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Luca Antonio Dimuccio, Nelson Rodrigues, Felice Larocca, João Pratas, Ana Margarida Amado, Luís A E Batista de Carvalho
This study examines the geochemical and mineralogical variations in the ferruginous mineralisations that crop out within Grotta della Monaca, which is considered to be the most striking and best known example of a prehistoric iron mine-cave from the southern Apennines (Calabria, Italy). Previous archaeological research identified three local and distinct ancient exploitation phases of these ferruginous mineralisations: (1) an Upper Palaeolithic phase; (2) a Late Neolithic phase; and (3) a post-Medieval phase...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Shauna Katz, Delphine Cussigh, Noelia Urbán, Isabelle Blomfield, François Guillemot, Laure Bally-Cuif, Marion Coolen
Throughout life, adult neural stem cells (NSCs) produce new neurons and glia that contribute to crucial brain functions. Quiescence is an essential protective feature of adult NSCs; however, the establishment and maintenance of this state remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that in the adult zebrafish pallium, the brain-enriched miR-9 is expressed exclusively in a subset of quiescent NSCs, highlighting a heterogeneity within these cells, and is necessary to maintain NSC quiescence. Strikingly, miR-9, along with Argonaute proteins (Agos), is localized to the nucleus of quiescent NSCs, and manipulating their nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio impacts quiescence...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
F G A Silva, M F S F de Moura, N Dourado, J Xavier, F A M Pereira, J J L Morais, M I R Dias, P J Lourenço, F M Judas
Fracture characterization of human cortical bone under mode II loading was analyzed using a miniaturized version of the end-notched flexure test. A data reduction scheme based on crack equivalent concept was employed to overcome uncertainties on crack length monitoring during the test. The crack tip shear displacement was experimentally measured using digital image correlation technique to determine the cohesive law that mimics bone fracture behavior under mode II loading. The developed procedure was validated by finite element analysis using cohesive zone modeling considering a trapezoidal with bilinear softening relationship...
October 25, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Nidhi Sharma Dey, Parvathy Ramesh, Mayank Chugh, Sudip Mandal, Lolitika Mandal
Drosophila hematopoiesis bears striking resemblance with that of vertebrates, both in the context of distinct phases and the signaling molecules. Even though, there has been no evidence of Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in Drosophila, the larval lymph gland with its Hedgehog dependent progenitors served as an invertebrate model of progenitor biology. Employing lineage-tracing analyses, we have now identified Notch expressing HSCs in the first instar larval lymph gland. Our studies clearly establish the hierarchical relationship between Notch expressing HSCs and the previously described Domeless expressing progenitors...
October 26, 2016: ELife
Christine Jungk, Andreas Mock, Janina Exner, Christoph Geisenberger, Rolf Warta, David Capper, Amir Abdollahi, Sara Friauf, Bernd Lahrmann, Niels Grabe, Philipp Beckhove, Andreas von Deimling, Andreas Unterberg, Christel Herold-Mende
BACKGROUND: The spatial relationship of glioblastoma (GBM) to the subventricular zone (SVZ) is associated with inferior patient survival. However, the underlying molecular phenotype is largely unknown. We interrogated an SVZ-dependent transcriptome and potential location-specific prognostic markers. METHODS: mRNA microarray data of a discovery set (n = 36 GBMs) were analyzed for SVZ-dependent gene expression and process networks using the MetaCore™ workflow...
October 26, 2016: BMC Medicine
Dansheng Wang, Qinghua Wang, Hao Wang, Hongping Zhu
In the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, the PZT patch performs the functions of both sensor and exciter. Due to the high frequency actuation and non-model based characteristics, the EMI method can be utilized to detect incipient structural damage. In recent years EMI techniques have been widely applied to monitor the health status of concrete and steel materials, however, studies on application to timber are limited. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the EMI technique for damage detection in timber specimens...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
C H Zhang, R M DeSouza, J S B Kho, S Vundavalli, G Critchley
Kernohan-Woltman notch phenomenon (KWNP) is a false localising sign which may still cause diagnostic confusion. It was first described by Kernohan and Woltman in 1929, through post-mortem studies on 297 patients following cases of false localisation. They proposed that raised intracranial pressure causes uncal herniation, which can compress the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tough tentorium, manifesting as hemiparesis ipsilateral to the primary brain lesion. A number of case reports have been written since the original description of this phenomenon, primarily secondary to intracranial bleeds, and little has been written about long-term outcome of patients who develop KNWP...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Manasi Talwadekar, Sophia Fernandes, Vaijayanti Kale, Lalita Limaye
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to express a wide range of markers belonging to all the three lineages: mesodermal, ectodermal and endodermal. Therefore, the possibility of their transdifferentiation towards a neural lineage has been an aspect of active research. In the present study, MSCs were isolated from human placental tissue (P-MSC) and subjected them to neural differentiation. It was found that the P-MSCs differentiated towards neural lineage in appropriate differentiation conditions. However, when a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor - valproic acid (VPA) - was incorporated in the medium, there was a further increase in their neural differentiation potential...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Xin Wang, Wei Yuan, Xueqian Wang, Jialing Qi, Yinyin Qin, Yunwei Shi, Jie Zhang, Jie Gong, Zhangji Dong, Xiaoyu Liu, Chen Sun, Renjie Chai, Ferdinand Le Noble, Dong Liu
MAM and EGF containing gene (MAEG), also called Epidermal Growth Factor-like domain multiple 6 (EGFL6), belongs to the epidermal growth factor repeat superfamily. The role of Maeg in zebrafish angiogenesis remains unclear. It was demonstrated that maeg was dynamically expressed in zebrafish developing somite during a time window encompassing many key steps in embryonic angiogenesis. Maeg loss-of-function embryos showed reduced endothelial cell number and filopodia extensions of intersegmental vessels (ISVs)...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Madis Jaagura, Kati Taal, Indrek Koppel, Jürgen Tuvikene, Tõnis Timmusk, Richard Tamme
Neuralized, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with and positively modulates the Notch pathway by promoting ubiquitination and subsequent endocytosis of its ligands. NEURL1 mRNA is dendritically localised in the dentate gyrus of adult rat brain, implying that it may be locally translated, but its transport mechanisms remain unstudied. Here, we report the presence of a previously unknown, shorter splice-variant of rat NEURL1 3'UTR (1477bp in length), and identify it as a potential target of nonsense-mediated decay...
October 22, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Changhong Ren, Sijie Li, Brian Wang, Rongrong Han, Ning Li, Jinhuan Gao, Xiaohua Li, Kunlin Jin, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that limb remote ischemic conditioning (LRIC) treatment promotes arteriogenesis and increases Notch signaling activity during stroke recovery. METHODS: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). LRIC was applied after the onset of focal ischemia (per-conditioning), followed by repeated short episodes of remote ischemia 24h after reperfusion (post-conditioning). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by Laser Doppler Flowmetry...
October 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Seyed S Pairawan, Derek Cody, Hahns Kim, M Katherine Hughes, Naveenraj Solomon, Maheswari Senthil, Carlos Garberoglio, Sharon Lum
Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) offers improved cosmesis for women undergoing mastectomy; however, there is increased risk for complications with this technique. We sought to determine if standard anatomic measurements could be used to predict complications of NSM. We performed a retrospective review of NSM for which anthropometric measurements of sternal notch to nipple distance, base width, and inframammary fold to nipple distance were available, and compared outcomes by anatomic measurements. We identified 102 cases of NSM with measurements available for study performed in 55 patients...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Zipu Yu, Yu Zou, Jingya Fan, Chengchen Li, Liang Ma
Notch signaling is involved in the early process of differentiation to determine the fate of stem cells. However, the precise role of Notch in human bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of Notch signalling during the course of hBMSC differentiation into cardiomyocytes using hBMSCs, with multilineage differentiation ability, isolated and purified from human bone marrow. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that CD29, CD44 and CD90 were highly expressed on the surface of cells in their fifth passage, whereas detection of CD34, CD45, CD54 and HLA‑DR was negative...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
S H Chen, T M Yue, C P Tsui, K C Chan
Inheriting amorphous atomic structures without crystalline lattices, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are known to have superior mechanical properties, such as high strength approaching the ideal value, but are susceptible to catastrophic failures. Understanding the plastic-flow dynamics of BMGs is important for achieving stable plastic flow in order to avoid catastrophic failures, especially under tension, where almost all BMGs demonstrate limited plastic flow with catastrophic failure. Previous findings have shown that the plastic flow of BMGs displays critical dynamics under compression tests, however, the plastic-flow dynamics under tension are still unknown...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bin Geng, Jing Wang, Jing-Lin Ma, Bo Zhang, Jin Jiang, Xiao-Yi Tan, Ya-Yi Xia
BACKGROUND: Few data are available concerning intercondylar notch dimensions in female nonathletes with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in plateau region. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of intercondylar notch morphology to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female nonathletes with knee OA aged 41-65 years from the Chinese Loess Plateau. METHODS: The study was conducted on 330 patients with ACL injury (aged 31-65 years; 159 males, 171 females), 141 patients with OA (aged 31-65 years; 59 males, 82 females), and 89 female healthy controls (aged 41-65 years), and this evaluation included identifying the distribution of patients with OA or ACL injury and measuring the intercondylar notch width indexes (NWIs)...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Tomoya Matsunobu, Katsumi Harimaya, Kenichi Kawaguchi, Mitsumasa Hayashida, Seiji Okada, Toshio Doi, Yukihide Iwamoto
AIM: To study the clinical findings and characteristic features in sciatic notch dumbbell tumors (SNDTs). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes and characteristic features of consecutive cases of SNDTs (n = 8). RESULTS: Buttock masses occurred in three patients with SNDT (37.5%). Severe buttock tenderness and pain at rest were observed in seven patients with SNDTs (87.5%). Remarkably, none of the patients with SNDTs experienced back pain...
October 10, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
Ewa Kosior-Jarecka, Dominika Wróbel-Dudzińska, Urszula Łukasik, Tin Aung, Chiea Chuen Khor, Janusz Kocki, Tomasz Żarnowski
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of endothelin and endothelin receptor type A genes can constitute a risk factor for normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and high tension glaucoma (HTG). METHODS: The study included 160 patients with NTG, 124 patients with HTG, and 165 healthy controls. To analyze the frequency of polymorphic variants of the endothelin EDN gene (K198N) and the endothelin receptor type A gene EDN RA (C1222T, C70G, G231A), DNA was isolated from peripheral blood, and SNP genotyping was performed using the real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method...
2016: Molecular Vision
Pleun Hombrink, Christina Helbig, Ronald A Backer, Berber Piet, Anna E Oja, Regina Stark, Giso Brasser, Aldo Jongejan, René E Jonkers, Benjamin Nota, Onur Basak, Hans C Clevers, Perry D Moerland, Derk Amsen, René A W van Lier
Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) in the airways mediate protection against respiratory infection. We characterized TRM cells expressing integrin αE (CD103) that reside within the epithelial barrier of human lungs. These cells had specialized profiles of chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules, consistent with their unique localization. Lung TRM cells were poised for rapid responsiveness by constitutive expression of deployment-ready mRNA encoding effector molecules, but they also expressed many inhibitory regulators, suggestive of programmed restraint...
October 24, 2016: Nature Immunology
Lütfü Bekar, Muzaffer Katar, Mücahit Yetim, Oğuzhan Çelik, Hakan Kilci, Orhan Önalan
OBJECTIVE: Carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (PICP) is a marker of extracellular collagen synthesis. Fragmented QRS (fQRS) on a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has been demonstrated as a marker of myocardial fibrosis. The present objective was to investigate the association between serum PICP concentration and presence of fQRS on ECG in hypertensive patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients with previously or newly diagnosed hypertension were included...
October 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Stuti Joshi, Wayne Yau, Allan Kermode
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited small vessel disease, manifesting as recurrent ischaemic events, migraine with aura, behavioural disturbance and cognitive decline. We report two patients with CADASIL masquerading as multiple sclerosis (MS). A 23year old female presented with a visual scotoma and was discovered to have a corresponding retinal cotton wool spot. MRI brain revealed diffuse T2 hyperintensities suggestive of demyelination...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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