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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728408/evaluation-of-trace-mineral-source-and-preharvest-deletion-of-trace-minerals-from-finishing-diets-on-tissue-mineral-status-in-pigs
#1
Y L Ma, Merlin D Lindemann, Sharon F Webb, Gregg Rentfrow
Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate dietary supplemental trace mineral source and deletion on mineral content in tissues. Methods: Weanling crossbred pigs [n = 144; 72 barrows and 72 gilts; body weight (BW) = 7.4 ± 1.05 kg] were used. A basal diet was prepared, and trace mineral premix containing either inorganic (ITM) or organic (OTM) trace minerals (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) was added to the basal diet. Pigs were blocked by sex and BW and randomly allotted to 24 pens for a total of 6 pigs per pen, and fed a diet containing either ITM or OTM supplemented at the 1998 NRC requirement estimates for each of 5 BW phases (Phase I to V) from 7 to 120 kg...
July 6, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727476/options-for-addressing-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-in-patients-receiving-enteral-nutrition-supplementation
#2
Steven D Freedman
Patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) have suboptimal secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes and experience a range of clinical symptoms related to the malabsorption of fat. In patients with EPI unable to meet their nutritional requirements, enteral nutrition (EN) support is used to augment nutritional status. In addition to protein and carbohydrate, EN formulas contain fats as a calorie source, as well as vitamins and minerals to help prevent nutritional deficiencies related to malabsorption...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727472/relieving-dry-mouth-varying-levels-of-ph-found-in-bottled-water
#3
Bailey Jean Fisher, Angela Spencer, Van Haywood, Gayathri Konchady
It is estimated that 30% of people older than 60 years suffer from hyposalivation or dry mouth. Drinking water frequently has been recommended as a safe, non-pharmacologic way to combat hyposalivation. The saliva in patients with dry mouth is acidic. Beverages consumed daily may have an erosive potential on teeth. The pH and the mineral content of the beverage determine its erosive potential. An acidic beverage, therefore, may have harmful effects on mineralized tooth structures, causing erosion of enamel, dentin, and cementum...
July 2017: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727410/exosomes-mediate-epithelium-mesenchyme-crosstalk-in-organ-development
#4
Nan Jiang, Lusai Xiang, Ling He, Guodong Yang, Jinxuan Zheng, Chenglin Wang, Yimei Zhang, Sainan Wang, Yue Zhou, Tzong-Jen Sheu, Jiaqian Wu, Kenian Chen, Paulo G Coelho, Nicky M Tovar, Shin Hye Kim, Mo Chen, Yan-Heng Zhou, Jeremy J Mao
Organ development requires complex signaling by cells in different tissues. Epithelium and mesenchyme interactions are crucial for the development of the skin, hair follicles, kidney, lungs, prostate, major glands and the teeth. Despite myriad literature on cell-cell interactions and ligand-receptor binding, the roles extracellular vesicles in epithelium-mesenchyme interactions during organogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we discovered that ~100 nm exosomes were secreted by the epithelium and mesenchyme of a developing tooth organ, and diffused through the basement membrane...
July 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727342/-obesity-fat-and-bones-friends-or-foes
#5
Emmanuel Biver
Low fat mass is associated with an increased risk of fracture because of low bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone micro-architecture. Conversely, overweight and obese patients also have an increased risk of fracture, particularly of the humerus and ankle, despite greater BMD. Visceral abdominal fat, which is the most metabolically active, may be associated with poorer quality of bone tissue properties, as suggested in diabetes. Other factors may contribute to higher fracture risk in overweight patients, notably higher frequency of falls and lower bioavailability of vitamin D stoked in fat...
April 19, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727214/what-plant-functional-traits-can-reduce-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-intensively-managed-grasslands
#6
Diego Abalos, Jan Willem van Groenigen, Gerlinde B De Deyn
Plant species exert a dominant control over the nitrogen (N) cycle of natural and managed grasslands. Although in intensively managed systems that receive large external N inputs the emission of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a crucial component of this cycle, a mechanistic relationship between plant species and N2 O emissions has not yet been established. Here we use a plant functional trait approach to study the relation between plant species strategies and N2 O emissions from soils. Compared to species with conservative strategies, species with acquisitive strategies have higher N uptake when there is ample N in the soil, but also trigger N mineralization when soil N is limiting...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727179/overexpression-of-g%C3%AE-s-in-murine-osteoblasts-in-vivo-leads-to-increased-bone-mass-and-decreased-bone-quality
#7
Lucia Zhang, Kim S Sugamori, Colin Claridge, Ariana Dela Cruz, Marc D Grynpas, Jane Mitchell
GαS is a heterotrimeric G protein that transduces signals from activated G protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface to stimulate adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP signaling. GαS plays a central role in mediating numerous growth and maintenance processes including osteogenesis and bone turnover. Decreased GαS expression or activating mutations in GαS both affect bone suggesting that modulating GαS protein levels may be important for bone health and development. To examine the effects of increased osteoblastic GαS expression on bone development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with GαS over-expression in osteoblasts (HOM-Gs mice) driven by the 3...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727093/effects-of-intravenous-lipopolysaccharide-administration-on-feed-intake-ruminal-forage-degradability-and-liquid-parameters-and-physiological-responses-in-beef-cattle
#8
K D Lippolis, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, R S Marques, D W Bohnert
This experiment compared DMI, ruminal forage degradability, and liquid parameters as well as physiological responses in beef cattle receiving a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge or not. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus × Hereford steers (485 ± 16 kg BW) were housed in individual pens on d -7, ranked by BW, and allocated to 1 of 2 treatments administered on d 0: 1) an intravenous (i.v.) bolus dose (0.5 μg/kg of BW, diluted in 5 mL of 0.9% sterile saline) of bacterial LPS ( 0111:B4) or 2) a 5-mL i.v. injection of 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727077/excess-of-dietary-montmorillonite-impairs-growth-performance-liver-function-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-starter-pigs
#9
H Y Zhao, X B Mao, B Yu, J He, P Zheng, J Yu, J Q Luo, Q Y Wang, D W Chen
Montmorillonite (MMT) is widely used as a mycotoxin adsorbent in animal feeds, but its safety remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the safety of MMT supplementation in diets fed to starter pigs. A total of 120 32-d-old piglets (initial weight, 8.0 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted into dietary treatments with graded MMT levels (0 [FS 0], 0.5% [FS 0.5], 1.0% [FS 1.0], 2.5% [FS 2.5], and 5.0% [FS 5.0]) with 6 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. All diets were fed for 28 d. As the MMT level increased, ADG and G:F changed in a linear and quadratic manner, while ADFI was linearly decreased ( > 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727068/the-effects-of-molybdenum-water-concentration-on-feedlot-performance-tissue-mineral-concentrations-and-carcass-quality-of-feedlot-steers
#10
M J Kistner, J J Wagner, J Evans, S Chalberg, S Jalali, K Sellins, M L Kesel, T Holt, T E Engle
Thirty cross-bred steers (initial BW 452.0 ± 12.1 kg) were used to investigate the effects of Mo water concentration on performance, carcass characteristics, and mineral status of feedlot steers. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. Steers were blocked by weight and then divided into 2 weight blocks each consisting of 15 steers. Steers were randomly assigned within block to one of 5 treatments (3 steers/treatment per block). Water treatments consisted of: 1) 0.0 µg/L, 2) 160 µg/L, 3) 320 µg/L, 4) 480 µg/L, and 5) 960 µg/L of supplemental Mo added as Na2MoO4 to the drinking water...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727064/ileal-starch-digestibility-of-different-cereal-grains-fed-to-growing-pigs
#11
P Rosenfelder-Kuon, E J P Strang, H K Spindler, M Eklund, R Mosenthin
The objective of the present study was to determine, in growing pigs, the ileal starch digestibility and ileal digestible starch content of 8 different genotypes of barley, rye, triticale, and wheat each. Therefore, 4 experiments were conducted with 34 ileally cannulated growing pigs (initial BW of 24 to 32 kg) in total. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 1 of the 8 genotypes of each cereal grain at an inclusion level of 95%. Cereal grains were ground through a 2-mm sieve and were the sole dietary source of starch...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727063/effect-of-dietary-fiber-and-diet-particle-size-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-gastrointestinal-secretory-function-in-growing-pigs
#12
M Saqui-Salces, Z Luo, P E Urriola, B J Kerr, G C Shurson
Reduction of diet particle size (PS) increases feed efficiency due to an increase in the apparent total tract (ATTD) of GE. However, other effects of PS on the gut secretory function are not known. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of diet composition (DC) and PS on nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal hormones, total bile acids (TBA), total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in plasma of finishing pigs ( = 8/diet). Pigs were fed finely (374 ± 29 µm) or coarsely (631 ± 35 µm) ground corn-soybean meal (CSB), CSB + 35% corn dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS), and CSB with 21% soybean hulls (SBH) diets for 49 d...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727057/effects-of-feeding-pregnant-beef-cows-selenium-enriched-alfalfa-hay-on-selenium-status-and-antibody-titers-in-their-newborn-calves
#13
L G Wallace, G Bobe, W R Vorachek, B P Dolan, C T Estill, G J Pirelli, J A Hall
In newborn dairy calves, it has been demonstrated that supranutritional maternal and colostral Se supplementation using Se yeast or sodium selenite, respectively, improves passive transfer of IgG. In beef cattle, agronomic biofortification with Se is a more practical alternative for Se supplementation, whereby the Se concentration of hay is increased through the use of Se-containing fertilizer amendments. It has been previously demonstrated that agronomic Se biofortification is an effective strategy to improve immunity and performance in Se-replete weaned beef calves...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726905/the-exemplary-role-of-nanoconfinement-in-the-proton-transfer-from-acids-to-ammonia
#14
Manoj K Tripathy, K R S Chandrakumar
Proton transfer processes from mineral acids to bases (HX, where X = F, Cl, Br and I to ammonia) are normally feasible in solution and they cannot spontaneously occur in the gas phase. We demonstrate that this process can be feasible under nanoconfinement without using any solvent molecules. More interestingly, in contrast to the general observation, halide ions except fluoride behave like protons under high confinement, leading to the formation of NH3X instead of NH4 ions. The triggering transformation of hydrogen bonded to the proton transferred complex under nanoconfinement is explained based on the thermodynamic quantity, static pressure...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726711/the-use-of-constructed-wetlands-for-the-treatment-and-reuse-of-urban-wastewater-for-the-irrigation-of-two-warm-season-turfgrass-species-under-mediterranean-climatic-conditions
#15
Mario Licata, Teresa Tuttolomondo, Claudio Leto, Salvatore La Bella, Giuseppe Virga
Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent low-cost technology for the treatment and reuse of wastewater in urban areas. This study aimed to evaluate the pollutant removal efficiency of a CW system and to assess the effects of irrigation using treated urban wastewater on soil and on two warm-season turf species. The research was carried out in Sicily (Italy) on a pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow system which was fed with treated urban wastewater following secondary treatment from an activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726701/sewage-sludge-and-waterworks-sludge-stabilization-in-sludge-treatment-reed-bed-systems
#16
Grazia Masciandaro, Eleonora Peruzzi, Steen Nielsen
In this study, results about sludge stabilization in sludge treatment reed bed (STRB) systems in two different systems, Hanningfield STRB 1 (England), treating waterworks sludge, and Stenlille STRB 2 (Denmark), treating surplus activated sludge, are presented. The study mainly focused on the effectiveness of the STRBs systems in stabilizing sludge organic matter; in fact, parameters correlated to biochemical and chemico-structural properties of organic sludge matter were determined. Dewatering and sludge stabilization were effective in both STRBs, as highlighted by total and volatile dry solids trend...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726698/experimental-study-and-artificial-neural-network-modeling-of-tartrazine-removal-by-photocatalytic-process-under-solar-light
#17
Aicha Sebti, Fatiha Souahi, Faroudja Mohellebi, Sadek Igoud
This research focuses on the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the removal efficiency of tartrazine from simulated wastewater using a photocatalytic process under solar illumination. A program is developed in Matlab software to optimize the neural network architecture and select the suitable combination of training algorithm, activation function and hidden neurons number. The experimental results of a batch reactor operated under different conditions of pH, TiO2 concentration, initial organic pollutant concentration and solar radiation intensity are used to train, validate and test the networks...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726652/investigation-of-bone-mineralization-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-complicated-by-chronic-heart-failure-stage-ii-a
#18
I Krynytska, M Marushchak, T Zaets, I Savchenko, H Habor
The majority of the studies have shown that individuals with cardiovascular diseases have a higher risk of experiencing bone loss and thus greater predisposition to risk of fracture. On the other hand there is growing evidence that individuals with low bone mass have higher mortality for cardiovascular events compared to patients with cardiovascular disease with normal bone mass. This research aims to investigate bone mineralization in patients with coronary heart disease complicated by stage II-A chronic heart failure...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726381/impact-of-the-metallic-crystalline-structure-on-the-properties-of-nanocrystals-and-their-mesoscopic-assemblies
#19
Marie-Paule Pileni
The spontaneous assembly of uniform-sized globular entities into ordered arrays is a universal phenomenon observed for objects with diameters spanning a broad range of length scales. These extend from the atomic scale (10(-8) cm), through molecular and macromolecular scales with proteins, synthetic low polymers, and colloidal crystals (∼10(-6) cm), to the wavelength of visible light (∼10(-5) cm). The associated concepts of sphere packing have had an influence in diverse fields ranging from pure geometrical analysis to architectural models or ideals...
July 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726185/raising-awareness-on-the-therapeutic-role-of-cholecalciferol-in-ckd-a-multidisciplinary-based-opinion
#20
REVIEW
Sandro Giannini, Sandro Mazzaferro, Salvatore Minisola, Luca De Nicola, Maurizio Rossini, Mario Cozzolino
Vitamin D is recognized to play an essential role in health and disease. In kidney disease, vitamin D analogs have gained recognition for their involvement and potential therapeutic importance. Nephrologists are aware of the use of oral native vitamin D supplementation, however, uncertainty still exists with regard to the use of this treatment option in chronic kidney disease as well as clinical settings related to chronic kidney disease, where vitamin D supplementation may be an appropriate therapeutic choice...
July 19, 2017: Endocrine
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