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Advanced Breast Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646331/textural-features-of-18-f-fdg-pet-after-two-cycles-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-can-predict-pcr-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-breast-cancer
#1
Lin Cheng, Jianping Zhang, Yujie Wang, Xiaoli Xu, Yongping Zhang, Yingjian Zhang, Guangyu Liu, Jingyi Cheng
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the utility of textural features for predicting pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: Sixty-one consecutive patients with locally advanced breast cancer underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT scanning at baseline and after the second course of NAC. Changes to imaging parameters [maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG)] and textural features (entropy, coarseness, skewness) between the 2 scans were measured by two independent radiologists...
June 23, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641315/sequential-vs-concurrent-epirubicin-and-docetaxel-as-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-high-risk-node-negative-early-breast-cancer-an-interim-analysis-of-a-randomised-phase-iii-study-from-the-hellenic-oncology-research-group
#2
Dimitrios Mavroudis, Emmanouil Saloustros, Ioannis Boukovinas, Pavlos Papakotoulas, Stylianos Kakolyris, Nikolaos Ziras, Charalampos Christophylakis, Nikolaos Kentepozidis, Georgios Fountzilas, Georgios Rigas, Ioannis Varthalitis, Konstantinos Kalbakis, Sofia Agelaki, Dora Hatzidaki, Vasilios Georgoulias
BACKGROUND: Sequential anthracyclines and taxanes are standard adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with high-risk axillary node-positive breast cancer. We compared a sequential to a concurrent regimen in high-risk node-negative early breast cancer. METHODS: Patients were eligible if they had tumours >2 cm or T1c with two of the following characteristics: no oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression, histological grade III, Ki67 >40% and vascular, lymphovascular or perineural invasion...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641308/detection-of-phosphatidylserine-positive-exosomes-for-the-diagnosis-of-early-stage-malignancies
#3
Raghava Sharma, Xianming Huang, Rolf A Brekken, Alan J Schroit
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in the detection of tumour exosomes in blood for cancer diagnostics. Most studies have focussed on miRNA and protein signatures that are surrogate markers for specific tumour types. Because tumour cells and tumour-derived exosomes display phosphatidylserine (PS) in their outer membrane leaflet, we developed a highly sensitive ELISA-based system that detects picogram amounts of exosomal phospholipid in plasma as a cancer biomarker. METHODS: This report describes the development of a highly specific and sensitive ELISA for the capture of PS-expressing tumour exosomes in the blood of tumour-bearing mice...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640095/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-expression-is-correlated-with-poor-prognosis-in-breast-cancer
#4
Juan Yao, Qin Jin, Xu-Dong Wang, Hui-Jun Zhu, Qi-Chao Ni
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and is a major cause of death in women. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is a marker of stem cells and cancer stem cells, and its activity correlates with the outcome of various tumors, including BC. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between ALDH1 expression and clinicopathological characters in BC and the prognostic significance of ALDH1.We used quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to detect ALDHA1 mRNA levels in 25 fresh frozen BC samples and matched noncancerous samples...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639432/muscle-mass-as-a-target-to-reduce-fatigue-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#5
Elisabeth C W Neefjes, Renske M van den Hurk, Susanne Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Maurice J D L van der Vorst, Annemarie Becker-Commissaris, Marian A E de van der Schueren, Laurien M Buffart, Henk M W Verheul
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) reduces quality of life and the activity level of patients with cancer. Cancer related fatigue can be reduced by exercise interventions that may concurrently increase muscle mass. We hypothesized that low muscle mass is directly related to higher CRF. METHODS: A total of 233 patients with advanced cancer starting palliative chemotherapy for lung, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer were studied. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as the patient's muscle mass on level L3 or T4 of a computed tomography scan, adjusted for height...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638446/overexpression-of-transcobalamin-1-is-an-independent-negative-prognosticator-in-rectal-cancers-receiving-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy
#6
Yi-Ying Lee, Yu-Ching Wei, Yu-Feng Tian, Ding-Ping Sun, Ming-Jen Sheu, Ching-Chieh Yang, Li-Ching Lin, Chen-Yi Lin, Chung-Hsi Hsing, Wan-Shan Li, Chien-Feng Li, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Ching-Yih Lin
Objective: Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is an increasingly common therapeutic strategy for locally advanced rectal cancer, but stratification of risk and final outcomes remain a major challenge. Transcobalamin 1 (TCN1), a vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-binding protein, regulates cobalamin homeostasis. High expression of TCN1 have been reported in neoplasms such as breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, little is known about the relevance of TCN1 to rectal cancer receiving CCRT. This study examined the predictive and prognostic impact of TCN1 expression in patients with rectal cancer following neoadjuvant CCRT...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638122/synergistic-effects-of-various-her-inhibitors-in-combination-with-igf-1r-c-met-and-src-targeting-agents-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#7
Aryan Stanley, G Hossein Ashrafi, Alan M Seddon, Helmout Modjtahedi
Overexpression of HER2 has been reported in around 25% of human breast cancers. Despite recent advances in HER2 targeted therapy, many patients still experience primary and secondary resistance to such treatments, the mechanisms for which are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of a panel of breast cancer cell lines to treatment with various types of HER-family inhibitors alone or in combination with other tyrosine kinase inhibitors or chemotherapeutic agents. We found that treatment with the second-generation irreversible HER-family inhibitors, particularly afatinib and neratinib, were more effective than treatment with the first-generation reversible inhibitors in inhibiting growth, migration and downstream cell signalling in breast cancer cells...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636538/phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-the-c-met-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-sar125844-in-asian-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors-including-patients-with-met-amplified-gastric-cancer
#8
Kohei Shitara, Tae Min Kim, Tomoya Yokota, Masahiro Goto, Taroh Satoh, Jin-Hee Ahn, Hyo Song Kim, Sylvie Assadourian, Corinne Gomez, Marzia Harnois, Satoshi Hamauchi, Toshihiro Kudo, Toshihido Doi, Yung-Jue Bang
SAR125844 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the c-Met kinase receptor. This was an open-label, phase I, multicenter, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion trial of SAR125844 in Asian patients with solid tumors, a subgroup of whom had gastric cancer and MET amplification (NCT01657214). SAR125844 was administered by intravenous infusion (260-570 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each 28-day cycle. Objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate SAR125844 safety and pharmacokinetic profile...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632729/radiation-associated-breast-cancer-and-gonadal-hormone-exposure-a-report-from-the-childhood-cancer-survivor-study
#9
Chaya S Moskowitz, Joanne F Chou, Charles A Sklar, Dana Barnea, Cécile M Ronckers, Danielle Novetsky Friedman, Joseph P Neglia, Lucie Turcotte, Rebecca M Howell, Tara O Henderson, Gregory T Armstrong, Wendy M Leisenring, Leslie L Robison, Flora E van Leeuwen, Malcolm C Pike, Kevin C Oeffinger
BACKGROUND: The relationship between hormone exposure and breast cancer risk in women treated with chest radiotherapy for childhood cancer is uncertain. METHODS: Participants included 1108 females from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were diagnosed with childhood cancer 1970-1986, treated with chest radiotherapy, and survived to ages ⩾20 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from Cox models adjusted for chest radiation field, delivered dose, anthracycline exposure, and age at childhood cancer estimated risk...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631178/recent-insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-fanconi-anemia-genes-modifiers-and-drivers
#10
REVIEW
Ronald S Cheung, Toshiyasu Taniguchi
Fanconi anemia (FA), the most common form of inherited bone marrow failure, predisposes to leukemia and solid tumors. FA is caused by the genetic disruption of a cellular pathway that repairs DNA interstrand crosslinks. The impaired function of this pathway, and the genetic instability that results, is considered the main pathogenic mechanism behind this disease. The identification of breast cancer susceptibility genes (for example, BRCA1/FANCS and BRCA2/FANCD1) as being major players in the FA pathway has led to a surge in molecular studies, resulting in the concept of the FA-BRCA pathway...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630864/intravoxel-incoherent-motion-diffusion-for-identification-of-breast-malignant-and-benign-tumors-using-chemometrics
#11
Fengnong Chen, Pulan Chen, Hamed Hamid Muhammed, Juan Zhang
The aim of the paper is to identify the breast malignant and benign lesions using the features of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), perfusion fraction f, pseudodiffusion coefficient D(⁎), and true diffusion coefficient D from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). There are 69 malignant cases (including 9 early malignant cases) and 35 benign breast cases who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI at 3.0 T with 8 b-values (0~1000 s/mm(2)). ADC and IVIM parameters were determined in lesions. The early malignant cases are used as advanced malignant and benign tumors, respectively, so as to assess the effectiveness on the result...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630419/iscador-qu-inhibits-doxorubicin-induced-senescence-of-mcf7-cells
#12
T Srdic-Rajic, J F Santibañez, K Kanjer, N Tisma-Miletic, M Cavic, D Galun, M Jevric, N Kardum, A Konic-Ristic, T Zoranovic
Chemotherapy in patients with inoperable or advanced breast cancer inevitably results in low-dose exposure of tumor-cell subset and senescence. Metabolically active senescent cells secrete multiple tumor promoting factors making their elimination a therapeutic priority. Viscum album is one of the most widely used alternative anti-cancer medicines facilitating chemotherapy tolerance of breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to model and investigate how Viscum album extracts execute additive anti-tumor activity with low-dose Dox using ER + MCF7 breast cancer cells...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629632/rationale-for-immunological-approaches-to-breast-cancer-therapy
#13
Gwennaëlle C Monnot, Pedro Romero
Despite great advances in early detection, as well as surgical resection of breast tumours, breast cancer remains the deadliest cancer for women worldwide. Moreover, its incidence is without pair, accounting for twice as many new cancer cases as the second most prevalent cancer, colorectal carcinoma. There is therefore a strong need for new therapeutic approaches to breast cancers. Immunotherapies are novel treatment modalities which aim to use immune mediators to attack cancerous cells. Recent clinical results show that these may not only mediate tumour regressions but also cures in some cases...
June 16, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629450/interaction-with-adipocyte-stromal-cells-induces-breast-cancer-malignancy-via-s100a7-upregulation-in-breast-cancer-microenvironment
#14
Minako Sakurai, Yasuhiro Miki, Kiyoshi Takagi, Takashi Suzuki, Takanori Ishida, Noriaki Ohuchi, Hironobu Sasano
BACKGROUND: Breast adipocytes play important roles in both the development and function of mammary epithelial cells. Therefore, carcinoma-adipose stromal cell (ASC) interactions have been considered pivotal in supporting tumor growth in breast cancer. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the biological features of cancer-associated adipocytes differ from those of normal ASCs. Therefore, we investigated an interaction between ASCs and carcinoma cell lines to identify genes associated with ASC invasion of carcinoma cells...
June 19, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628391/interest-and-attitudes-of-patients-with-advanced-cancer-with-regard-to-secondary-germline-findings-from-tumor-genomic-profiling
#15
Jada G Hamilton, Elyse Shuk, Margaux C Genoff, Vivian M Rodríguez, Jennifer L Hay, Kenneth Offit, Mark E Robson
PURPOSE: Tumor genomic profiling (TGP) can reveal secondary findings about inherited disease risks in a patient with cancer. Little is known about how patients with advanced cancer, currently the primary users of TGP, perceive the benefits and harms of secondary germline findings. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with 40 patients with advanced breast, bladder, colorectal, or lung cancer who had TGP. Qualitative interview data were evaluated by using a thematic content analysis approach...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628331/quantum-cascade-laser-spectral-histopathology-breast-cancer-diagnostics-using-high-throughput-chemical-imaging
#16
Michael John Pilling, Alex Henderson, Peter Gardner
Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microscopy, coupled with machine learning approaches, has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique for identifying abnormalities in human tissue. The ability to objectively identify the pre-diseased state, and diagnose cancer with high levels of accuracy, has the potential to revolutionise current histopathological practice. Despite recent technological advances in FT-IR microscopy, sample throughput and speed of acquisition are key barriers to clinical translation. Wide-field quantum cascade laser (QCL) infrared imaging systems with large focal plane array detectors and utilising discrete frequency imaging, have demonstrated that large tissue microarrays (TMA) can be imaged in a matter of minutes...
June 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628113/microrna-20a-mediated-loss-of-autophagy-contributes-to-breast-tumorigenesis-by-promoting-genomic-damage-and-instability
#17
L Liu, J He, X Wei, G Wan, Y Lao, W Xu, Z Li, H Hu, Z Hu, X Luo, J Wu, W Xie, Y Zhang, N Xu
Gene expression analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer data set show that miR-20a is upregulated in human breast cancer, especially in triple-negative subtype. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis suggests that miR-20a expression negatively correlates with the autophagy/lysosome pathway. We report here that miR-20a inhibits the basal and nutrient starvation-induced autophagic flux and lysosomal proteolytic activity, increases intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and DNA damage response by targeting several key regulators of autophagy, including BECN1, ATG16L1 and SQSTM1...
June 19, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627761/biological-effects-of-hydrogen-peroxide-administered-intratumorally-with-or-without-irradiation-in-murine-tumors
#18
Taiki Takaoka, Yuta Shibamoto, Masayuki Matsuo, Chikao Sugie, Taro Murai, Yasutaka Ogawa, Akifumi Miyakawa, Yoshihiko Manabe, Takuhito Kondo, Koichiro Nakajima, Dai Okazaki, Takahiro Tsuchiya
Despite insufficient laboratory data, radiotherapy after intratumoral injection of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is increasingly being used clinically for radioresistant tumors. Especially, this treatment might become an alternative definitive treatment for early and advanced breast cancer in patients who refuse any type of surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological effects and appropriate combination methods of irradiation and H2 O2 in vivo. SCCVII tumor cells transplanted into the legs of C3H/HeN mice were used...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627463/pre-operative-assessment-of-residual-disease-in-locally-advanced-breast-cancer-patients-a-sequential-study-by-quantitative-diffusion-weighted-mri-as-a-function-of-therapy
#19
Khushbu Agarwal, Uma Sharma, Rani G Sah, Sandeep Mathur, Smriti Hari, Vurthaluru Seenu, Rajinder Parshad, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan
PURPOSE: The potential of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing pathologic response and surgical margins in locally advanced breast cancer patients (n=38) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was investigated. METHODS: DWI was performed at pre-therapy (Tp0), after I (Tp1) and III (Tp3) NACT at 1.5T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of whole tumor (ADCWT), solid tumor (ADCST), intra-tumoral necrosis (ADCNec) was determined. Further, ADC of 6 consecutive shells (5mm thickness each) including tumor margin to outside tumor margins (OM1 to OM5) was calculated and the data analyzed to define surgical margins...
June 13, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627385/advances-in-antibody-drug-conjugates-a-new-era-of-targeted-cancer-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Samaresh Sau, Hashem O Alsaab, Sushil Kumar Kashaw, Katyayani Tatiparti, Arun K Iyer
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), a potent class of anticancer therapeutics, comprise a high-affinity antibody (Ab) and cytotoxic payload coupled via a suitable linker for selective tumor cell killing. In the initial phase of their development, two ADCs, Mylotarg(®), and Adcetris(®) were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating hematological cancer, but the real breakthrough came with the discovery of the breast cancer-targeting ADC, Kadcyla(®). With advances in bioengineering, linker chemistry, and potent cytotoxic payload, ADC technology has become a more powerful tool for targeted cancer therapy...
June 13, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
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