pieper, Karen Lidzba, Hans Holthausen, Martin Staudt, Gerhard Kluger
PURPOSE: To identify risk factors for the development of epilepsy after pediatric stroke. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of hospital charts of 93 children and adolescents with post-neonatal non-traumatic stroke and a minimum follow-up of two years. Seizures during the first 48 h after onset of stroke symptoms were defined as "early seizures"; when two or more seizures occurred after this period, the patient was classified as "epileptic". RESULTS: Early seizures, young age at stroke and MRI evidence of cortical involvement were observed more frequently in the children who developed epilepsy...
December 18, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019046/evaluation-of-neonatal-brain-myelination-using-the-t1-and-t2-weighted-mri-ratio
#8
Jennifer E Soun, Michael Z Liu, Keith A Cauley, Jack Grinband
PURPOSE: To validate the T1- and T2-weighted (T1w/T2w) MRI ratio technique in evaluating myelin in the neonatal brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1w and T2w MR images of 10 term neonates with normal-appearing brain parenchyma were obtained from a single 1.5 Tesla MRI and retrospectively analyzed. T1w/T2w ratio images were created with a postprocessing pipeline and qualitatively compared with standard clinical sequences (T1w, T2w, and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC])...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018441/a-neonate-with-joubert-syndrome-presenting-with-symptoms-of-horner-syndrome
#9
Narae Lee, Sang-Ook Nam, Young Mi Kim, Yun-Jin Lee
Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by the "molar tooth sign" (MTS) with cerebellar vermis agenesis, episodic hyperpnea, abnormal eye movements, and hypotonia. Ocular and oculomotor abnormalities have been observed; however, Horner syndrome (HS) has not been documented in children with JS. We present the case of a 2-month-old boy having ocular abnormalities with bilateral nystagmus, left-dominant bilateral ptosis, and unilateral miosis and enophthalmos of the left eye, which were compatible with HS. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of the MTS...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013288/structural-cerebral-abnormalities-and-neurodevelopmental-status-in-single-ventricle-congenital-heart-disease-before-fontan-procedure
#10
Walter Knirsch, Kristina Nadine Mayer, Ianina Scheer, Ruth Tuura, Dietmar Schranz, Andreas Hahn, Kristina Wetterling, Ingrid Beck, Beatrice Latal, Bettina Reich
OBJECTIVES: Neonates with single ventricle congenital heart disease are at risk for structural cerebral abnormalities. Little is known about the further evolution of cerebral abnormalities until Fontan procedure. METHODS: Between August 2012 and July 2015, we conducted a prospective cross-sectional two centre study using cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuro-developmental outcome assessed by the Bayley-III. Forty-seven children (31 male) were evaluated at a mean age of 25...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012949/cannabidiol-reduces-brain-damage-and-improves-functional-recovery-in-a-neonatal-rat-model-of-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#11
Maria Ceprián, Laura Jiménez-Sánchez, Carlos Vargas, Lorena Barata, Will Hind, Jose Martínez-Orgado
BACKGROUND: and purpose: Currently there is no effective treatment for neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Cannabidiol (CBD) is neuroprotective in models of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and adult stroke. The purpose of this work was to study the protective effect of CBD in a neonatal rat model of AIS. METHODS: Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) was achieved in neonatal Wistar rats by introducing a nylon filament to the left MCA for 3 h; 15 min after removing the occluder vehicle (MCAO-V) or CBD single dose 5 mg/kg (MCAO-C) were administered i...
December 21, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011082/-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-review-of-the-current-guidelines
#12
E Saliba, T Debillon, S Auvin, O Baud, V Biran, J-L Chabernaud, S Chabrier, F Cneude, A-G Cordier, V Darmency-Stamboul, J-F Diependaele, T Debillon, M Dinomais, C Durand, A Ego, G Favrais, Y Gruel, L Hertz-Pannier, B Husson, S Marret, S N'Guyen The Tich, T Perez, E Saliba, J-B Valentin, C Vuillerot
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) is a rare event that occurs in approximately one in 5000 term or close-to-term infants. Most affected infants will present with seizures. Although a well-recognized clinical entity, many questions remain regarding diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and follow-up modalities. In the absence of a known pathophysiological mechanism and lack of evidence-based guidelines, only supportive care is currently provided. To address these issues, a French national committee set up by the French Neonatal Society (Société française de néonatologie) and the national referral center (Centre national de référence) for arterial ischemic stroke in children drew up guidelines based on an HAS (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]; French national authority for health) methodology...
December 20, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001274/language-behavior-and-neurodevelopment-in-joubert-syndrome-a-case-report
#13
Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica, Camila da Costa Ribeiro, Antonio Richieri-Costa, Célia Maria Giacheti
The Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare, heterogeneous genetic condition among the ciliopathies. More than 20 genes have been identified associated with this phenotype. The main manifestations include hypotonia, ataxia, psychomotor retardation, ocular-motor apraxia and neonatal respiratory abnormalities. The objective of this paper was to present language and neurodevelopmental findings of an individual diagnosed with JS. The following procedures were performed: anamnesis, clinical genetic evaluation observation of communicative behavior, evaluation of language, the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) and the Early Language Milestone Scale (ELMS)...
November 2016: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999970/oral-30-glucose-provides-sufficient-sedation-in-newborns-during-mri
#14
H Evren Eker, Oya Yalcin Cok, Bilin Çetinkaya, Anis Aribogan
PURPOSE: Newborns are often sedated during MRI but sedation itself creates adverse events and management is more challenging in this environment. Oral glucose/sucrose administration has been studied in newborns during painful procedures; however, its effectiveness in keeping newborns sleepy and motionlessness during painless procedures has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to describe effectiveness of oral 30% glucose administration by comparing with intravenous midazolam sedation for newborns during MRI...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990007/a-newborn-with-hemorrhagic-meningoencephalitis-due-to-proteus-mirabilis
#15
Yesim Coskun, Ipek Akman, Canan Yildirim, Mustafa Kemal Demir
Neonatal meningoencephalitis is a severe condition for the developing brain of a newborn. Radiologic findings of necrosis and liquefaction due to hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis may be confused with brain abcess. In this article, we report a neonate having liquefaction necrosis due to hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis mimicing intracranial abscess due to Proteus mirabilis. We would like to describe the clinical course and evolution of brain imaging and emphasize the importance of the serial MR imaging (MRI).
December 18, 2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988320/heterogeneous-increases-of-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-during-preterm-brain-development-preliminary-assessment-with-pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeled-perfusion-mri
#16
Minhui Ouyang, Peiying Liu, Tina Jeon, Lina Chalak, Roy Heyne, Nancy K Rollins, Daniel J Licht, John A Detre, Timothy P L Roberts, Hanzhang Lu, Hao Huang
The human brain develops rapidly during 32-45 postmenstrual weeks (PMW), a critical stage characterized by dramatic increases of metabolic demand. The increasing metabolic demand can be inferred through measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), which might be coupled to regional metabolism in preterm brains. Arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI is one of the few viable approaches for imaging regional CBF of preterm brains, but must be optimized for the extremely slow blood velocity unique in preterm brains...
December 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978510/optimizing-cerebral-autoregulation-may-decrease-neonatal-regional-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#17
Jennifer K Lee, Andrea Poretti, Jamie Perin, Thierry A G M Huisman, Charlamaine Parkinson, Raul Chavez-Valdez, Matthew O'Connor, Michael Reyes, Jillian Armstrong, Jacky M Jennings, Maureen M Gilmore, Raymond C Koehler, Frances J Northington, Aylin Tekes
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We examined whether hemodynamic goals that support autoregulation are associated with decreased brain injury and whether these relationships are affected by birth asphyxia or vary by anatomic region. METHODS: Neonates cooled for HIE received near-infrared spectroscopy autoregulation monitoring to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulatory function (MAPOPT)...
December 16, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942469/intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-term-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-a-comparison-study-between-neonates-treated-with-and-without-hypothermia
#18
Natalia Gorelik, Ricardo Faingold, Alan Daneman, Monica Epelman
BACKGROUND: To retrospectively determine the prevalence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) using head ultrasound (HUS) and MRI, and to compare the incidence of IVH in term babies with HIE treated by therapeutic hypothermia versus those managed conventionally. METHODS: A total of 61 term neonates from two institutions were diagnosed with HIE shortly after birth. Thirty infants from one institution were treated with whole body hypothermia...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922496/metabolic-myopathies
#19
Mark A Tarnopolsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#20
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
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