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Proliferative vitreoretinopathy

Mira M Sachdeva, Frederick A Jakobiec, Anna M Stagner, Athanasios Papakostas, Dean Eliott
PURPOSE: Large relaxing retinectomies have become increasingly used in the repair of retinal detachment related to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Retinectomies expose the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the vitreous cavity; the direct effects of silicone oil on the RPE are only beginning to be understood. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve patients noted to develop pigmented epiretinal deposits at regularly scheduled follow-up visits after repair of complex retinal detachments using silicone oil tamponade and retinectomy...
October 18, 2016: Ophthalmology
Güner Ö Üney, Mehmet A Acar, Nurten Ünlü, Dicle Hazirolan, Zuleyha Yalniz-Akkaya, Firdevs Örnek
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of secondary pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) after failed scleral buckling (SB) surgery and to compare it with primary PPV for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), including complicated proliferative vitreoretinopathy cases. DESIGN: Retrospective series in a tertiary care centre. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and twenty consecutive patients. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent PPV with silicone oil tamponade for RRD were reviewed...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Ama Sadaka, Robert A Sisk, James M Osher, Okan Toygar, Melinda K Duncan, Christopher D Riemann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal methotrexate infusion (IMI) during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for retinal detachment in patients with high risk for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). METHODS: Patients presenting with severe recurrent PVR with tractional retinal detachment and/or a history of severe ocular inflammation were treated with IMI. Clinical outcomes were determined from a retrospective medical chart review...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Yong-Kyu Kim, Wontae Yoon, Jae Kyoun Ahn, Sung Pyo Park
Purpose. To evaluate the surgical outcome of scleral buckling (SB) in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) patients associated with pars planitis. Methods. Retrospective review of RRD patients (32 eyes of pars planitis RRD and 180 eyes of primary RRD) who underwent SB. We compared primary and final anatomical success rates and visual outcomes between two groups. Results. Primary and final anatomical success were achieved in 25 (78.1%) and 31 (96.8%) eyes in the pars planitis RRD group and in 167 eyes (92...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Jean-Baptiste Conart, Soydan Kurun, François Ameloot, Fanny Tréchot, Bertrand Leroy, Jean-Paul Berrod
PURPOSE: To investigate aqueous flare as a preoperative predictor for later proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) development in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) and to determine the validity of this measurement in patients at low clinical risk for postoperative PVR. METHODS: This study included 100 eyes of 100 patients who underwent surgery for primary RD. Aqueous flare was determined preoperatively with a laser flare-cell meter (Kowa FM-500, Kowa Company Ltd, Tokyo, Japan)...
September 29, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Koen A van Overdam, Tom Missotten, Emine Kilic, Leigh H Spielberg
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical course after early surgical treatment with excision of retinal hemangioblastomas (RHs) before development of major complications. METHODS: Interventional case series of four eyes (four patients) with a peripheral RH that had not yet been treated by laser or cryotherapy prior to surgery. All eyes underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy with lesion excision. One patient underwent ligation of the feeder vessel prior to lesion excision. Best-corrected visual acuity and clinical course were assessed during a follow-up period of at least 4 years...
September 29, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Martin Miguel Casco-Robles, Md Rafiqul Islam, Wataru Inami, Hibiki Vincent Tanaka, Ailidana Kunahong, Hirofumi Yasumuro, Shiori Hanzawa, Roman Martin Casco-Robles, Fubito Toyama, Fumiaki Maruo, Chikafumi Chiba
The newt, a urodele amphibian, has an outstanding ability- even as an adult -to regenerate a functional retina through reprogramming and proliferation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, even though the neural retina is completely removed from the eye by surgery. It remains unknown how the newt invented such a superior mechanism. Here we show that disability of RPE cells to regenerate the retina brings about a symptom of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), even in the newt. When Pax6, a transcription factor that is re-expressed in reprogramming RPE cells, is knocked down in transgenic juvenile newts, these cells proliferate but eventually give rise to cell aggregates that uniformly express alpha smooth muscle actin, Vimentin and N-cadherin, the markers of myofibroblasts which are a major component of the sub-/epi-retinal membranes in PVR...
2016: Scientific Reports
Philip Enders, Tina Schick, Friederike Schaub, Carolin Kemper, Sascha Fauser
PURPOSE: To evaluate functional and anatomical outcomes of patients with retinal redetachments (re-RD) after surgery for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. METHODS: Medical records of eyes with re-RD after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery between 1999 and 2014 at the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Germany, were retrospectively evaluated. Data included preoperative and postoperative clinical findings, best-corrected visual acuity, presence and grade of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, surgical procedures, and complication rates...
September 15, 2016: Retina
Adib Tousi, Hossein Hasanpour, Masoud Soheilian
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) as a surgical adjunct in prevention of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after retinal detachment surgery. METHODS: In this controlled, randomized pilot study, 27 patients with primary retinal detachment undergoing pars plana deep vitrectomy were included. Of these, 12 received IVB at the end of procedure. The anatomic success and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were compared to the control group at months 3 and 6 postoperatively...
July 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
A M Joussen, O Strauß, S Winterhalter, M Klamann, T Dietrich-Ntoukas, B Müller
Ocular hypotension is a result of a lack of production or a loss of intraocular fluid. Intraocular inflammation, drugs, or proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) with overgrowth of the ciliary body can result in reduced secretion of intraocular fluid. Loss of intraocular fluid can result from external loss, such as in fistulating surgery or trauma, or internally, e.g. from cyclodialysis clefts or retinal detachment. In this review, we discuss the causal therapy of ocular hypotension: fixation of the ciliary body, removal of ciliary body membranes, surgery for PVR, choice of tamponade, possibilities and limitations of an iris diaphragm, and pharmacological options...
September 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Jingjing Zhang, Gongqiang Yuan, Muchen Dong, Ting Zhang, Gao Hua, Qingjun Zhou, Weiyun Shi
Elevated Notch signaling has been verified in a large range of fibrotic diseases developed in the kidney, liver, and lung, inducing the development of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of this study was to observe the involvement of Notch signaling in the EMT of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In vitro cultivated human RPE cells (ARPE-19) were treated with 10 ng/mL transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 for 24, 48, and 72 h...
September 7, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Haipei Yao, Hui Li, Shuai Yang, Min Li, Chun Zhao, Jingfa Zhang, Guotong Xu, Fang Wang
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a serious vision-threatening complication of retinal detachment (RD), is characterized by the formation of contractile fibrotic membranes, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major event. Recent studies suggest an important role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in the suppression of fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of BMP4 in the pathological process of PVR, particularly in the EMT of RPE cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
Devasis N Reddy, Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Benjamin J Thomas, Eric D Nudleman, George A Williams
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to present the long-term anatomical and visual outcomes of retinal detachment repair in patients with Stickler syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is a retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series of patients with Stickler syndrome undergoing retinal reattachment surgery from 2009 to 2014 at the Associated Retinal Consultants, William Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Sixteen eyes from 13 patients were identified...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Anna-Maria Szczesniak, Richard F Porter, James T Toguri, Joanna Borowska-Fielding, Simon Gebremeskel, Anuja Siwakoti, Brent Johnston, Christian Lehmann, Melanie E M Kelly
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) can develop after ocular trauma or inflammation and is a common complication of surgery to correct retinal detachment. Currently, there are no pharmacological treatments for PVR. Cannabinoids acting at cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R) can decrease inflammation and fibrosis. The objective of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory actions of CB2R as a candidate novel therapeutic target in experimental PVR. PVR was induced by intravitreal injection of dispase in wild-type (WT) and CB2R genetic knockout (CB2R(-/-)) mice...
August 25, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Petros Petrou, Philip J Banerjee, Mark Wilkins, Mandeep Singh, Karen Eastlake, G Astrid Limb, David G Charteris
PURPOSE: To review the incidence and features of vitreoretinal complications of a permanent Boston keratoprosthesis and to report the use and outcomes of 23-gauge vitrectomy to manage vitreoretinal pathology. DESIGN: Retrospective non-comparative, interventional case series. SUBJECT, PARTICIPANTS: 27 eyes of 27 patients managed with a Boston keratoprosthesis at Moorfields Eye Hospital over a 3-year period. METHODS: All eyes that underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and had at least 6 months follow-up were analysed with a specific focus on the anatomical and histological characteristics of retinal detachment and outcomes of surgery...
August 26, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Brijesh Takkar, Koushik Tripathy, Shorya Vardhan Azad, Pradeep Venkatesh, Rohan Chawla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retinal shortening with ultrasound (USG) in patients with retinal detachment (RD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a pilot, prospective, investigative study. Ten consecutive patients undergoing surgery for total RD with anterior or posterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) graded more than grade C1 were included. Longitudinal USG B-scan was done for all patients to calculate retinal-to-choroidal length ratio (RCR). Quadrant-based RCRs and mean RCRs were calculated...
August 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Wei Fang, Jiu-Ke Li, Xiao-Hong Jin, Yuan-Min Dai, Yu-Min Li
AIM: To evaluate predictive factors for postoperative visual function of primary chronic rhegmatgenous retinal detachment (RRD) after sclera buckling (SB). METHODS: Totally 48 patients (51 eyes) with primary chronic RRD were included in this prospective interventional clinical cases study, which underwent SB alone from June 2008 to December 2014. Age, sex, symptoms duration, detached extension, retinal hole position, size, type, fovea on/off, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), operative duration, follow up duration, final BCVA were measured...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Verena C Mulder, Cornelis Kluft, Jan C van Meurs
PURPOSE: One of the factors that was shown to contribute to the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the coagulation factor thrombin. Therefore, a specific oral thrombin inhibitor such as dabigatran might be a possible therapeutic option. An oral drug has the advantage of patient-friendly prolonged administration in contrast to drugs that can only be applied during vitrectomy, on condition that the drug reaches the target site. We tested whether dabigatran reaches the vitreous and subretinal fluid (SRF) after a single oral dose of dabigatran...
November 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Murat Atabey Ozer, Nihat Polat, Serkan Ozen, Tevfik Ogurel, Hakan Parlakpinar, Nigar Vardi
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of apocynin (APO) on the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). New Zealand-type male rabbits were randomly grouped into three as follows: (1) Sham group rabbits which were applied intraperitoneal (i.p.) vehicle without PVR; (2) PVR group rabbits where PVR was created and an i.p. vehicle was administered for 21 successive days; (3) PVR + APO group rabbits where PVR was created and i.p. APO was administered for 21 successive days. Fundus examination was conducted with an indirect ophthalmoscope before starting the experiments and at each visit afterwards...
August 5, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Elaine D Por, Whitney A Greene, Teresa A Burke, Heuy-Ching Wang
PURPOSE: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding disorder that develops after a retinal tear or detachment. Activation of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is implicated in PVR; however, the mechanisms leading to enhanced RPE proliferation, migration, and contraction remain largely unknown. This study utilized an in vitro model of PVR to investigate the role of acetylation in RPE activation and its contribution to the progression of this disease. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells, primary cultures of porcine RPE, and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE (iPS-RPE) were utilized for cellular and molecular analyses...
September 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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