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Epigenetics profilling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805248/epigenetics-and-dna-methylomic-profiling-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Janou A Y Roubroeks, Rebecca G Smith, Daniel L A van den Hove, Katie Lunnon
Recent studies have suggested a role for epigenetic mechanisms in the complex etiology of various neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss advances that have been made towards understanding the role of epigenetic processes in neurodegenerative disorders, with a particular focus on Alzheimer's disease, where the most extensive studies have been undertaken to date. We provide a brief overview of DNA modifications, followed by a summarization of studies of DNA modifications in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804500/pluripotent-stem-cell-metabolism-and-mitochondria-beyond-atp
#2
REVIEW
Jarmon G Lees, David K Gardner, Alexandra J Harvey
Metabolism is central to embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and differentiation, with distinct profiles apparent under different nutrient milieu, and conditions that maintain alternate cell states. The significance of altered nutrient availability, particularly oxygen, and metabolic pathway activity has been highlighted by extensive studies of their impact on preimplantation embryo development, physiology, and viability. ESC similarly modulate their metabolism in response to altered metabolite levels, with changes in nutrient availability shown to have a lasting impact on derived cell identity through the regulation of the epigenetic landscape...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801915/manganese-and-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-indicate-differences-in-morphological-electrophysiological-and-genome-wide-alterations-implications-for-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Rajeswara Babu Mythri, Narayana Reddy Raghunath, Santosh Chandrakant Narwade, Mirazkar DasharathaRao Pandareesh, Kollarkandi Rajesh Sabitha, Mohamad Aiyaz, Bipin Chand, Manas Sule, Krittika Ghosh, Senthil Kumar, Bhagyalakshmi Shankarappa, Soundarya Soundararajan, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Meera Purushottam, Narayanappa Gayathri, Deepti Dileep Deobagkar, Thenkanidiyoor Rao Laxmi, Srinivas Bharath Muchukunte Mukunda
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) and manganese-induced atypical Parkinsonism are characterized by movement disorder and nigrostriatal pathology. Although clinical features, brain region involved and responsiveness to levodopa distinguish both, differences at the neuronal level are largely unknown. We studied the morphological, neurophysiological and molecular differences in dopaminergic neurons exposed to the PD toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+) ) and manganese (Mn) followed by validation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and Mn mouse models...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797806/towards-personalized-medicine-for-patients-with-autoimmune-diseases-opportunities-and-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Soheil Tavakolpour
There is generally no cure for autoimmune disorders, but the symptoms can be managed. Currently available drugs/treatments are more potent than those in the past decades. However, finding the right drug and right patients has remained a serious problem. We should revise our diagnosis criteria to more accurate ones. During the recent years, personalized medicine has attracted much attention. However, it needs to be well-explained for autoimmune diseases. Personalized medicine aims to find the most optimum drugs for a patient...
August 7, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797712/estrogen-receptor-beta-as-epigenetic-mediator-of-mir-10b-and-mir-145-in-mammary-cancer
#5
Zoi Piperigkou, Marco Franchi, Martin Götte, Nikos K Karamanos
Even though the role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the modulation of breast cancer cells' behavior is thoroughly studied, the biological functions of its isoform, ERβ, are less elucidated. The suppression of ERβ in the aggressive ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and major changes in the basic functional properties expression levels of certain matrix components of breast cancer cells. This arrest in metastatic potential of breast cancer cells suggests the contribution of ERβ in the induction of a more aggressive phenotype in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells...
August 7, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797086/epigenetic-differences-between-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-provide-clues-to-disease-pathogenesis
#6
Paul E Young, Stephen Kum Jew, Michael E Buckland, Roger Pamphlett, Catherine M Suter
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating late-onset neurodegenerative disorder in which only a small proportion of patients carry an identifiable causative genetic lesion. Despite high heritability estimates, a genetic etiology for most sporadic ALS remains elusive. Here we report the epigenetic profiling of five monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ALS, four with classic ALS and one with the progressive muscular atrophy ALS variant, in whom previous whole genome sequencing failed to uncover a genetic basis for their disease discordance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791254/transcriptional-profiling-defines-histone-acetylation-as-a-regulator-of-gene-expression-during-human-to-mosquito-transmission-of-the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#7
Che J Ngwa, Meike J Kiesow, Olga Papst, Lindsey M Orchard, Michael Filarsky, Alina N Rosinski, Till S Voss, Manuel Llinás, Gabriele Pradel
Transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum from the human to the mosquito is mediated by the intraerythrocytic gametocytes, which, once taken up during a blood meal, become activated to initiate sexual reproduction. Because gametocytes are the only parasite stages able to establish an infection in the mosquito, they are crucial for spreading the tropical disease. During gametocyte maturation, different repertoires of genes are switched on and off in a well-coordinated sequence, pointing to regulatory mechanisms of gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781987/next-generation-sequencing-of-carcinoma-of-unknown-primary-reveals-novel-combinatorial-strategies-in-a-heterogeneous-mutational-landscape
#8
Ishwaria M Subbiah, Apostolia Tsimberidou, Vivek Subbiah, Filip Janku, Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri, David S Hong
BACKGROUND: Advanced carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) has limited effective therapeutic options given the phenotypic and genotypic diversity. To identify future novel therapeutic strategies we conducted an exploratory analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) of relapsed, refractory CUP. METHODS: We identified patients in our phase I clinic where archival tissue was available for a targeted NGS CLIA-certified assay. RESULTS: Of 17 patients tested, 15 (88%) demonstrated genomic alterations (median 2 aberrations; range 0-8, total 59 alterations)...
May 2017: Oncoscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771724/aberrantly-mirna-promoter-methylation-and-emt-involving-mirnas-in-breast-cancer-metastasis-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-implications
#9
REVIEW
Maryam Zare, Milad Bastami, Saeed Solali, MohammadReza Alivand
Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide. Although extensive studies are ongoing concerning its intricate molecular mechanisms, development of novel therapies and more accurate diagnostic and prognostic approaches is still a challenge. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables the invasion of metastatic cancer cells and has recently been highlighted in a cancer stem cell model of BC. Epigenetic events as well as miRNA expression are the master regulators of tumorigenesis and add a further layer to the complexity of BC pathogenesis...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771357/class-i-hdac-inhibitors-potential-new-epigenetic-therapeutics-for-alcohol-use-disorder-aud
#10
Erika Bourguet, Katarzyna Ozdarska, Gautier Moroy, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Mickael Naassila
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a serious public health issue, and discovery of new therapies is a pressing necessity. Alcohol exposure has been widely demonstrated to modulate epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone acetylation/deacetylation balance, in part via histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play a key role in AUD. To date, 18 different mammalian HDAC isoforms have been identified, and these have been divided into four classes. Since recent studies have suggested that both epigenetic mechanisms underlying AUD and the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) in different animal models of AUD may involve class I HDACs, we herein report the development of class I HDACIs, including information regarding their structure, potency, and selectivity...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765925/altered-expression-of-microrna-98-in-il-1%C3%AE-induced-cartilage-degradation-and-its-role-in-chondrocyte-apoptosis
#11
Jing Wang, Lingqing Chen, Song Jin, Jun Lin, Hongmei Zheng, Hong Zhang, Hongtao Fan, Fang He, Sha Ma, Qin Li
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage due to genetic and epigenetic components. The pathogenesis of OA is complex and the mechanism of chondrocyte homeostatic regulation remains to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs/miR) contribute to cartilage dysfunction. However, the functional role of miR‑98 in interleukin‑1β (IL‑1β)‑induced chondrocyte apoptosis in OA cartilage remains to be investigated...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762752/oxidative-stress-in-mesenchymal-stem-cell-senescence-regulation-by-coding-and-non-coding-rnas
#12
Rosa Vono, Eva Jover Garcia, Gaia Spinetti, Paolo Madeddu
SIGNIFICANCE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), adult stem cells with the potential of differentiation into mesodermal lineages, play an important role in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. In different organs, a subpopulation of MSCs is located near to the vasculature and possibly represents the original source of lineage-committed mesenchymal progenitors. Recent Advances. The plasticity and immune characteristics of MSCs render them a preferential tool for regenerative cell therapy. CRITICAL ISSUES: The culture expansion needed before MSC transplantation is associated with cellular senescence...
August 1, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762545/epigenetic-risk-score-improves-prostate-cancer-risk-assessment
#13
Leander Van Neste, Jack Groskopf, William E Grizzle, George W Adams, Mark S DeGuenther, Peter N Kolettis, James E Bryant, Gary P Kearney, Michael C Kearney, Wim Van Criekinge, Sandra M Gaston
BACKGROUND: Early detection of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) remains crucial for effective treatment of patients. However, PCa screening remains controversial due to a high rate of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. To better reconcile both objectives, more effective methods for assessing disease severity at the time of diagnosis are needed. METHODS: The relationship between DNA-methylation and high-grade PCa was examined in a cohort of 102 prospectively enrolled men who received standard 12-core prostate biopsies...
August 1, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762003/chemical-heterogeneity-in-inbred-european-population-of-the-invasive-hornet-vespa-velutina-nigrithorax
#14
J Gévar, A-G Bagnères, J-P Christidès, E Darrouzet
Invasive social insect populations that have been introduced to a new environment through a limited number of introduction events generally exhibit reduced variability in their chemical signatures (cuticular hydrocarbons) compared to native populations of the same species. The reduced variability in these major recognition cues could be caused by a reduction of genetic diversity due to a genetic bottleneck. This hypothesis was tested in an inbred European population of the invasive hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761107/regulatory-t-cells-from-pancreatic-lymphnodes-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-express-increased-levels-of-microrna-mir-125a-5p-that-limits-ccr2-expression
#15
Guido Sebastiani, Giuliana Ventriglia, Angela Stabilini, Carlo Socci, Cristina Morsiani, Andrea Laurenzi, Laura Nigi, Caterina Formichi, Bechara Mfarrej, Alessandra Petrelli, Georgia Fousteri, Todd M Brusko, Francesco Dotta, Manuela Battaglia
Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) is thought to be caused by a defective immune regulation with regulatory T (Treg) cells playing a fundamental role in this process. Tolerance mechanisms depend on tunable responses that are sensitive to minor perturbations in the expression of molecules that can be carried out by multiple epigenetic mechanisms, including regulation by microRNAs. In this study, microRNA expression profile was investigated in Treg cells isolated from peripheral blood (PB) and from pancreatic draining lymph nodes (PLN) of T1D patients and non-diabetic subjects...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760462/histone-modification-is-correlated-with-reverse-lv-remodeling-in-nonischemic-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#16
Emiko Ito, Shigeru Miyagawa, Satsuki Fukushima, Yasushi Yoshikawa, Shunsuke Saito, Tetsuya Saito, Akima Harada, Maki Takeda, Noriyuki Kashiyama, Yuki Nakamura, Motoko Shiozaki, Koichi Toda, Yoshiki Sawa
BACKGROUND: Although implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) induces reverse remodeling of the left ventricle in end-stage nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. It has been shown that epigenetic modification, such as methylation or acetylation of the histone, is one of the most important upstream signals in cardiac failure. This study hypothesized that histone profiles may be modified by LVAD implantation for end-stage nonischemic DCM, in association with reverse left ventricular remodeling...
July 28, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759951/promoter-hypermethylation-of-rar-%C3%AE-tumor-suppressor-gene-in-gastric-carcinoma-association-with-histological-type-and-clinical-outcomes
#17
Maedeh Mohsenzadeh, Rouhallah Najjar Sadeghi, Mohsen Vahedi, Fereshteh Kamani, Mehrdad Hashemi, Hamid Asadzadeh, Mohammad Reza Zali
BACKGROUND: While gastric cancer is a common cancer in the world and Iran, its molecular mechanisms are not fully understood as yet. Epigenetic modifications can lead to alteration of gene expression and development of tumorigenesis mechanisms. METHODS: To clarify the difference in DNA methylation pattern of histological types in gastric carcinoma, CpG islands in the promoters of retinoic acid receptor β gene (RAR-β) was studied using methylation-specific PCR...
July 19, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759843/trim28-epigenetic-corepressor-is-indispensable-for-stable-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-formation
#18
Marta Klimczak, Patrycja Czerwińska, Sylwia Mazurek, Barbara Sozańska, Przemysław Biecek, Andrzej Mackiewicz, Maciej Wiznerowicz
Cellular reprogramming proceeds in a stepwise pathway initiated by binding and transcription of pluripotency factors followed by genome-wide epigenetic changes. Priming events, such as erasure of DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling determines the success of pluripotency acquisition later. Therefore, growing efforts are made to understand epigenetic regulatory network that makes reprogramming possible and efficient. Here, we analyze the role of transcriptional corepressor TRIM28, involved in heterochromatin formation, during the process of reprogramming of mouse somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells)...
July 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759043/genome-wide-screen-for-differentially-methylated-long-noncoding-rnas-identifies-esrp2-and-lncrna-esrp2-as-regulated-by-enhancer-dna-methylation-with-prognostic-relevance-for-human-breast-cancer
#19
K Heilmann, R Toth, C Bossmann, K Klimo, C Plass, C Gerhauser
The majority of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is still poorly characterized with respect to function, interactions with protein-coding genes, and mechanisms that regulate their expression. As for protein-coding RNAs, epigenetic deregulation of lncRNA expression by alterations in DNA methylation might contribute to carcinogenesis. To provide genome-wide information on lncRNAs aberrantly methylated in breast cancer we profiled tumors of the C3(1) SV40TAg mouse model by MCIp-seq (Methylated CpG Immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing)...
July 31, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758427/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiling-of-the-regenerative-mrl-mpj-mouse-and-two-normal-strains
#20
Bartosz Górnikiewicz, Anna Ronowicz, Piotr Madanecki, Paweł Sachadyn
AIM: We aimed to identify the pivotal differences in the DNA methylation profiles between the regeneration capable MRL/MpJ mouse and reference mouse strains. MATERIALS & METHODS: Global DNA methylation profiling was performed in ear pinnae, bone marrow, spleen, liver and heart from uninjured adult females of the MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6J and BALB/c. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: A number of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) distinguishing between the MRL/MpJ mouse and both references were identified...
July 31, 2017: Epigenomics
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