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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453961/diabetic-nephropathy-new-insights-into-established-therapeutic-paradigms-and-novel-molecular-targets
#1
REVIEW
Dilip Sharma, Pallab Bhattacharya, Kiran Kalia, Vinod Tiwari
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most prevalent microvascular complication in patients suffering from diabetes and is reported to be the major cause of renal failure when compared to any other kidney disease. Currently, available therapies provide only symptomatic relief and unable to treat the underlying pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. This review will explore new insights into the established therapeutic paradigms targeting oxidative stress, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress with the focus on recent clinical developments...
April 13, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453876/age-associated-changes-in-the-blood-brain-barrier-comparative-studies-in-human-and-mouse
#2
Emily F Goodall, Chunfang Wang, Julie E Simpson, David J Baker, David R Drew, Paul R Heath, M Jill Saffrey, Ignacio A Romero, Stephen B Wharton
AIMS: While vascular pathology is a common feature of a range of neurodegenerative diseases, we hypothesised that vascular changes occur in association with normal ageing. Therefore we aimed to characterise age-associated changes in the blood brain barrier (BBB) in human and mouse cohorts. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Evans Blue assays were used to characterise BBB dysfunction (tight junction protein expression and serum plasma protein accumulation), vascular pathology (pericyte loss and vascular density) and glial pathology (astrocyte and microglial density) in ageing neurological control human pre-frontal cortex (a total of 23 cases from 5 age groups representing the spectrum of young adult to old age: 20-30yrs, 31-45yrs, 46-60yrs, 61-75yrs and 75+) and C57BL/6 mice (3 month, 12 month, 18 month and 24 month, n=5/6 per group)...
April 28, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453484/can-better-management-of-periodontal-disease-delay-the-onset-and-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Alice Harding, Sarita Robinson, St John Crean, Sim K Singhrao
A risk factor relationship exists between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) via tooth loss, and improved memory following dental intervention. This links the microbial contribution from indigenous oral periodontal pathogens to the manifestation of chronic conditions, such as AD. Here, we use Porphyromonas gingivalis infection to illustrate its effect on mental health. P. gingivalis infection, in its primary sub-gingival niche, can cause polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis. Dysbiosis describes the residency of select commensals from the oral cavity following co-aggregation around the dominant keystone pathogen, such as P...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450107/autophagy-regulates-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-decreasing-the-phosphorylation-level-of-smad3
#4
Jing Wang, Yifan Feng, Yuping Wang, Danni Xiang, Xi Zhang, Fei Yuan
Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2) induces Endothelial-Mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and autophagy in a variety of cells. Previous studies have indicated that activation of autophagy might decrease TGF-β2 induced EndoMT. However, the precise role remains unclear. In the present study, we found that TGF-β2 could induce EndoMT and autophagy in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs). Activation of autophagy by Rapamycin or Trehalose could reduce the expression of Snail, demonstrating a role of autophagy in regulating Snail production both by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanism...
April 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449313/neurovascular-unit-alteration-in-somatosensory-cortex-and-enhancement-of-thermal-nociception-induced-by-amphetamine-involves-central-at1-receptor-activation
#5
Victoria Belén Occhieppo, Natalia Andrea Marchese, Iara Diamela Rodríguez, Osvaldo Martín Basmadjian, Gustavo Baiardi, Claudia Bregonzio
The use of psychostimulants, such as amphetamine (Amph), is associated with inflammatory processes, involving glia and vasculature alterations. Brain Angiotensin II (Ang II), through AT1 -receptors (AT1 -R), modulates neurotransmission and plays a crucial role in inflammatory responses in brain vasculature and glia. Our aim for the present work was to evaluate the role of AT1 -R in long-term alterations induced by repeated exposure to Amph. Astrocyte reactivity, neuronal survival and brain microvascular network were analyzed at the somatosensory cortex...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449169/analysis-of-liver-tumors-using-preoperative-and-intraoperative-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus-ioceus-by-radiologists-in-comparison-to-magnetic%C3%A2-resonance-imaging-and-histopathology
#6
Severin Huf, Natascha Platz Batista da Silva, Isabel Wiesinger, Matthias Hornung, Marcus N Scherer, Sven Lang, Christian Stroszczynski, Thomas Fischer, Ernst Michael Jung
Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic significance of preoperatively and intraoperatively performed contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS/IOCEUS) in the diagnosis of liver tumors in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of 70/317 patients who underwent surgery for liver tumors between January 2012 and October 2015. Findings of CEUS and IOCEUS were compared to MRI. CEUS and IOCEUS were performed using multifrequency linear probes (1 - 5, 6 - 15 MHz) after bolus injection of 1 - 5 ml sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles...
May 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449168/mri-sequences-in-head-neck-radiology-state-of-the-art
#7
Gerlig Widmann, Benjamin Henninger, Christian Kremser, Werner Jaschke
Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head & neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head & neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Method Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head & neck MRI...
May 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449009/the-prognostic-value-of-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-contrast-agent-transfer-constant-k-trans-in-cervical-cancer-is-explained-by-plasma-flow-rather-than-vessel-permeability
#8
Ben R Dickie, Chris J Rose, Lucy E Kershaw, Stephanie B Withey, Bernadette M Carrington, Susan E Davidson, Gillian Hutchison, Catharine M L West
BACKGROUND: The microvascular contrast agent transfer constant K(trans) has shown prognostic value in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. This study aims to determine whether this is explained by the contribution to K(trans) of plasma flow (Fp), vessel permeability surface-area product (PS), or a combination of both. METHODS: Pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data from 36 patients were analysed using the two-compartment exchange model...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448784/a-motivational-interviewing-intervention-by-pharmacy-students-to-improve-medication-adherence
#9
Susan Abughosh, Xin Wang, Omar Serna, Tara Esse, Amanda Mann, Santhi Masilamani, Marcia McDonnell Holstad, Ekere James Essien, Marc Fleming
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with comorbid hypertension (HTN) are at a higher risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular DM complications. Through guideline-driven recommendations, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are highly recommended for these patients. Unfortunately, medication adherence to these products, though crucial to achieving therapeutic benefit, is frequently suboptimal. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered collaborative communication style that is used to strengthen internal motivation for change that may prove effective in enhancing adherence...
May 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448601/determinants-of-coronary-flow-reserve-in-non-diabetic-patients-with-chest-pain-without-myocardial-perfusion-defects
#10
Helena U Westergren, Erik Michaëlsson, Juuso I Blomster, Tasso Miliotis, Sara Svedlund, Li-Ming Gan
BACKGROUND: Microvascular dysfunction could be responsible for chest pain in patients without myocardial perfusion defects. We evaluated microvascular function using ultrasound-assessed coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with chest pain and normal myocardial perfusion scintigram. Secondly, we investigated association between cardiovascular parameters and decreased CFR in a sex specific manner. METHODS: A total of 202 (128 women) non-diabetic patients with chest pain and suspected myocardial ischemia, but without myocardial perfusion defects on myocardial perfusion scintigram, were enrolled and underwent CFR examination and blood sampling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448522/nestin-expression-is-upregulated-in-the-fibrotic-rat-heart-and-is-localized-in-collagen-expressing-mesenchymal-cells-and-interstitial-cd31-cells
#11
Vanessa Hertig, Kim Tardif, Marc Andre Meus, Natacha Duquette, Louis Villeneuve, Fanny Toussaint, Jonathan Ledoux, Angelino Calderone
Renal and lung fibrosis was characterized by the accumulation of collagen-immunoreactive mesenchymal cells expressing the intermediate filament protein nestin. The present study tested the hypothesis that nestin expression was increased in the hypertrophied/fibrotic left ventricle of suprarenal abdominal aorta constricted adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and induced in ventricular fibroblasts by pro-fibrotic peptide growth factors. Nestin protein levels were upregulated in the pressure-overloaded left ventricle and expression positively correlated with the rise of mean arterial pressure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448515/chronic-cocaine-induces-hif-vegf-pathway-activation-along-with-angiogenesis-in-the-brain
#12
Wei Yin, Kevin Clare, Qiujia Zhang, Nora D Volkow, Congwu Du
Cocaine induces vasoconstriction in cerebral vessels, which with repeated use can result in transient ischemic attacks and cerebral strokes. However, the neuroadaptations that follow cocaine's vasoconstricting effects are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic cocaine exposure (2 and 4 weeks) on markers of vascular function and morphology in the rat brain. For this purpose we measured nitric oxide (NO) concentration in plasma, brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS1), HIF-1α, and VEGF expression in different brain regions, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448484/tissue-engineered-3d-human-lymphatic-microvascular-network-for-in-vitro-studies-of-lymphangiogenesis
#13
Laure Gibot, Todd Galbraith, Jennifer Bourland, Anita Rogic, Mihaela Skobe, François A Auger
This protocol describes a unique in vitro method for the generation of a 3D human lymphatic network within native connective tissue devoid of any exogenous material such as scaffolds or growth factors. In this five-stage protocol, human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) cocultured with dermal fibroblasts spontaneously organize into a stable 3D lymphatic capillary network. Stage 1 involves the isolation of primary fibroblasts and LECs from human skin. Fibroblasts are then cultured to produce connective tissue rich in extracellular matrix (stage 2), onto which LECs are seeded to form a network (stage 3)...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448020/analysis-of-lymphocyte-extravasation-using-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-blood-brain-barrier
#14
Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Urvashi Bhatia, Tilman Schneider-Hohendorf, Nicholas Schwab, Heinz Wiendl, Catharina C Gross
Lymphocyte extravasation into the central nervous system (CNS) is critical for immune surveillance. Disease-related alterations of lymphocyte extravasation might result in pathophysiological changes in the CNS. Thus, investigation of lymphocyte migration into the CNS is important to understand inflammatory CNS diseases and to develop new therapy approaches. Here we present an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier to study lymphocyte extravasation. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) are confluently grown on a porous polyethylene terephthalate transwell insert to mimic the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447863/lysophosphatidic-acid-and-amitriptyline-signal-through-lpa1r-to-reduce-p-glycoprotein-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#15
David B Banks, Gary Ny Chan, Rebecca A Evans, David S Miller, Ronald E Cannon
The blood-brain barrier is a microvascular network that (1) provides neuroprotection from metabolic and environmental toxins and (2) limits the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS). The ATP-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein contributes to the latter by actively pumping clinical substrates back into circulation before they can reach the brain parenchyma. Targeting P-glycoprotein has proven effective in increasing the delivery of therapeutics to their cerebral targets. We provide a novel mechanism to achieve this end in functioning, intact rat brain capillaries, whereby the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) amitriptyline reduce basal P-glycoprotein transport activity through a distinct lysophosphatidic acid 1 receptor-mediated signaling cascade that requires G-protein coupling, Src kinase, and ERK 1/2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447417/diagnostic-approach-to-microangiopathic-hemolytic-disorders
#16
REVIEW
K Kottke-Marchant
Thrombotic micro-angiopathies (TMA) are a group of related disorders that are characterized by thrombosis of the microvasculature and associated organ dysfunction, and encompass congenital, acquired, and infectious etiologies. A hall mark of TMAs is the fragmentation of erythrocytes by the microvascular thrombi, resulting in a hemolytic anemia. There are several distinct pathophysiologies leading to microangiopathic hemolysis, ranging from decreased degradation of von Willebrand factor as seen in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) to endothelial damage facilitated by Escherichia coli shiga toxin or complement dysregulation, seen in shiga toxin-related hemolytic-uremic syndrome (Stx-HUS) and complement-mediated TMA (also called atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome), respectively...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446809/blood-pressure-management-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Hisashi Kai
Hypertension aggravates macrovascular and microvascular diseases and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines of the Management of Hypertension (JSH 2014) recommends that antihypertensive medication should be initiated concomitantly with lifestyle modification when blood pressure (BP) is ⩾130/80 mm Hg and that target levels of office and home BP should be <130/80 mm Hg and <125/75 mm Hg, respectively, in T2DM patients...
April 27, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446541/nuclear-survivin-expression-correlates-with-endoglin-assessed-microvascularisation-in-laryngeal-carcinoma
#18
Gino Marioni, Giancarlo Ottaviano, Rosario Marchese-Ragona, Elena Fasanaro, Giulia Tealdo, Claudia Zanotti, Benedetto Randon, Luciano Giacomelli, Edoardo Stellini, Stella Blandamura
AIMS: Survivin-a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins that control cell division, apoptosis and metastasis-is overexpressed in virtually all human cancers, including laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Recent findings also correlate survivin expression with the regulation of angiogenesis. The novel main aim of this study was a preliminary investigation into the potential role of survivin expression in LSCC neoangiogenesis, as determined by endoglin-assessed microvascular density (MVD)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445607/fractal-characteristics-of-the-microvascular-network-a-useful-index-to-assess-vascularization-level-of-porous-silk-fibroin-biomaterial
#19
Kuihua Zhan, Lun Bai, Qinqin Wu, Derong Lei, Guangqian Wang
The neovascularization of biomaterials for tissue engineering is not only related to growth of capillaries but also involves appropriate hierarchy distribution of the microvessels. In this study, we proposed hierarchy distribution contrast method which can assess vascular transport capacity, in order to examine the hierarchy distribution of the neovessels during vascularization of the porous silk fibroin biomaterials implanted into rats and its evolution. The results showed that the fractal characteristics appeared toward the end of the vascularization stages, and the structure of the microvascular network after 3 weeks of implantation was similar to the fractal microvascular tree with bifurcation exponent x=3 and fractal dimension D=1...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445231/the-effects-of-multi-day-vs-single-pre-exercise-nitrate-supplement-dosing-on-simulated-cycling-time-trial-performance-and-skeletal-muscle-oxygenation
#20
Edward Jo, Michelle Fischer, Alexandra T Auslander, Alan Beigarten, Bruce Daggy, Ken Hansen, Lisa Kessler, Adam Osmond, Hong Wang, Rachel Wes
A transient augmentation in the metabolic efficiency of skeletal muscle is the purported basis for dietary nitrate supplementation amongst competitive and recreational athletes alike. Previous studies support the ergogenic effects of nitrate supplementation as findings indicated improved microvascular blood flow, exercise economy, and performance with relatively short-term supplementation. As with most ergogenic aids, the optimum duration of supplementation prior to performance or competition, i.e. loading phase, is a critical determinant for efficacy...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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