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Jason E Goldstick, Justin E Heinze, Sarah A Stoddard, Rebecca M Cunningham, Marc A Zimmerman
Using data from a cohort study of students at risk for high school dropout, we examined associations between violence exposure and past 30-day alcohol and marijuana use. We used varying-coefficient regression with person-level fixed effects to estimate how those associations changed within-person across ages approximately 14-23. Generally, violence perpetration was most strongly associated with substance use, within-person. Substance use became increasingly associated with both observed violence and violence perpetration during early/middle adolescence; this increase continued longer into development (age 18+) for alcohol use...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Andrew R Craig, Paul J Cunningham, Mary M Sweeney, Timothy A Shahan, John A Nevin
Delivery of alternative reinforcers in the presence of stimuli previously associated with reinforcement for target behavior increases the susceptibility of target behavior to relapse. To explore contingencies that might mitigate this counter-therapeutic effect, we trained pigeons on a procedure that entailed extinction of previously reinforced target-key pecking, access to a distinct stimulus context contingently on refraining from target behavior (differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior; DRO), and reinforcement of alternative-key pecks (differential-reinforcement of alternative behavior; DRA) in that context...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Julia Park, David E Cunningham
Introduction Practice-Based Small Group Learning (PBSGL) is a learning programme widely adopted by primary healthcare professions (general practitioners, general practice nurses and pharmacists) in Scotland and other countries in the UK. PBSGL groups recruit members and decide on meeting dates and venues. Study aims To determine how groups recruit new members and discern what are the important attributes of the new members. Method A grounded theory approach was used with purposive sampling to recruit PBSGL groups to the study...
April 23, 2018: Education for Primary Care
Marcus A Bachhuber, Denis Nash, William N Southern, Moonseong Heo, Matthew Berger, Mark Schepis, Chinazo O Cunningham
INTRODUCTION: As opioid analgesic consumption has grown, so have opioid use disorder and opioid-related overdoses. Reducing the quantity of opioid analgesics prescribed for acute non-cancer pain can potentially reduce risks to the individual receiving the prescription and to others who might unintentionally or intentionally consume any leftover tablets. Reducing the default dispense quantity for new opioid analgesic prescriptions in the electronic health record (EHR) is a promising intervention to reduce prescribing...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Kirsten H Dillon, Katherine C Cunningham, Julia M Neal, Sarah M Wilson, Eric A Dedert, Eric B Elbogen, Patrick S Calhoun, Jean C Beckham, Nathan A Kimbrel
BACKGROUND: Researchers have theorized that increased rates of suicide in the military are associated with combat exposure; however, this hypothesis has received inconsistent support in the literature, potentially because combat exposure may be indirectly related to suicide risk through its influence on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. The current study tested the hypothesis that combat exposure has a significant indirect effect on suicidal behavior among Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans through its effects on PTSD-depressive symptomatology...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jennifer Lodi-Smith, Jonathan D Rodgers, Sara A Cunningham, Christopher Lopata, Marcus L Thomeer
The present meta-analysis synthesizes the emerging literature on the relationship of Big Five personality traits to autism spectrum disorder. Studies were included if they (1) either (a) measured autism spectrum disorder characteristics using a metric that yielded a single score quantification of the magnitude of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and/or (b) studied individuals with an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis compared to individuals without an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and (2) measured Big Five traits in the same sample or samples...
April 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Martyn Pickersgill, Sarah Chan, Gill Haddow, Graeme Laurie, Devi Sridhar, Steve Sturdy, Sarah Cunningham-Burley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2018: Lancet
Bence Kozma, Kindra Larson, Lauren Scott, Tina D Cunningham, Alfred Abuhamad, Robert Poka, Peter Takacs
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between pelvic organ prolapse (POP) types and levator-urethra gap (LUG) as measured by 3-dimensional transperineal tomographic ultrasound. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on 98 women with symptomatic POP. Three-dimensional transperineal tomographic ultrasound images and POP quantification coordinates were reviewed. Each vaginal compartment was staged for the degree of prolapse, and total number of involved compartments identified...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Neil J Cunningham, Nicholas Farebrother, Jake Miles
Proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) dislocations are relatively rare injuries and this paper provides an up-to-date review and practical management approach for the assessment and management of these cases. Isolated PTFJ dislocations are a rare injury, accounting for less than 1% of all knee injuries. Thus, there does not appear to be a clear consensus on definitive management and post-reduction care in the literature. This paper provides a review of the literature, anatomical analysis of the PTFJ in the dislocated state, and a technique for reduction...
April 19, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Sarah Nelson, Erin Moorman, Michael Farrell, Natoshia Cunningham
Functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) are associated with increased emotional problems which, in turn, exacerbate functional impairment. However, irritability, which relates both to internalizing and externalizing problems, has not been specifically examined in these youths. Irritability may be common and adversely impact functioning in pediatric FAPD, particularly for males who are more likely to experience such symptoms. The current study examined the relationship between irritability and psychosocial and pain-related impairment in youth with FAPD...
April 19, 2018: Children
Fred L Cunningham, Madison M Jubirt, Katie C Hanson-Dorr, Lorelei Ford, Paul Fioranelli, Larry A Hanson
Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium ubiquitous to freshwater and brackish aquatic environments that can cause disease in fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila strain (VAH) that is genetically distinct from less virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that research has shown that Great Egrets ( Ardea alba) can shed viable hypervirulent A...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Paul W Tooley, Marsha Browning
We examined the impact of relative humidity (RH) on Phytophthora ramorum sporangia production on Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White'. When diseased plants were maintained under continuous moisture in a mist tent, sporangia were collected from some plants for 22 weeks. More than 3,000 sporangia/leaf/week were collected over the first 3 weeks but levels declined to <100 sporangia/leaf/week after 7 weeks. We also examined the impact of drying on P. ramorum sporangia production. Diseased, detached leaves were maintained in humidity chambers (100, 96...
April 17, 2018: Phytopathology
D van Doorn, N Richardson, A Storey, A Osborne, C Cunningham, C Blake, J McNamara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Marcus A Bachhuber, Julia H Arnsten, Chinazo O Cunningham, Nancy Sohler
: In observational and retrospective studies, people who use cannabis are more likely than people who do not use cannabis to also use other drugs. People who take medical cannabis are also more likely to report medical and non-medical use of opioid analgesics, stimulants, and tranquilizers. Given that people who take medical cannabis and those who do not are likely to have different underlying morbidity, it is possible that medical cannabis use reduces prescription drug use yet prescription drug use remains relatively high...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
F Ris, E Liot, N C Buchs, R Kraus, G Ismael, V Belfontali, J Douissard, C Cunningham, I Lindsey, R Guy, O Jones, B George, P Morel, N J Mortensen, R Hompes, R A Cahill
BACKGROUND: Decreasing anastomotic leak rates remain a major goal in colorectal surgery. Assessing intraoperative perfusion by indocyanine green (ICG) with near-infrared (NIR) visualization may assist in selection of intestinal transection level and subsequent anastomotic vascular sufficiency. This study examined the use of NIR-ICG imaging in colorectal surgery. METHODS: This was a prospective phase II study (NCT02459405) of non-selected patients undergoing any elective colorectal operation with anastomosis over a 3-year interval in three tertiary hospitals...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Roel de Bont, Teodora Groshkova, Andrew Cunningham, Marieke Liem
BACKGROUND: Drugs can act as facilitators for all types of violence, including drug-related homicide (DRH). Addressing this phenomenon is not only of importance given the severity of a homicide event and its high costs on society, but also because DRH has the potential to act as a valuable indicator or proxy of wider drug-related violent crime. However, there appears to be an important gap in terms of available European data on DRH. This study aimed to identify relevant European data sources on DRH, to assess the role of drugs in national homicide data, and to assess these sources and data in terms of monitoring potential...
April 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jerry F Brown, John M Dye, Sam Tozay, Gertrude Jeh-Mulbah, David A Wohl, William A Fischer, Coleen K Cunningham, Kathleen Rowe, Peter Zacharias, James van Hasselt, David A Norwood, Nathan M Thielman, Samantha E Zak, David L Hoover
Background: Ebola virus (EBOV) neutralizing antibody in plasma may reduce viral load following administration of plasma to patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), but measurement of these antibodies is complex. Methods: Anti-EBOV antibody was measured by two neutralization and two enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in convalescent plasma (ECP) from 100 EVD survivor donors in Liberia. Viral load was assessed repetitively in patients with EVD participating in a clinical trial of enhanced standard of care plus ECP...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stefanea L Rucinski, Matthew P Murphy, Kami D Kies, Scott A Cunningham, Audrey N Schuetz, Robin Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Tarik D Madni, Jonathan B Imran, Audra T Clark, Holly B Cunningham, Luis Taveras, Brett D Arnoldo, Herb A Phelan, Steven E Wolf
Introduction: Previously, we identified that 60% of our facility's total operative time is nonoperative. We performed a review of our operating room to determine where inefficiencies exist in nonoperative time. Methods: Live video of operations performed in a burn operating room from 6/23/17 to 8/16/17 were prospectively reviewed. Preparation (end of induction to procedure start) and turnover (patient out of room to next patient in room) were divided into the following activities: 1) Preparation: remove dressing, position patient, clean patient, drape patient, and 2) Turnover: clean operating room, scrub tray set-up, anesthesia set-up...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Nadezhda A Wall, C Coral Dominguez-Medina, Sian E Faustini, Charlotte N Cook, Andrew McClean, Mark D Jesky, Marisol Perez-Toledo, Matthew D Morgan, Alexandra G Richter, Charles J Ferro, Paul Cockwell, Paul A Moss, Ian R Henderson, Lorraine Harper, Adam F Cunningham
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of infection and poorer responses to vaccination. This suggests that CKD patients have an impaired responsiveness to all antigens, even those first encountered before CKD onset. To examine this we evaluated antibody responses against two childhood vaccine antigens, tetanus (TT) and diphtheria toxoids (DT) and two common pathogens, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SEn) in two independent cohorts consisting of age-matched individuals with and without CKD...
2018: PloS One
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