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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922811/a-programme-to-create-short-course-chemotherapy-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease-based-on-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-mathematical-forecasting
#1
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prevalence is on the rise worldwide. The average therapy duration is 1.5 years, which is associated with poor cure rates. Our objective was to develop a programme to design a combination therapy regimen for pulmonary MAC to be administered for 6 months or less with efficacy in > 90% of patients. Methods: We performed a literature search for the following MeSH headings 'Mycobacterium avium' AND 'pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics' in PubMed up to 2016...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922711/current-updates-on-micrornas-as-regulators-of-chemoresistance
#2
REVIEW
Metin Çalışkan, Hale Güler, Vildan Bozok Çetintaş
Resistance to chemotherapeutics including platinum agents, nucleoside analogues, topoisomerase and microtubule inhibitors is the most important problem in the treatment of many cancer. Several resistance mechanisms has been described for each group and researchers have been trying to develop new approaches to overcome chemoresistance. miRNAs are the regulators of gene transcription at the post-transcriptional level. Dysregulated miRNAs have been reported in cancer tumorigenesis, diagnosis and prognosis and they are promising new therapeutic approaches to improve diagnosis and predictions of outcomes and response to chemotherapy...
September 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920717/-targeted-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-treatment-caused-side-effects-and-side-effect-management
#3
Krisztián Nagyiványi, Lajos Géczi
Until the past decade, therapeutic options for unresectable and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma were limited. Renal cell carcinoma is generally resistant to conventional chemotherapy, and only a small percentage of patients with renal cell carcinoma benefit from cytokine treatment. Since 2005, the advances in target-based therapy and immunotherapy modalities have created a paradigm shift in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we review the most up-to-date practices and emerging therapies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and focus on the threrapy caused side-effects and side-effect management...
September 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920531/role-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4-in-the-maintenance-of-chemoresistance-of-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer
#4
Su In Lee, Dae Kyoung Kim, Eun Jin Seo, Eun Jung Choi, Yang Woo Kwon, Il Ho Jang, Jin Choon Lee, Hyun Yul Kim, Minho Shong, Jae Ho Kim, Seong-Jang Kim
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) has a very poor prognosis due to its aggressive nature and resistance to conventional treatment. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not fully effective because of the undifferentiated phenotype and enhanced drug resistance of ATC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the involvement of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a stemness-associated transcription factor, in the undifferentiated phenotype and drug resistance of ATC. METHODS: ATC cells were compared with papillary thyroid cancer cells in drug resistance and gene expression...
September 16, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919739/docetaxel-titanate-nanotubes-enhance-radiosensitivity-in-an-androgen-independent-prostate-cancer-model
#5
Céline Mirjolet, Julien Boudon, Alexis Loiseau, Sandy Chevrier, Romain Boidot, Alexandra Oudot, Bertrand Collin, Etienne Martin, Pattayil Alias Joy, Nadine Millot, Gilles Créhange
Around 40% of high-risk prostate cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT) will experience biochemical failure. Chemotherapy, such as docetaxel (DTX), can enhance the efficacy of RT. Multidrug resistance mechanisms often limit drug efficacy by decreasing intracellular concentrations of drugs in tumor cells. It is, therefore, of interest to develop nanocarriers of DTX to maintain the drug inside cancer cells and thus improve treatment efficacy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of titanate nanotubes (TiONts) to develop a TiONts-DTX nanocarrier and to evaluate its radiosensitizing in vivo efficacy in a prostate cancer model...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919484/lung-cancer-epigenetics-from-knowledge-to-applications
#6
REVIEW
Michaël Duruisseaux, Manel Esteller
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Advances in our understanding of the genomics of lung cancer have led to substantial progress in the treatment of specific molecular subsets. Immunotherapy also emerges as a major breakthrough in lung cancer treatment. However, challenges remain as a consensual approach for early lung cancer detection remains elusive while primary or secondary drug resistance eventually leads to treatment failure in all patients with advanced disease. Furthermore, a large portion of patients are still treated with conventional chemotherapy that is only modestly effective...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919377/combination-cancer-therapy-using-chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-natural-killer-cells-as-drug-carriers
#7
Elizabeth L Siegler, Yu Jeong Kim, Xianhui Chen, Natnaree Siriwon, John Mac, Jennifer A Rohrs, Paul D Bryson, Pin Wang
The therapeutic limitations of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs include chemo-resistance, tumor recurrence, and metastasis. Numerous nanoparticle-based active targeting approaches have emerged to enhance the intracellular concentration of drugs in tumor cells; however, efficient delivery of these systems to the tumor site while sparing healthy tissue remains elusive. Recently, much attention has been given to human immune-cell-directed nanoparticle drug delivery, because immune cells can traffic to the tumor and inflammatory sites...
August 19, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918838/inhibition-of-midkine-suppresses-prostate-cancer-cd133-stem-cell-growth-and-migration
#8
Suat Erdogan, Zeynep B Doganlar, Oguzhan Doganlar, Kader Turkekul, Riza Serttas
BACKGROUND: Midkine (MDK) is a tumor-promoting factor that is often overexpressed in various human carcinomas, and the role of MDK has not yet been fully investigated in prostate cancer stem cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate cancer CD133(+) stem cells (PCSCs) were isolated from human castration-resistant PC3 cells. PCSCs were treated with different concentrations of MDK inhibitor, iMDK, for 24-72 hours. The IC50 values were determined by the MTT test. Endogenous MDK messenger RNA expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918673/suppression-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-enhances-chemosensitivity-of-cisplatin-resistant-lung-cancer-cells-through-the-inhibition-of-drug-resistant-proteins
#9
Jin Wang, Yunqing Chen, Fenggang Xiang, Min Li, Hong Li, Jinghua Chi, Keyu Ren
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but drug resistance occurs in most patients, leading to treatment failure. Recent studies have shown that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with drug resistance. However, the underlying mechanism is not entirely clear. In this study, first we showed significant positive correlation between the expression of ERCCl and vimentin, and significant negative correlation between the ERCCl and E-cadherin in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and the simple surgery group...
September 18, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918115/the-interplay-of-endocrine-therapy-steroid-pathways-and-therapeutic-resistance-importance-of-androgen-in-breast-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Kiyoshi Takagi, Yasuhiro Miki, Takanori Ishida, Hironobu Sasano, Takashi Suzuki
A great majority of breast carcinomas expresses estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogens have crucial roles in the progress of breast carcinomas. Endocrine therapy targeting ER and/or intratumoral estrogen production significantly improved clinical outcomes of the patients with ER-positive breast carcinomas. However, resistance to endocrine therapy is often observed and significant number of patients will recur after the treatment. In addition, treatment for the patients with triple-negative breast carcinomas (negative for all ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2) are limited to cytotoxic chemotherapy and novel therapeutic targets need to be identified...
September 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918035/lncrna-hotair-contributes-to-5fu-resistance-through-suppressing-mir-218-and-activating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ts-signaling-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Peilong Li, Xin Zhang, Lili Wang, Lutao Du, Yongmei Yang, Tong Liu, Chen Li, Chuanxin Wang
One major reason for the failure of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment is the occurrence of chemoresistance to fluoropyrimidine (FU)-based chemotherapy. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR has been considered as a pro-oncogene in multiple cancers. However, the precise functional mechanism of HOTAIR in chemoresistance is not well known. In this study, we investigated the biological and clinical role of HOTAIR in 5FU resistance in CRC. Our results showed that HOTAIR negatively regulated miR-218 expression in CRC through an EZH2-targeting miR-218-2 promoter regulatory axis...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918032/microrna-31-regulates-chemosensitivity-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#12
Hannah L Moody, Michael J Lind, Stephen G Maher
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with an extremely poor prognosis, and most patients initially are or rapidly become unresponsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. MicroRNA-31 (miR-31) is encoded on a genomic fragile site, 9p21.3, which is reportedly lost in many MPM tumors. Based on previous findings in a variety of other cancers, we hypothesized that miR-31 alters chemosensitivity and that miR-31 reconstitution may influence sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in MPM. Reintroduction of miR-31 into miR-31 null NCI-H2452 cells significantly enhanced clonogenic resistance to cisplatin and carboplatin...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917596/response-rate-to-chemotherapy-after-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-metastatic-urothelial-cancer
#13
Bernadett Szabados, Nick van Dijk, Yen Zhi Tang, Michiel van der Heijden, Akhila Wimalasingham, Alfonso Gomez de Liano, Simon Chowdhury, Simon Hughes, Sarah Rudman, Mark Linch, Thomas Powles
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are active in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (MUC). They have joined chemotherapy (CT) as a standard of care. Here, we investigate the activity of CT after progression on ICIs. Two cohorts of sequential patients with MUC were described (n=28). Cohort A received first-line ICIs followed by CT after progression. Cohort B received CT after failure of first-line platinum-based CT followed by ICIs. Response rate (RR) to CT was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST v1...
September 13, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917152/pegylated-thermosensitive-lipid-coated-hollow-gold-nanoshells-for-effective-combinational-chemo-photothermal-therapy-of-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Bijay Kumar Poudel, Biki Gupta, Thiruganesh Ramasamy, Raj Kumar Thapa, Shiva Pathak, Kyung Taek Oh, Jee-Heon Jeong, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
Pancreatic cancer has extremely poor prognosis with an 85% mortality rate that results from aggressive and asymptomatic growth, high metastatic potential, and rapid development of resistance to already ineffective chemotherapy. In this study, plasmonic hollow gold nanoshells (GNS) coated with PEGylated thermosensitive lipids were prepared as an efficient platform to ratiometrically co-deliver two drugs, bortezomib and gemcitabine (GNS-L/GB), for combinational chemotherapy and photothermal therapy of pancreatic cancer...
September 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916656/chemotherapy-induced-macrophage-infiltration-into-tumors-enhances-nanographene-based-photodynamic-therapy
#15
Yang Zhao, Chenran Zhang, Liquan Gao, Xinhe Yu, Jianhao Lai, Dehua Lu, Rui Bao, Yanpu Wang, Bing Jia, Fan Wang, Zhaofei Liu
Increased recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) to tumors following chemotherapy promotes tumor resistance and recurrence and correlates with poor prognosis. TAM depletion suppresses tumor growth, but is not highly effective due to the effects of tumorigenic mediators from other stromal sources. Here we report that adoptive macrophage transfer led to a dramatically enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect of 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophor-bide-alpha (HPPH)-coated polyethylene glycosylated nanographene oxide [GO(HPPH)-PEG] by increasing its tumor accumulation...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915956/dual-inhibition-of-p-glycoprotein-and-midkine-may-increase-therapeutic-effects-of-anticancer-drugs
#16
A Şükrü Aynacıoğlu, Ayhan Bilir, Kenji Kadomatsu
Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy may significantly affect the outcome of cancer treatment. ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp), contribute to the resistance of various chemotherapeutic agents. Overexpression of P-gp in tumor cells induces chemoresistance via pumping the anticancer drugs out of the cells. In addition to taking part in many biological processes such as development, reproduction and repair, midkine (MK) also plays important roles in the pathogenesis of malignant diseases as well as in the regulation of MDR...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915713/the-reverse-warburg-effect-is-likely-to-be-an-achilles-heel-of-cancer-that-can-be-exploited-for-cancer-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Yaojie Fu, Shanshan Liu, Shanghelin Yin, Weihong Niu, Wei Xiong, Ming Tan, Guiyuan Li, Ming Zhou
Although survival outcomes of cancer patients have been improved dramatically via conventional chemotherapy and targeted therapy over the last decades, there are still some tough clinical challenges that badly needs to be overcome, such as anticancer drug resistance, inevitable recurrences, cancer progression and metastasis. Simultaneously, accumulated evidence demonstrates that aberrant glucose metabolism termed 'the Warburg effect' in cancer cell is closely associated with malignant phenotypes. In 2009, a novel 'two-compartment metabolic coupling' model, also named 'the reverse Warburg effect', was proposed and attracted lots of attention...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915708/targeting-metabolism-and-amp-activated-kinase-with-metformin-to-sensitize-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-to-cytotoxic-therapy-translational-biology-and-rationale-for-current-clinical-trials
#18
REVIEW
Michael Troncone, Stephanie M Cargnelli, Linda A Villani, Naghmeh Isfahanian, Lindsay A Broadfield, Laura Zychla, Jim Wright, Gregory Pond, Gregory R Steinberg, Theodoros Tsakiridis
Lung cancer is the most fatal malignancy worldwide, in part, due to high resistance to cytotoxic therapy. There is need for effective chemo-radio-sensitizers in lung cancer. In recent years, we began to understand the modulation of metabolism in cancer and its importance in tumor progression and survival after cytotoxic therapy. The activity of biosynthetic pathways, driven by the Growth Factor Receptor/Ras/PI3k/Akt/mTOR pathway, is balanced by the energy stress sensor pathway of LKB1/AMPK/p53. AMPK responds both to metabolic and genotoxic stress...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915614/mitochondrial-protein-18-mtp18-plays-a-pro-apoptotic-role-in-chemotherapy-induced-gastric-cancer-cell-apoptosis
#19
Lynn H H Aung, Ruibei Li, Bellur S Prabhakar, Ajay V Maker, Peifeng Li
One of the severe limitations of chemotherapy is the development of drug resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy resistance remain to be elucidated. Mitochondrial mediated apoptosis is a form of cell death induced by chemotherapy. Several chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce mitochondrial fission, and finally activate the apoptosis cascade in various cancer cells. Here, we report that the mitochondrial membrane protein 18 (MTP18) induced mitochondrial fragmentation in gastric cancer cells under doxorubicin (DOX) exposure...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915578/targeting-hypoxic-cancer-stem-cells-cscs-with-doxycycline-implications-for-optimizing-anti-angiogenic-therapy
#20
Ernestina Marianna De Francesco, Marcello Maggiolini, Herbert B Tanowitz, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
Here, we report new mechanistic insight into how chronic hypoxia increases 'stemness' in cancer cells. Using chemical inhibitors, we provide direct experimental evidence that ROS production and mitochondrial biogenesis are both required for the hypoxia-induced propagation of CSCs. More specifically, we show that hypoxic CSCs can be effectively targeted with i) simple mitochondrial anti-oxidants (Mito-TEMPO) and/or ii) inhibitors of mitochondrial biogenesis (Doxycycline). In this context, we discuss the idea that mitochondrial biogenesis itself may be a primary driver of "stemness" in hypoxic cancer cells, with metabolic links to fatty acid oxidation (FAO)...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
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