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MRI for Neonates

Anand Pandey, Vipin Gupta, Shailendra P Singh, Vijendra Kumar, Rajesh Verma
A trophic ulcer is a pressure ulcer caused by external trauma to a part of the body that is compromised due to disease, vascular insufficiency, or loss of afferent nerve fibers. Spinal dysraphism (ie, neural tube defects [NTD]) such as meningomyelocele is a risk factor for developing these ulcers in adults and pediatric patients. Information regarding the occurrence of trophic ulcers in pediatric patients with NTD is lacking. A review of the English-language literature on skin/neuropathic ulcers in patients with NTDs, irrespective of study design, published between 1975 and 2014, was undertaken using the PubMed database...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
Gabrielle Martel, Charles-André Couture, Guillaume Gilbert, Stéphane Bancelin, Hélène Richard, Thomas Moser, Sabrina Kiss, François Légaré, Sheila Laverty
Osteochondrosis is an ischemic chondronecrosis of epiphyseal growth cartilage that results in focal failure of endochondral ossification and osteochondritis dissecans at specific sites in the epiphyses of humans and animals, including horses. The upstream events leading to the focal ischemia remain unknown. The epiphyseal growth cartilage matrix is composed of proteoglycan and collagen macromolecules and encases its vascular tree in canals. The matrix undergoes major dynamic changes in early life that could weaken it biomechanically and predispose it to focal trauma and vascular failure...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Ursula I Tuor, Min Qiao, Manasi Sule, Melissa Morgunov, Tadeusz Foniok
Stroke is a major cause of disability in adults and children. Recently, we have developed an adult rat model of minor stroke containing a peri-infarct region with a modest T2 increase and mild ischemic damage. We hypothesized that a neonatal minor stroke with mild peri-ischemic changes could also be produced, but with potential ontogenic differences. Using our minor photothrombosis method, we produced a range of severities of ischemic lesions (mini, minor, moderate and severe) within magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices of adult and neonatal rats...
October 12, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Bonnie Alexander, Andrea L Murray, Wai Yen Loh, Lillian G Matthews, Chris Adamson, Richard Beare, Jian Chen, Claire E Kelly, Sandra Rees, Simon K Warfield, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Marc L Seal, Deanne K Thompson
Investigating neonatal brain structure and function can offer valuable insights into behaviour and cognition in healthy and clinical populations; both at term age, and longitudinally in comparison with later time points. Parcellated brain atlases for adult populations are readily available, however warping infant data to adult template space is not ideal due to morphological and tissue differences between these groups. Several parcellated neonatal atlases have been developed, although there remains strong demand for manually parcellated ground truth data with detailed cortical definition...
October 7, 2016: NeuroImage
Ursula I Tuor, Manasi Sule, Min Qiao
PURPOSE: To determine whether damage to neonatal brain is exacerbated with multiple mild cerebral insults as detected with MRI and corroborated using histology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The combined brain injury produced by multiple procedures was compared in neonatal rats having: Sham surgery at P5, Sham surgery at P5 plus a diffuse mild transient unilateral cerebral hypoxia ischemia (HI) at P7, HI alone, and a minor photothrombotic (PT) stroke at P5 followed by HI...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Masahito Sato, Yoshinori Hamada, Miyuki Kohno, Kazuya Ise, Keiichi Uchida, Hiromi Ogata, Hiroaki Masuyama, Yoshiki Morotomi, Masao Yasufuku, Motoshi Wada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify the current clinical features of neonatal gastrointestinal perforation in Japan. METHODS: A questionnaire about cases of neonatal gastrointestinal perforation treated in recent 5 years was sent to participating institutions of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Surgeons (JSPS). RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty-six neonates with gastrointestinal perforation were treated. They consisted of 42 patients with gastric rupture/perforation (GR), 33 patients with intestinal atresia/stenosis (IA), 3 patients with malrotation (ML), 118 patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), 160 patients with focal intestinal perforation (FIP), 46 patients with meconium-related ileus (MRI), 77 patients with meconium peritonitis (MP), and 57 patients with other conditions...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Monika Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Ewa Helwich, Magdalena Rutkowska, Joanna Stankiewicz, Iwona Terczyńska
INTRODUCTION: The authors present the first experience in neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations using an MR compatible incubator (INC) at the Institute of Mother and Child. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-nine examinations of 47 newborns (20 girls, 27 boys) were performed using the GE Signa HDxt 1.5T system and INC Nomag IC 1.5. Demographic data, anesthetic methods and MRI findings in the INC in comparison with previously performed imaging were analyzed...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
L Reaney, V Livingstone, C Bogue, E M Dempsey, P M Filan
Therapeutic hypothermia is now the standard of care for infants with moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Sixty-three infants received therapeutic hypothermia at Cork University Maternity Hospital (CUMH) from 2010-2014. Median gestational age was 40 weeks. Eighteen (29%) infants were Sarnat grade 3, 41(65%) grade 2 and 4(6%) grade 1. Nineteen outborn infants arrived in CUMH at a median (IQR) age of 310 (270, 420) minutes. Four (21%) outborn infants were within the target temperature range on arrival...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
M E Harvey, M E Redshaw
OBJECTIVE: To explore communication and interaction between parents and clinicians following neonatal ultrasound (US) and MRI of the brain of babies born preterm. SETTING: This qualitative study was undertaken as part of a larger UK study of neonatal brain imaging. 511 infants were cared for in 14 London neonatal units with MR and cerebral US imaging in a specialist centre. PARTICIPANTS: Parents with infants born at <33 weeks gestation were randomised to receive prognostic information based on either MRI or US findings on their infants at term-corrected age...
2016: BMJ Open
Lillian M Lai, Joseph Y Cheng, Marcus T Alley, Tao Zhang, Michael Lustig, Shreyas S Vasanawala
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of ferumoxytol-enhanced anesthesia-free cardiac MRI in neonates and young infants for complex congenital heart disease (CHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: With Institutional Review Board approval, 21 consecutive neonates and young infants (1 day to 11 weeks old; median age of 3 days) who underwent a rapid two-sequence (MR angiography [MRA] and four-dimensional [4D] flow) MRI protocol with intravenous ferumoxytol without sedation (n = 17) or light sedation (n = 4) at 3 Tesla (T) (except one case at 1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
X Li, A Andres, K Shankar, R T Pivik, C M Glasier, R H Ramakrishnaiah, Y Zhang, T M Badger, X Ou
Recent studies have shown associations between maternal obesity at pre- or early pregnancy and long-term neurodevelopment in children, suggesting in utero effects of maternal obesity on offspring brain development. In this study, we examined whether brain functional connectivity to the prefrontal lobe network is different in newborns from normal-weight or obese mothers. Thirty-four full-term healthy infants from uncomplicated pregnancies were included, with 18 born to normal-weight and 16 born to obese mothers...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Mickaël Dinomais
Long-term motor performances after unilateral neonatal stroke are variable. The presence of motor deficits may be related to structural characteristic (size and location) of the infarct site but also in brain area remote from this injury (cerebellum and thalamus). Analyzing in functional MRI and structural MRI the relationship between long-term motor performance and motor system after neonatal stroke could provide cerebral target for therapy.
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries
In the past brain imaging of term infants with HIE was performed with cranial ultrasound (cUS) and computed tomography (CT). Both techniques have several disadvantages, sensitivity and specificity are limited compared to MRI, and CT makes use of radiation.At present MRI including diffusion weighted MRI during the first week of life, has become the method of choice for imaging infants with HIE. In addition to imaging, blood vessels and blood flow can be visualized using MR angiography, MR venography, and arterial spin labeling...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Reeba M Jacob, Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Chron-Si Lai, Ryan N Dilger
INTRODUCTION: Provision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared (SR) or artificially reared (AR) in an artificial setting. METHODS: Over a 25-day feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Sevan A Vahanian, Anthony M Vintzileos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Placental implantation abnormalities (PIAs) comprise a large group of disorders associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors include prior uterine surgery/myometrial scarring and the presence of placenta previa with or without prior cesarean delivery. Newly identified risk factors include previous prelabor cesarean delivery and previous postpartum hemorrhage. PIAs contribute substantially to preterm birth with prematurity rates ranging from 38 to 82%...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ala Birca, Vasily A Vakorin, Prashob Porayette, Sujana Madathil, Vann Chau, Mike Seed, Sam M Doesburg, Susan Blaser, Dragos A Nita, Rohit Sharma, Emma G Duerden, Edward J Hickey, Steven P Miller, Cecil D Hahn
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether structural and microstructural brain abnormalities in neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) correlate with neuronal network dysfunction measured by analysis of EEG connectivity. METHODS: We studied a prospective cohort of 20 neonates with CHD who underwent continuous EEG monitoring before surgery to assess functional brain maturation and network connectivity, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the presence of brain injury and structural brain development, and diffusion tensor MRI to assess brain microstructural development...
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Emer J Hughes, Tobias Winchman, Francesco Padormo, Rui Teixeira, Julia Wurie, Maryanne Sharma, Matthew Fox, Jana Hutter, Lucilio Cordero-Grande, Anthony N Price, Joanna Allsop, Jose Bueno-Conde, Nora Tusor, Tomoki Arichi, A D Edwards, Mary A Rutherford, Serena J Counsell, Joseph V Hajnal
PURPOSE: The goal of the Developing Human Connectome Project is to acquire MRI in 1000 neonates to create a dynamic map of human brain connectivity during early development. High-quality imaging in this cohort without sedation presents a number of technical and practical challenges. METHODS: We designed a neonatal brain imaging system (NBIS) consisting of a dedicated 32-channel receive array coil and a positioning device that allows placement of the infant's head deep into the coil for maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)...
September 19, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Andrea Poretti, Avner Meoded, Ali Fatemi
Krabbe's disease is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder resulting from deficiency of β-galactocerebrosidase that affects primarily cerebral white matter and peripheral nerves. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive to changes in white matter myelination, but its assessment is based purely on qualitative, visual inspection, and it is subject to interobserver variability and open to reader bias. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced MRI technique that provides quantitative information about the microscopic structural organization of the white matter and changes in cell density and myelination, and it is a suitable MRI tool for studying Krabbe's disease...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
P Naina, Kamran Asif Syed, Lisa Koshy, Suma Susan Mathews
Sublingual dermoids are uncommon lesions in the floor of mouth. The most common age of presentation is early adulthood, but presentation in infancy has also been reported. This report highlights the clinical presentation and treatment challenges in infants. An 8-month-old infant presented with inability to close mouth, intermittent stertor and snoring. MRI suggested a sublingual dermoid which was confirmed on histopathology of the surgically enucleated specimen. Sublingual dermoids are uncommon lesions of the floor of mouth...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Karina J Kersbergen, Antonios Makropoulos, Paul Aljabar, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Serena J Counsell, Manon J N L Benders
OBJECTIVES: To investigate third-trimester extrauterine brain growth and correlate this with clinical risk factors in the neonatal period, using serially acquired brain tissue volumes in a large, unselected cohort of extremely preterm born infants. STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants (gestational age <28 weeks) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at around 30 weeks postmenstrual age and again around term equivalent age. MRIs were segmented in 50 different regions covering the entire brain...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
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