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MRI for Neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915231/postnatal-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-associated-with-larger-preterm-brain-tissue-volumes-and-better-outcomes
#1
Daphne Kamino, Colin Studholme, Mengyuan Liu, Vann Chau, Steven P Miller, Anne Synnes, Elizabeth E Rogers, A James Barkovich, Donna M Ferriero, Rollin Brant, Emily W Y Tam
BACKGROUND: Human studies investigating the link between postnatal polyunsaturated fatty acids and preterm brain growth are limited, despite emerging evidence of potential effects on outcomes. METHODS: Sixty preterm neonates <32 weeks gestational age with MRI scanning at near-birth and near-term age were assessed for brain tissue volumes including cortical grey matter, white matter, deep grey matter, cerebellum, brainstem and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Red blood cell fatty acid content was evaluated within 1 week of each MRI scan...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913326/improvement-in-white-matter-tract-reconstruction-with-constrained-spherical-deconvolution-and-track-density-mapping-in-low-angular-resolution-data-a-pediatric-study-and-literature-review
#2
Benedetta Toselli, Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Gabriele Arnulfo, Andrea Canessa, Giovanni Morana, Andrea Rossi, Marco Massimo Fato
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) allows noninvasive investigation of brain structure in vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a frequently used application of DW-MRI that assumes a single main diffusion direction per voxel, and is therefore not well suited for reconstructing crossing fiber tracts. Among the solutions developed to overcome this problem, constrained spherical deconvolution with probabilistic tractography (CSD-PT) has provided superior quality results in clinical settings on adult subjects; however, it requires particular acquisition parameters and long sequences, which may limit clinical usage in the pediatric age group...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#3
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901233/a-quarter-century-after-primary-direct-arterial-switch-operation-four-d-flow-mri-video-imaging-of-blood-flow-dynamics-outcomes
#4
Hans-Hinrich Sievers, Dominik Gabbert, Carsten Rickers
Four-dimensional (4-D) flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination was performed 25 years after a neonatal direct arterial switch operation for simple transposition of the great arteries. The 4-D flow MRI video shows physiological spiral anatomical configuration and laminar streamlines in the great arteries.
September 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898573/alternatives-to-autopsy-for-fetal-and-early-neonatal-perinatal-deaths-insights-from-the-wisconsin-stillbirth-service-program
#5
Elspeth McPherson, Eirini Nestoridi, Dominique Heinke, Drucilla J Roberts, Ruth Fretts, Mahsa M Yazdy, Angela E Lin
BACKGROUND: Although autopsy is a key component of the etiologic evaluation following fetal and early neonatal death, and traditionally has been the preferred method to determine the cause of death, an alternative may be suitable when traditional autopsy by a perinatal pathologist is not available or declined. METHODS: Among 3137 cases evaluated through the Wisconsin Stillbirth Service Program (WiSSP), a community-based program for etiologic evaluation of second trimester miscarriage, stillbirth, and early neonatal death, most diagnoses are based on multiple types of data including placental pathology, clinical examination, photographs, maternal records, radiographs, and laboratory testing...
September 12, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890046/effect-of-multiple-neonatal-sevoflurane-exposures-on-hippocampal-apolipoprotein-e%C3%A2-levels-and-learning-and-memory-abilities
#6
Junli Jiang, Chunchun Tang, Juanjuan Ren, Chao Zhang, Liang Dong, Zhaoqiong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane anesthesia is widely used in pediatric patients. In this study, we investigated whether early multiple exposures to sevoflurane induced cognitive dysfunction by altering the hippocampal expression of ApoE later in development. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2.6% sevoflurane at postnatal day 7 (P7), P14, and P21 for 2 h. The ability of learning and memory was assessed using the Morris water maze at P37 and P97. The hippocampal volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at P37 and P97...
August 31, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889811/cardiovascular-ct-for-evaluation-of-single-ventricle-heart-disease-risks-and-accuracy-compared-with-interventional-findings
#7
B Kelly Han, Marnie Huntley, David Overman, Dawn Witt, David Dassenko, Ross F Garberich, John R Lesser
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the risk and image quality from cardiovascular CT in patients across all stages of single-ventricle palliation, and to define accuracy by comparing findings with intervention and surgery. METHODS: Consecutive CT scans performed in patients with single-ventricle heart disease were retrospectively reviewed at a single institution. Diagnosis, sedation needs, estimated radiation dose, and adverse events were recorded. Anatomical findings, image quality (1-4, 1=optimal), and discrepancy compared with interventional findings were determined...
September 11, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886900/clinical-and-imaging-differences-between-neonates-and-children-with-pyriform-sinus-fistula-which-is-preferred-for-diagnosis-computed-tomography-or-barium-esophagography
#8
Jing Pan, Yan Zou, Le Li, Tian-You Yang, Ji-Liang Yang, Chao Hu
PURPOSE: Pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) is very rare. It is difficult to make an accurate diagnosis preoperatively. The aim of this study is to summarize the characteristics of clinical and radiologic presentations in neonates and children with PSF and to assess which examination is more helpful for diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed in 29 patients with PSF at a single center from January 2013 to September 2016. The clinical presentation, computed tomography (CT) scan/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and barium esophagogram were evaluated between neonates and children...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879597/prenatal-congenital-vertical-talus-rocker-bottom-foot-a-marker-for-multisystem-anomalies
#9
Eva I Rubio, Nimisha Mehta, Anna R Blask, Dorothy I Bulas
BACKGROUND: Congenital vertical talus is a rare foot anomaly characterized by a prominent calcaneus and rigid forefoot dorsiflexion. While congenital vertical talus has been associated with anomalies such as trisomy 18, myelomeningocele and arthrogryposis, postnatal series have reported cases of isolated congenital vertical talus. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of isolated congenital vertical talus prenatally and identify the most common anomalies associated with this finding...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873146/mri-for-neonates
#10
Rebecca Voelker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867033/-recommendations-for-imaging-neonatal-ischemic-stroke
#11
B Husson, C Durand, L Hertz-Pannier
Neuroimaging is critical for the diagnosis of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) and for prognosis estimation. The purpose of this work is to define guidelines of clinical neuroimaging for the diagnosis of NAIS, for the optimization of the imaging timing and for the assessment of the prognostic value of each imaging technique. A systematic search of electronic databases (Medline via Pubmed) for studies whose title and abstract were focused on NAIS has been conducted. One hundred and ten articles were selected and their results were analyzed by three Senior Practitioners of pediatric radiology using common methodology for guidelines elaboration within the group of experts gathered by Scientific Societies in the field...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864243/diagnostic-value-of-conventional-mri-combined-with-dti-for-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#12
Ruifang Yan, Dongming Han, Jipeng Ren, Zhansheng Zhai, Fengmei Zhou, Jingliang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NHB) is a common clinical disease and can cause bilirubin encephalopathy in severe cases. It is now widely accepted that increased signal intensity in the globus pallidus on MR T1WI is an important sign of neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy. And brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has not been used extensively to study hyperbilirubinemia (HB). So we compared newborns with different hyperbilirubinemia of different severities and healthy newborns in order to determine the relationships among MRI signal intensities, serum bilirubin levels, and the molecular changes in brain water diffusion in hyperbilirubinemia...
August 3, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861337/clinical-neuroimaging-in-the-preterm-infant-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#13
REVIEW
Manuel Hinojosa-Rodríguez, Thalía Harmony, Cristina Carrillo-Prado, John Darrell Van Horn, Andrei Irimia, Carinna Torgerson, Zachary Jacokes
Perinatal care advances emerging over the past twenty years have helped to diminish the mortality and severe neurological morbidity of extremely and very preterm neonates (e.g., cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [c-PVL] and Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage - Intraventricular Hemorrhage [GMH-IVH grade 3-4/4]; 22 to < 32 weeks of gestational age, GA). However, motor and/or cognitive disabilities associated with mild-to-moderate white and gray matter injury are frequently present in this population (e.g., non-cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [non-cystic PVL], neuronal-axonal injury and GMH-IVH grade 1-2/4)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844055/what-is-mr-spectroscopy
#14
Karen Angela Manias, Andrew Peet
(1)H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a novel advanced imaging technique used as an adjunct to MRI to reveal complementary non-invasive information about the biochemical composition of imaged tissue. Clinical uses in paediatrics include aiding diagnosis of brain tumours, neonatal disorders such as hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, inherited metabolic diseases, traumatic brain injury, demyelinating conditions and infectious brain lesions. MRS has potential to improve diagnosis and treatment monitoring of childhood brain tumours and other CNS diseases, facilitate biopsy and surgical planning, and provide prognostic biomarkers...
August 26, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842976/safety-and-efficacy-of-a-novel-three-dimensional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-model-for-uterine-incision-in-placenta-previa
#15
Yanwen Cao, Yanxing Wei, Yanhong Yu, Zhijian Wang
OBJECTIVE: To assess a novel three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) model for determining position of uterine incision during cesarean delivery among patients with placenta previa. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among women with singleton pregnancies complicated by placenta previa who delivered by cesarean at a hospital in China between January 1, 2014, and January 1, 2016. Patients chose whether to undergo 3D MRI modeling to guide uterine incision (study group) or the standard intervention (control group)...
August 26, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832002/pointed-rhythmic-theta-waves-a-unique-eeg-pattern-in-kcnq2-related-neonatal-epileptic-encephalopathy
#16
Sarah Grace Buttle, Erick Sell, David Dyment, Srinivas Bulusu, Daniela Pohl
We report the case of an infant with KCNQ2-related neonatal epileptic encephalopathy presenting with intractable seizures beginning on the second day of life, which were resistant to multiple antiepileptic drugs. Continuous EEG recordings starting on the sixth day of life demonstrated a unique pattern of inter-and postictal focal rhythmic pointed theta waves of lambdoid morphology in the immediate postictal period, localizing to the side of the antecedent seizure. Interictal EEG exhibited discontinuous background, including patterns of burst suppression and multifocal discharges, predominantly in the centrotemporal regions, which were aggravated during sleep...
August 23, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826258/fetal-intracranial-hemorrhage-prenatal-diagnosis-and-postnatal-outcomes
#17
Begoña Adiego, Pilar Martínez-Ten, Carmina Bermejo, María Estévez, Manuel Recio Rodriguez, Tamara Illescas
OBJECTIVE: To present our experience with 14 cases of fetal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Cases of fetal ICH detected in our institution between 2005 and 2016 by ultrasonography. Maternal characteristics, ultrasound and MRI findings, and postnatal outcome were noted. RESULTS: Twelve cases (86.7%) were identified during a third trimester routine scan at a median gestational age of 30.6 weeks. The ICH was classified as Grade 2 in two cases, Grade 3 in three cases and Grade 4 in nine cases...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815625/association-of-transcallosal-motor-fibres-with-function-of-both-hands-after-unilateral-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#18
Samuel Groeschel, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Matthieu Delion, Sébastien Loustau, Béatrice Husson, Manoelle Kossorotoff, Cyrille Renaud, Sylvie Nguyen The Tich, Stéphane Chabrier, Mickael Dinomais
AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of the motor fibres of the corpus callosum after unilateral neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) of the middle cerebral artery territory and the relationship to both ipsilesional and contralesional hand function. METHOD: Using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI, and magnetic resonance diffusion-tractography, we compared the midsagittal area of the motor part of the corpus callosum (defined by the fibres connecting the precentral gyri) between 33 7-year-old children after unilateral NAIS and 31 typically developing 7-year-old children...
August 17, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815096/a-case-of-congenital-brainstem-oligodendroglioma-pathology-findings-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Stefan Kostadinov, Suzanne de la Monte
Congenital and perinatal primary brain neoplasms are extremely rare. Brainstem neoplasms in the perinatal and neonatal period are typically of high-grade nature and have poor prognoses with survival rates of less than 2 years from diagnosis. Herein, we report an unusual case of congenital anaplastic oligodendroglioma that arose in the pons and was detected as diffuse pontine glioma on in utero imaging studies during prenatal evaluation at 26 weeks' gestation. A male infant was delivered at 36.4 weeks of gestation via Cesarean section who developed progressive dyspnea shortly after birth...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810181/screening-performance-for-callosal-agenesis-in-prenatal-life-single-center-study
#20
Hubert Huras, Magdalena Nowak, Izabela Herman-Sucharska, Malgorzata Radon-Pokracka, Agnieszka Nocun, Marcin Wiechec
OBJECTIVES: 1) To analyze screening performance of second trimester scan for ACC, 2) to evaluate the agreement between ultrasound and MRI and 3) to compare prenatal and postnatal diagnosis. METHODS: It was a prospective observational study. All patients with fetuses suspected of ACC were referred to prenatal MRI (pMRI). RESULTS: One subject was not confirmed by pMRI with the diagnosis of ACC. This case demonstrated partial ACC in neonatal MRI (nMRI)...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Imaging
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