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Pediatric cancer survivors

Saro H Armenian, Melissa M Hudson, Ming Hui Chen, Steven D Colan, Lanie Lindenfeld, George Mills, Aida Siyahian, Sarah Gelehrter, Ha Dang, Wendy Hein, Daniel M Green, Leslie L Robison, F Lennie Wong, Pamela S Douglas, Smita Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines are widely used in the treatment of childhood cancer. One of the well-recognized side-effects of anthracycline therapy is dose-dependent cardiomyopathy that may progress to heart failure (HF) years after completion of cancer-directed therapy. This study will evaluate the efficacy of low-dose beta-blocker (carvedilol) for HF risk reduction in childhood cancer survivors at highest risk for HF. The proposed intervention has the potential to significantly reduce chronic cardiac injury via interruption of neurohormonal systems responsible for left ventricular (LV) remodeling, resulting in improved cardiac function and decreased risk of HF...
October 4, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Hee Jung Yoo, Hyery Kim, Hyeon Jin Park, Dong Seok Kim, Young Shin Ra, Hee Young Shin
The neurocognitive function and quality of life of 58 Korean survivors of childhood medulloblastoma were assessed after surgery, cranial radiation and chemotherapy. All patients were evaluated with a battery of neurocognitive function tests and the Pediatric Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain Tumor Survivors, which consists of self-report questionnaires on quality of life. The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), verbal IQ, and performance IQ scores were 90.2, 97.1, and 84.16, respectively...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Amy Sherborne, Vincent Lavergne, Katharine Yu, Leah Lee, Philip Davidson, Tali Mazor, Ivan V Smirnov, Andrew E Horvai, Mignon Loh, Steven G Dubois, Robert Goldsby, Joseph P Neglia, Sue Hammond, Leslie L Robison, Rosanna Wustrack, Joseph F Costello, Alice Nakamura, Kevin M Shannon, Smita Bhatia, Jean L Nakamura
PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) are severe late complications that occur in pediatric cancer survivors exposed to radiotherapy and other genotoxic treatments. To characterize the mutational landscape of treatment-induced sarcomas and to identify candidate SMN-predisposing variants we analyzed germline and SMN tumor samples from pediatric cancer survivors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and RNA sequencing on radiation-induced sarcomas arising from two pediatric cancer survivors...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Puja Sahai, Bidhu Kalyan Mohanti, Atul Sharma, Alok Thakar, Suman Bhasker, Aanchal Kakkar, Mehar Chand Sharma, Ashish Datt Upadhyay
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome and treatment-related morbidity in pediatric patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: We did a retrospective review of 41 pediatric patients diagnosed with NPC between 2000 and 2013. The majority of the patients were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation with the dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Eight patients were treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy, while the remaining with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or two-dimensional simulation technique...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Mary Ann Cantrell, Teresa M Conte, Melissa M Hudson, Kathy Ruble, Kaye Herth, Aziza Shad, Alyssa Canino
Research has shown that self-esteem and hopefulness are positively related among female childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and contribute to their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). HRQOL remains a significant outcome of treatment for CCS. This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, hopefulness, and HRQOL in young adult female CCS to inform the development of evidence-based practice guidelines for pediatric oncology nursing practice. An online survey was conducted with a sample of young adult female CCS from 58 treatment centers across the United States at 4 time points: at baseline and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after initial measurement time...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
Tejaswi Kandula, Susanna B Park, Richard J Cohn, Arun V Krishnan, Michelle A Farrar
BACKGROUND: The dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors over the last 60years has made monitoring and minimising long term side effects of cancer treatment increasingly important. Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has been described with many commonly used chemotherapy agents. This article provides a critical overview of pediatric CIPN, its incidence, clinical manifestations, late effects, and recent advances in understanding of risk factors and pharmacogenomics as well as evaluating current assessment strategies and treatment approaches...
September 10, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Annette Weiss, Grit Sommer, Rahel Kasteler, Katrin Scheinemann, Michael Grotzer, Martin Kompis, Claudia E Kuehni
BACKGROUND: Auditory complications are an adverse event of childhood cancer treatment, especially common in children treated with platinum chemotherapy or cranial radiation. Variation between diagnostic childhood cancer groups has rarely been studied, and we do not know if the burden of auditory complications has changed over the last decades. PROCEDURE: Within the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to all survivors who were diagnosed at age 16 years or less between 1976 and 2005...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Rhea Li, Hayley Donnella, Phillip Knouse, Margaret Raber, Karla Crawford, Maria C Swartz, Jimin Wu, Diane Liu, Joya Chandra
BACKGROUND: Quality of life in survivors of pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) can be compromised by chronic diseases including increased risk of second cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Overweight or obesity further increases these risks. Steroids are a component of chemotherapy for ALL, and weight gain is a common side effect. To impact behaviors associated with weight gain, we conducted a randomized nutrition counseling intervention in ALL patients on treatment...
September 12, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
J Zachary Wilson, Donna Marin, Katherine Maxwell, Joseph Cumming, Ryan Berger, Shermini Saini, William Ferguson, John T Chibnall
Research has indicated that childhood cancer may lead to posttraumatic growth (PTG), given cancer's association with posttraumatic stress. PTG may be associated with family/home and health care dynamics, as well as parental resilience, distress, and coping. This cross-sectional study investigated the associations of psychosocial factors of the patient, family, and health care team with PTG and illness-related burden (IRB) in childhood cancer survivors. The sample comprised 61 children and adolescents (7-18 years of age), their parents, and their nurses...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Kimberly A Miller, Katherine Y Wojcik, Cynthia N Ramirez, Anamara Ritt-Olson, David R Freyer, Ann S Hamilton, Joel E Milam
BACKGROUND: Healthcare self-efficacy (HCSE), the perceived confidence to manage one's health care, has been identified as a critical component in the transition process from pediatric to adult-oriented care for childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). HCSE is amenable to intervention and associated with long-term follow-up care among CCSs. However, factors associated with HCSE have not been fully explored among CCSs. PROCEDURE: We identified correlates of HCSE among a sample of CCSs (n = 193)...
August 27, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Zinat Taiwo, Sabrina Na, Tricia Z King
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has demonstrated the reliability and validity of the Neurological Predictor Scale (NPS) in relation to intelligence and adaptive functioning in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. To extend these findings, this study examined the relationship between the NPS and core neurocognitive skills hypothesized to underlie broad outcome measures of IQ and adaptive functioning. METHOD: Sixty-one adulthood survivors of childhood brain cancers (Mage = 24 years, SD = 6) on average 16 years after diagnosis completed neuropsychological assessments examining attention (Wechsler Memory Scale Digit Span Forward), processing speed (Symbol Digit Modalities Test), and working memory (Auditory Consonant Trigrams)...
August 27, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Poonam Nagpal, Mohamed R Akl, Nehad M Ayoub, Tatsunari Tomiyama, Tasheka Cousins, Betty Tai, Nicole Carroll, Themba Nyrenda, Pritish Bhattacharyya, Michael B Harris, Andre Goy, Andrew Pecora, K Stephen Suh
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoid malignancy that is typically derived from germinal-center B cells. EBV infection, mutations in NF-κB pathway genes, and genetic susceptibility are known risk factors for developing HL. CD30 and NF-κB have been identified as potential biomarkers in pediatric HL patients, and these molecules may represent therapeutic targets. Although current risk adapted and response based treatment approaches yield overall survival rates of >95%, treatment of relapse or refractory patients remains challenging...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Samantha J Anthony, Enid Selkirk, Lillian Sung, Robert J Klaassen, David Dix, Anne F Klassen
PURPOSE: The assessment of quality of life (QOL) is key within pediatric oncology and requires a clearly defined construct of QOL. The purpose of our study was: (1) to conduct a qualitative study to inform the theoretical underpinnings of QOL and (2) to determine the appropriateness of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments to assess and evaluate QOL in pediatric cancer patients and survivors. METHODS: The study used an interpretative description approach. Children diagnosed with childhood cancer, aged 8-18 years, were recruited from four Canadian hospitals...
August 24, 2016: Quality of Life Research
John D Roberson, Omer L Burnett, Nathaniel Robin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article evaluates the field of radiogenomics within recent developments in genomics and radiation biology. RECENT FINDINGS: Many pediatric cancer survivors have undergone treatment with radiation, putting them at risk for long-term side-effects associated with this therapy, especially cardiac disease and secondary malignancies. Advancements in our understanding of radiation biology have led to the understanding that genetics plays a major role in determining a patient's susceptibility to developing long-term side-effects, leading to the field of 'radiogenomics'...
August 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Mitra Varedi, Raymond McKenna, Eric M Lamberg
BACKGROUND: Treatment for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) can impact balance through different mechanisms, including sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy, cognitive impairment, and reduced muscle strength and flexibility. To provide an overview of what is currently known about the effects of cancer treatment on balance in pediatric ALL patients and survivors and predictors of poor balance a review of literature was conducted. METHODS: Five databases were searched for English language original research articles which have measured balance during or after treatment for pediatric ALL...
August 20, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Shu-Mei Chen, Ying-Ying Li, Chiao-Hui Tu, Nicole Salazar, Yuan-Yun Tseng, Shiang-Fu Huang, Ling-Ling Hsieh, Tai-Ngar Lui
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common pediatric primary malignant brain tumor. Approximately one-third of MB patients succumb to treatment failure and some survivors suffer detrimental side effects. Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore new therapeutic regimens to overcome chemotherapeutic agent resistance or reduce chemotherapy-induced toxicity. METHODS: We detected the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in MB and CD133+ MB cell lines and MB tissues using immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining...
2016: PloS One
Victoria W Willard, Heather M Conklin, Lu Huang, Hui Zhang, Lisa S Kahalley
Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for attention problems. The objectives of this study were to assess concordance between parent-, teacher-, and self-report ratings on a measure of attention (Conners Rating Scales, 3rd ed.; Conners, 2008) in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and to examine associations with a performance-based task. The was completed by 80 survivors of pediatric cancer (39 brain tumor, 41 acute lymphoblastic leukemia; ages 12-17; at least 1 year posttreatment; 51.3% male) as well as their parents and 1 teacher...
September 2016: Psychological Assessment
Haya Raz, Nili Tabak, Shulamith Kreitler
PURPOSE: This innovative pilot study was designed to provide research-based evidence on the variables to consider informing a child of his/her cancer diagnosis, so as to minimize the negative psychosocial effects of the cancer experience on survivors. The hypotheses of the study were that "good information" about cancer, will allow the child a better understanding way to cope with treatment and improve sociopsychological outcomes at adulthood. METHODS: Ninety-one adult childhood cancer (CC) survivors got the questionnaires while waiting to their routine checkup at a grate CC medical center in center Israel...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jorrit W van As, Henk van den Berg, Elvira C van Dalen
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. Unfortunately, one of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. There is a wide variation in the reported prevalence of platinum-induced ototoxicity and the associated risk factors. More insight into the prevalence of and risk factors for platinum-induced hearing loss is essential in order to develop less ototoxic treatment protocols for the future treatment of children with cancer and to develop adequate follow-up protocols for childhood cancer survivors treated with platinum-based therapy...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Robert J Brown, Brandon J Jun, Jesse D Cushman, Christine Nguyen, Adam H Beighley, Johnny Blanchard, Kei Iwamoto, Dorthe Schaue, Neil G Harris, James D Jentsch, Stefan Bluml, William H McBride
PURPOSE: In pediatric cancer survivors treated with whole-brain irradiation (WBI), long-term cognitive deficits and morbidity develop that are poorly understood and for which there is no treatment. We describe similar cognitive defects in juvenile WBI rats and correlate them with alterations in diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) during brain development. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Juvenile Fischer rats received clinically relevant fractionated doses of WBI or a high-dose exposure...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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