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Lizhi Wang, Jing Xue, Xiaochen Li
The new species from the Liupan Mountains in China, Pseudechiniscus xiai sp. nov., differs from other Pseudechiniscus species by the following characters: absence of striae between dots which institute cuticular sculpture, projections absent on caudal margin of pseudosegmental plate, notches absent on caudal margin of terminal plate, dots on ventral side of body forms a reticular patched design. A diagnostic key to the Chinese Pseudechiniscus species is provided.
March 1, 2018: Zootaxa
Kerrie A Davies, Weimin Ye, Gary S Taylor, Sonja Scheffer, F Bartholomaeus, Robin M Giblin-Davis
Five new species of Fergusobia are described. Fergusobia janetae Davies n. sp. is characterized by the combination of an arcuate to straight, spindle-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively small oesophageal gland, an extensile uterus and a conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a bluntly rounded tail tip, and a C-shaped male with an arcuate to angular spicule and bursa arising at more than 90% of body length. Fergusobia robustae Davies n. sp. is characterized by the combination of a small, C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short cylindroid tail with a broadly rounded tip; an arcuate to C-shaped, relatively broad, infective female with a tail tip that is almost hemispherical; and an arcuate male with a strong angular spicule and a bursa arising at 30-40% of body length...
March 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Jian-Huan Yang, Jian Wang, Ying-Yong Wang
We describe a new horned toad species of the genus Megophrys from Yingjiang County of Yunnan Province, China. The new species, Megophrys feii sp. nov., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: (1) body slender and small (SVL 24.3-25.1 mm in four males, 28.2-28.9 mm in two females); (2) head length about equal to head width (HDL/HDW 0.97-0.99); (3) tympanum circular and distinct; (4) maxillary teeth present; (5) vomerine ridges and vomerine teeth absent; (6) tongue round, slightly notched posteriorly; (7) tibia long (TIB/SVL 0...
April 23, 2018: Zootaxa
Marco Endruweit, Rui Min, Junxing Yang
Homatula coccinocola, new species, is described from a Red River affluent in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan, China. The combination of a fully scaled body, a notched lower jaw, 4+42-44 vertebrae, 11 pectoral-fin and 8 pelvic-fin rays, and a color pattern of 16-19 brown, somewhat straight and vertically solid bars on a beige background distinguishes the new species from its congeners. The generic diagnosis of Homatula is revised.
January 25, 2018: Zootaxa
Rich Mooi, Sergio A MartÍnez, Claudia J Del RÍo, Maria inÊs feijÓ Ramos
Material for all seven South American species of late Oligocene and Miocene scutelliform, non-lunulate sand dollars (Echinoidea: Clypeasteroida) was examined, resulting in revision of several taxa, and description of a new family, Placatenellidae n. fam., to house Placatenella n. gen. and Camachoaster n. gen. Known only from the state of Pará, Brazil, and previously described as a member of Abertella Durham, 1953, A. complanata Brito, 1981 is redescribed on the basis of analysis of the holotype and subsequently described material from the same region...
January 5, 2018: Zootaxa
Caroline Eykens, Annelies Nonneman, Cathy Jensen, Antonio Iavarone, Philip Van Damme, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Wim Robberecht
Oligodendrocytes are essential for structural and trophic support of motor axons. Their impairment has been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells fail to differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes and thereby jeopardize the health of motor neurons. Here, we report that oligodendrocytic ablation of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) or Notch receptor 1 (Notch1), 2 negative master modulators of oligodendrocyte differentiation, fails to alleviate oligodendrocyte dysfunction or alter disease outcome in a murine model of ALS...
April 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
E Calciolari, S Hamlet, S Ivanovski, N Donos
BACKGROUND: It is now generally accepted that the response to a particular signal, such as the surgical trauma following implant placement, is not the result of a single linear signalling pathway, but rather reflects pathway integration, which can occur at multiple levels. Although it is well documented that both SLA and SLActive surfaces are able to promote bone formation and osseointegration, it is still unclear which are the key signalling pathways involved and how surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity might affect pathway integration...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Tanapat Palaga, Wipawee Wongchana, Patipark Kueanjinda
Macrophages play both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting roles depending on the microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are often associated with poor prognosis in most, but not all cancer. Understanding how macrophages become TAMs and how TAMs interact with tumor cells and shape the outcome of cancer is one of the key areas of interest in cancer therapy research. Notch signaling is involved in macrophage activation and its effector functions. Notch signaling has been indicated to play roles in the regulation of macrophage activation in pro-inflammatory and wound-healing processes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Gary Kearns, Kerry K Gilbert, Brad Allen, Phillip S Sizer, Jean-Michel Brismée, Timothy Pendergrass, Micah Lierly, Deborah York
Objectives: The purpose of this anatomic investigation is to (1) establish accuracy of dry needle placement into the medial third of the piriformis muscle as it exits the pelvis from the greater sciatic notch in unembalmed cadaveric specimens, while avoiding puncture of the sciatic nerve, and (2) establish guidelines for dry needle length selection. Methods: Dry needles were placed in nineteen unembalmed cadaveric posterior hips. Dissection of the posterior hip musculature was performed to confirm location of the needle...
May 2018: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
L A Tiemeijer, J-P Frimat, O M J A Stassen, C V C Bouten, C M Sahlgren
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a vital process for tissue growth and development. The Notch cell-cell signalling pathway plays an important role in endothelial cell specification during angiogenesis. Dll4 - Notch1 signalling directs endothelial cells into migrating tip or proliferating stalk cells. We used the directing properties of Dll4 to spatially control endothelial cell fate and the direction of endothelial sprouts. We created linear arrays of immobilized Dll4 using micro contact printing...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laurent B Willemot, Bassem T Elhassan, John W Sperling, Robert H Cofield, Joaquin Sánchez-Sotelo
BACKGROUND: Coracoid transfer has become increasingly popular for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Despite the success, glenohumeral arthropathy develops in some patients. Arthroplasty in this population is complicated by altered anatomy, scarring, and retained hardware. This study evaluated shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a previous Latarjet or Bristow procedure. METHODS: Between 1980 and 2014, 33 patients underwent shoulder arthroplasty after coracoid transfer...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
D Prabavathy, Y Swarnalatha, Niveditha Ramadoss
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have gained an increasing attention recently in cancer research. CSCs have ability to generate new tumor through their stem cell properties, essentially self-renewal potential and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Extensive evidences report that CSCs are resistant to many conventional therapies and mediate tumor recurrence. CSCs of lung cancer are well recognized by their specific markers such as CD133, CD44, ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 together with the CSC characteristics including spheroid and colony formation...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
Vandana Venkatesh, Raghu Nataraj, Gopenath S Thangaraj, Murugesan Karthikeyan, Ashok Gnanasekaran, Shanmukhappa B Kaginelli, Gobianand Kuppanna, Chandrashekrappa Gowdru Kallappa, Kanthesh M Basalingappa
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been defined as cells within tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. CSCs have been increasingly identified in blood cancer, prostate, ovarian, lung, melanoma, pancreatic, colon, brain and many more malignancies. CSCs have slow growth rate and are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy that lead to the failure of traditional current therapy. Eradicating the CSCs and recurrence, is promising aspect for the cure of cancer...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
Shouwen Zhang, Rongjun Zhang, Fangfang Wu, Xinhua Li
Ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious problem in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. MicroRNA-208a (miR-208a) is a cardiac-specific or cardiac-enriched miRNA. This study was aimed to assess the role of miR-208a in I/R injury. H9c2 cells were used to simulate I/R injury in vitro. miR-208a expression level was measured by qPCR. H9c2 cells after simulated I/R injury were transfected with miR-208a mimic, AOS-miR-208a or negative controls. LDH release, MDA and SOD contents were measured by corresponding purchased detection kits, respectively...
April 20, 2018: International Heart Journal
Xiongzhuo Tang, Yunpo Zhao, Nicolas Buchon, Ylva Engström
Drosophila POU/Oct transcription factors are required for many developmental processes, but their putative regulation of adult stem cell activity has not been investigated. Here, we show that Nubbin (Nub)/Pdm1, homologous to mammalian OCT1/POU2F1 and related to OCT4/POU5F1, is expressed in gut epithelium progenitor cells. We demonstrate that the nub-encoded protein isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD, play opposite roles in the regulation of intestinal stem cell (ISC) maintenance and differentiation. Depletion of Nub-PB in progenitor cells increased ISC proliferation by derepression of escargot expression...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Xiaoping Du, Qunfeng Cai, Matthew B West, Ibrahima Youm, Xiangping Huang, Wei Li, Weihua Cheng, Don Nakmali, Donald L Ewert, Richard D Kopke
Deafness is commonly caused by the irreversible loss of mammalian cochlear hair cells (HCs) due to noise trauma, toxins, or infections. We previously demonstrated that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against the Notch pathway gene, hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1), encapsulated within biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) could regenerate HCs within ototoxin-ablated murine organotypic cultures. In the present study, we delivered this sustained-release formulation of Hes1 siRNA (siHes1) into the cochleae of noise-injured adult guinea pigs...
March 10, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Robin N Kamal, Fraser Leversedge, David S Ruch, Suhail K Mithani, Ilvy H F Cotterell, Marc J Richard
PURPOSE: This study defines the sigmoid notch view of the distal radius. Specifically, we tested the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between the subchondral stripe of bone seen on a sigmoid notch view of the distal radius and the articular surface of the sigmoid notch. METHODS: We used 44 wrist specimens for anatomic and fluoroscopic analysis. We measured the articular depth of the sigmoid notch from its deepest point and classified the shape of the sigmoid notch...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Aliye Aras, Sumbul Khalid, Saima Jabeen, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Baojun Xu
Mushrooms represent a tremendous source of biologically useful and pharmacologically active molecules. Recent breakthroughs in cancer genetics, genomics, proteomics and translational research have helped us to develop a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms which are contributory in cancer development and progression. Different signaling pathways particularly, Wnt, SHH, TGF/SMAD and JAK/STAT have been shown to modulate cancer progression and development. Increasingly it is being realized that genetic/epigenetic mutations and loss of apoptosis also mandate a 'multi-molecular' perspective for the development of therapies to treat cancer...
April 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Carlos Mesak, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Raíssa de Oliveira Ferreira, Guilherme Malafaia
The aim of the current study is to assess possible erythrocyte mutagenic effects on Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles exposed to water contaminated with 2,4-D. In order to do so, tadpoles were exposed to a predictive and environmentally relevant herbicide concentration (1.97 mg/L), which is likely to be found in lentic environments formed by superficial water runoffs in pasture areas where the herbicide was applied. The micronucleus test, as well as tests for other nuclear abnormalities, was conducted after 3, 5, and 9 days of exposure (d...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guang Zhao, Haifei Zhang
PURPOSE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease and Notch pathway plays a pivotal role in synoviocytes involved in progression of RA. METHODS: Herein, we have designed a self-assembled polymeric micelles based on polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG) and polyethylenimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG) was prepared and loaded with methotrexate and Notch-1 siRNA for the effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS: The MTX/siRNA-loaded polymeric micelles (siM-PM) showed appreciable cellular uptake in Raw264...
April 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
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