keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Epigenetic silencing

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643150/epigenetically-controlled-six3-expression-regulates-glioblastoma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-alongside-modulating-the-activation-levels-of-wnt-pathway-members
#1
Baoxin Zhang, Chenfu Shen, Fengyun Ge, Tingting Ma, Zuping Zhang
Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Six3 is a human homologue of the highly conserved sine oculis gene family and essential transcription regulatory factor in process of eye and fetal forebrain development. However, little is known about the role of Six3 in human tumorigenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the methylation/expression of Six3 and reveal its function and action mechanism in glioma. Our results showed that Six3 was down-regulated in human glioma tissues and human glioma SHG-44, U251, SF126 and U373-MG cells compared with the normal tissues...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643146/helicobacter-pylori-induced-modulation-of-the-promoter-methylation-of-wnt-antagonist-genes-in-gastric-carcinogenesis
#2
Hyo-Joon Yang, Sang Gyun Kim, Joo Hyun Lim, Ji Min Choi, Woo Ho Kim, Hyun Chae Jung
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the changes in the promoter methylation and gene expression of multiple Wnt antagonists between the chronic infection and eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: The levels of methylation and corresponding mRNA expression of seven Wnt antagonist genes (SFRP1, -2, -5, DKK1, -2, -3, WIF1) were compared among the patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancers (GCs), and H. pylori-positive and H...
June 22, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641578/methylome-analysis-of-extreme-chemoresponsive-patients-identifies-novel-markers-of-platinum-sensitivity-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#3
Tushar Tomar, Nicolette G Alkema, Leroy Schreuder, Gert Jan Meersma, Tim de Meyer, Wim van Criekinge, Harry G Klip, Heidi Fiegl, Els van Nieuwenhuysen, Ignace Vergote, Martin Widschwendter, Ed Schuuring, Ate G J van der Zee, Steven de Jong, G Bea A Wisman
BACKGROUND: Despite an early response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), the majority of patients will relapse with drug-resistant disease. Aberrant epigenetic alterations like DNA methylation are common in HGSOC. Differences in DNA methylation are associated with chemoresponse in these patients. The objective of this study was to identify and validate novel epigenetic markers of chemoresponse using genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in extreme chemoresponsive HGSOC patients...
June 23, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639625/microrna-34a-dependent-regulation-of-axl-controls-the-activation-of-dendritic-cells-in-inflammatory-arthritis
#4
Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska, Stefano Alivernini, Emma Garcia Melchor, Aziza Elmesmari, Barbara Tolusso, Clare Tange, Luca Petricca, Derek S Gilchrist, Gabriele Di Sante, Chantal Keijzer, Lynn Stewart, Clara Di Mario, Vicky Morrison, James M Brewer, Duncan Porter, Simon Milling, Ronald D Baxter, David McCarey, Elisa Gremese, Greg Lemke, Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Charles McSharry, Iain B McInnes
Current treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not reverse underlying aberrant immune function. A genetic predisposition to RA, such as HLA-DR4 positivity, indicates that dendritic cells (DC) are of crucial importance to pathogenesis by activating auto-reactive lymphocytes. Here we show that microRNA-34a provides homoeostatic control of CD1c(+) DC activation via regulation of tyrosine kinase receptor AXL, an important inhibitory DC auto-regulator. This pathway is aberrant in CD1c(+) DCs from patients with RA, with upregulation of miR-34a and lower levels of AXL compared to DC from healthy donors...
June 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639199/treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer-by-aptamer-conjugated-c-ebp%C3%AE-sarna
#5
Sorah Yoon, John J Rossi
Pancreatic cancer is estimated to become the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality by 2020. While the death rates of most other cancers continue to decline recently, the death rates of pancreatic cancer are still increasing, with less than 5% of patients achieving 5-year survival. Despite great efforts to improve treatment with combinational therapies in pancreatic cancer patients, limited progress has been made. V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) has been depicted as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer for many years...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636597/phase-separation-drives-heterochromatin-domain-formation
#6
Amy R Strom, Alexander V Emelyanov, Mustafa Mir, Dmitry V Fyodorov, Xavier Darzacq, Gary H Karpen
Constitutive heterochromatin is an important component of eukaryotic genomes that has essential roles in nuclear architecture, DNA repair and genome stability, and silencing of transposon and gene expression. Heterochromatin is highly enriched for repetitive sequences, and is defined epigenetically by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and recruitment of its binding partner heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). A prevalent view of heterochromatic silencing is that these and associated factors lead to chromatin compaction, resulting in steric exclusion of regulatory proteins such as RNA polymerase from the underlying DNA...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634396/epigenetic-silencing-of-downstream-genes-mediated-by-tandem-orientation-in-lung-cancer
#7
Steffen Kiehl, Tobias Zimmermann, Rajkumar Savai, Soni S Pullamsetti, Werner Seeger, Marek Bartkuhn, Reinhard H Dammann
Epigenetic deregulation is of importance in tumorigenesis. In particular CpG islands (CGI), are frequently hypermethylated. Here, genome-wide DNA-methylation profiles of 480,000 CpGs in lung cancer cells were generated. It was observed that intra- and intergenic CGI exhibited higher methylation compared to normal cells. The functional annotation of hypermethylated CGI revealed that the hypermethylation was associated with homeobox domain genes and targets marked by repressive histone modifications. The strongest methylation variation was observed in transitional areas of CGI, termed shores...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634045/egfr-egfrviii-remodels-the-cytoskeleton-via-epigenetic-silencing-of-ajap1-in-glioma-cells
#8
Chao Yang, Yan-Sheng Li, Qi-Xue Wang, Kai Huang, Jian-Wei Wei, Yun-Fei Wang, Jun-Hu Zhou, Kai-Kai Yi, Kai-Liang Zhang, Bing-Cong Zhou, Cong Liu, Liang Zeng, Chun-Sheng Kang
EGFR amplification and mutations are the most common oncogenic events in GBM. EGFR overexpression correlates with GBM invasion, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In a previous study, we showed that AJAP1 is involved in regulating F-actin to inhibit the invasive ability of GBM. In addition, in a GBM cell line, the AJAP1 promoter was highly bound by H3K27me3 and, through bioinformatics analysis, we found that AJAP1 expression was negatively correlated with EGFR. In this study, we found that the pathway downstream of EGFR had a higher activation level in GBM cell lines, which led to excessive tumor suppressor silencing...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630300/g9a-drives-hypoxia-mediated-gene-repression-for-breast-cancer-cell-survival-and-tumorigenesis
#9
Francesco Casciello, Fares Al-Ejeh, Greg Kelly, Donal J Brennan, Shin Foong Ngiow, Arabella Young, Thomas Stoll, Karolina Windloch, Michelle M Hill, Mark J Smyth, Frank Gannon, Jason S Lee
G9a is an epigenetic regulator that methylates H3K9, generally causing repression of gene expression, and participates in diverse cellular functions. G9a is genetically deregulated in a variety of tumor types and can silence tumor suppressor genes and, therefore, is important for carcinogenesis. Although hypoxia is recognized to be an adverse factor in tumor growth and metastasis, the role of G9a in regulating gene expression in hypoxia has not been described extensively. Here, we show that G9a protein stability is increased in hypoxia via reduced proline hydroxylation and, hence, inefficient degradation by the proteasome...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627735/genetic-alterations-in-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#10
REVIEW
Yasunori Kogure, Keisuke Kataoka
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-cell neoplasm with a dismal prognosis, caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) retrovirus. A long latency period from HTLV-1 infection to ATL onset suggests that not only HTLV-1 proteins, such as Tax and HBZ, but also additional genetic and/or epigenetic events are required for ATL development. Although many studies have demonstrated the biological functions of viral genes, alterations of cellular genes associated with ATL have not been fully investigated...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627608/silencing-of-lsd1-gene-modulates-histone-methylation-and-acetylation-and-induces-the-apoptosis-of-jeko-1-and-molt-4-cells
#11
Zhong-Kai Zou, Yi-Qun Huang, Yong Zou, Xu-Ke Zheng, Xu-Dong Ma
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has been identified and biochemically characterized in epigenetics; however, the pathological roles of its dysfunction in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia remain to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated LSD1, and histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4)me1 and H3K4me2 expression in patients with MCL and silenced LSD1 in JeKo‑1 and MOLT‑4 cells, in order to define its role in JeKo‑1 and MOLT‑4 cell proliferation and apoptosis. We retrospectively analyzed the protein expression of LSD1, and mono- and dimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me1 and H3K4me2), and cyclin D1 and Ki67 in 30 cases of MCL by immunohistochemistry...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623912/role-of-epigenetics-microrna-axis-in-drug-resistance-of-multiple-myeloma
#12
REVIEW
Nasrin Rastgoo, Jahangir Abdi, Jian Hou, Hong Chang
Despite administration of novel therapies, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable with resistance to drugs leading to relapse in most patients. Thus, it is critical to understand the detailed mechanisms underlying the drug resistance of MM and develop more effective therapeutic strategies. Genetic abnormalities are well known to play a central role in MM pathogenesis and therapy resistance; however, epigenetic aberrations mainly affecting the patterns of DNA methylation/histone modifications of genes (especially tumor suppressors) and miRNAs have also been shown to be involved...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622390/inhibiting-dna-methylation-activates-cancer-testis-antigens-and-expression-of-the-antigen-processing-and-presentation-machinery-in-colon-and-ovarian-cancer-cells
#13
Cornelia Siebenkäs, Katherine B Chiappinelli, Angela A Guzzetta, Anup Sharma, Jana Jeschke, Rajita Vatapalli, Stephen B Baylin, Nita Ahuja
Innovative therapies for solid tumors are urgently needed. Recently, therapies that harness the host immune system to fight cancer cells have successfully treated a subset of patients with solid tumors. These responses have been strong and durable but observed in subsets of patients. Work from our group and others has shown that epigenetic therapy, specifically inhibiting the silencing DNA methylation mark, activates immune signaling in tumor cells and can sensitize to immune therapy in murine models. Here we show that colon and ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit lower expression of transcripts involved in antigen processing and presentation to immune cells compared to normal tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620889/levels-of-microrna-heterogeneity-in-cancer-biology
#14
REVIEW
Nina Petrovic, Sercan Ergün, Esma R Isenovic
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, involved in the silencing of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. The importance of miRNA signatures in disease screening, prognosis, and progression of different tumor types and subtypes is increasing. miRNA expression levels change depending on numerous factors. In this review, we are describing the circumstances under which miRNA levels can change, these are named 'levels' of heterogeneity of miRNAs. miRNAs can have oncogenic, tumor suppressive, or both roles depending on tumor type and target mRNA whose translation they silence...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620234/ezh2-mediated-epigenetic-silencing-of-timp2-promotes-ovarian-cancer-migration-and-invasion
#15
Xiaoqing Yi, Jianfeng Guo, Jing Guo, Si Sun, Ping Yang, Junjie Wang, Yuan Li, Lisha Xie, Jing Cai, Zehua Wang
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is often increased in malignant tumors and is involved in metastasis. EZH2 silences gene expression by tri-methylating the lysine 27 residue of histone H3 (H3K27me3). However, the mechanism underlying EZH2 promotion of ovarian cancer metastasis remains elusive. Here, we showed that EZH2 is up-regulated in ovarian cancer and is associated with tumor metastasis and poor survival by mRNA sequencing and microarray results from databases. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry results revealed that EZH2 was negatively correlated with the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2)...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617441/concomitant-epigenetic-targeting-of-lsd1-and-hdac-synergistically-induces-mitochondrial-apoptosis-in-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells
#16
Tinka Haydn, Eric Metzger, Roland Schuele, Simone Fulda
The lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is overexpressed in several cancers including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). However, little is yet known about whether or not LSD1 may serve as therapeutic target in RMS. We therefore investigated the potential of LSD1 inhibitors alone or in combination with other epigenetic modifiers such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Here, we identify a synergistic interaction of LSD1 inhibitors (i.e., GSK690, Ex917) and HDAC inhibitors (i.e., JNJ-26481585, SAHA) to induce cell death in RMS cells...
June 15, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616099/epigenetic-silencing-of-sall3-is-an-independent-predictor-of-poor-survival-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
Kiyoshi Misawa, Daiki Mochizuki, Atsushi Imai, Yuki Misawa, Shiori Endo, Masato Mima, Hideya Kawasaki, Thomas E Carey, Takeharu Kanazawa
BACKGROUND: This study examined Sal-like protein (SALL)3 methylation profiles of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients at diagnosis and follow-up and evaluated their prognostic significance and value as a biomarker. SALL3 expression was examined in a panel of cell lines by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The methylation status of the SALL3 promoter was examined by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. RESULTS: SALL3 promoter methylation was associated with transcriptional inhibition and was correlated with disease recurrence in 64...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615266/antitumor-effects-of-epidrug-ifnalpha%C3%A2-combination-driven-by-modulated-gene-signatures-in-both-colorectal-cancer-and-dendritic-cells
#18
Alessandra Fragale, Giulia Romagnoli, Valerio Licursi, Maria Buoncervello, Giorgia Del Vecchio, Caterina Giuliani, Stefania Parlato, Celeste Leone, Marta De Angelis, Irene Canini, Elena Toschi, Filippo Belardelli, Rodolfo Negri, Imerio Capone, Carlo Presutti, Lucia Gabriele
Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from progressive accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. IFN signaling defects play an important role in the carcinogenesis process, in which the inability of IFN transcription regulatory factors (IRFs) to access regulatory sequences in IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in tumors and in immune cells may be pivotal. We reported that low-dose combination of two FDA-approved epidrugs, azacytidine (A) and romidepsin (R), with IFNa2 (ARI) hampers the aggressiveness of both CRC metastatic and stem cells in vivo and triggers immunogenic cell death signals that stimulate dendritic cell (DC) function...
June 14, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614798/dnmt3a-mediated-inhibition-of-wnt-in-cardiac-progenitor-cells-improves-differentiation-and-remote-remodeling-after-infarction
#19
Aurelia De Pauw, Emilie Andre, Belaid Sekkali, Caroline Bouzin, Hrag Esfahani, Nicolas Barbier, Axelle Loriot, Charles De Smet, Laetitia Vanhoutte, Stéphane Moniotte, Bernhard Gerber, Vittoria di Mauro, Daniele Catalucci, Olivier Feron, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Jean-Luc Balligand
Adult cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) display a low capacity to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in injured hearts, strongly limiting the regenerative capacity of the mammalian myocardium. To identify new mechanisms regulating CPC differentiation, we used primary and clonally expanded Sca-1+ CPCs from murine adult hearts in homotypic culture or coculture with cardiomyocytes. Expression kinetics analysis during homotypic culture differentiation showed downregulation of Wnt target genes concomitant with increased expression of the Wnt antagonist, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1), which is necessary to stimulate CPC differentiation...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612962/amygdalar-expression-of-the-microrna-mir-101a-and-its-target-ezh2-contribute-to-rodent-anxiety-like-behavior
#20
Joshua L Cohen, Nateka L Jackson, Mary E Ballestas, William M Webb, Farah D Lubin, Sarah M Clinton
A greater understanding of neural mechanisms contributing to anxiety is needed in order to develop better therapeutic interventions. The current study interrogates a novel molecular mechanism that shapes anxiety-like behavior, demonstrating that the microRNA miR-101a-3p and its target, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) in the amygdala, contribute to rodent anxiety-like behavior. We utilized rats that were selectively-bred for differences in emotionality and stress reactivity, showing that high novelty responding (HR) rats, which display low trait anxiety, have lower miR-101a-3p levels in the amygdala compared to low novelty responding (LR) rats that characteristically display high trait anxiety...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
24020
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"