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Antonio Lopalco, Annalisa Cutrignelli, Nunzio Denora, Angela Lopedota, Massimo Franco, Valentino Laquintana
The transport of dopamine across the blood brain barrier represents a challenge for the management of Parkinson's disease. The employment of central nervous system targeted ligands functionalized nanocarriers could be a valid tactic to overcome this obstacle and avoid undesirable side effects. In this work, transferrin functionalized dopamine-loaded liposomes were made by a modified dehydration-rehydration technique from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcoline, cholesterol and 1,2-stearoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N -[carboxy(poly(ethylene glycol)-2000)]...
March 20, 2018: Nanomaterials
Erdem Kucukal, Jane A Little, Umut A Gurkan
Non-adherence and deformability are the key intrinsic biomechanical features of the red blood cell (RBC), which allow it to tightly squeeze and pass through even the narrowest of microcirculatory networks. Blockage of microcirculatory flow, also known as vaso-occlusion, is a consequence of abnormal cellular adhesion to the vascular endothelium. In sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited anaemia, even though RBCs have been shown to be heterogeneous in adhesiveness and deformability, this has not been studied in the context of physiologically relevant dynamic shear gradients at the microscale...
March 20, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Mitchell L Worley, Evan M Graboyes, Julie Blair, Suhael Momin, Kent E Armeson, Terry A Day, Andrew T Huang
Objective To describe swallowing outcomes in elderly patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract and identify risk factors for poor postoperative swallowing function. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Sixty-six patients aged ≥70 years underwent microvascular reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract. The primary outcome measure was the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS); preoperative and postoperative scores were dichotomized to define "good swallowing" and "poor swallowing...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Joo Myung Lee, Joon Hyung Doh, Chang Wook Nam, Eun Seok Shin, Bon Kwon Koo
The presence of myocardial ischemia is the most important prognostic factor in patients with coronary artery disease, and ischemia-directed revascularization has been a standard of care. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an invasive method used to detect the functionally significant epicardial coronary stenosis, and FFR-guided revascularization strategy has been proven to be superior to angiography-guided strategy. Recently, a hyperemia-free index, instantaneous wave free ratio (iFR), was developed and showed its non-inferiority for clinical outcomes compared with FFR-guided strategy...
March 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
Sarah E Sartain, Nancy A Turner, Joel L Moake
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and bone marrow transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) are associated with excessive activation of the alternative complement pathway (AP) and with severe renal - and rarely, cerebral - microvascular damage. Here, we compared AP activation and regulation in human glomerular and brain microvascular endothelial cells (GMVECs and BMVECs, respectively) unstimulated or stimulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Compared with GMVECs and under both experimental conditions, BMVECs had increased gene expression of the AP-related genes C3 , CFB , and C5 , and decreased expression of CFD This was associated with increased expression in BMVECs (relative to GMVECs) of the genes for surface and soluble regulatory molecules ( CD46 , THBD , CD55 , CFI , and CFH ) suppressing formation of the AP C3 and C5 convertases...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Risa Inagawa, Hideshi Okada, Genzou Takemura, Kodai Suzuki, Chihiro Takada, Hirohisa Yano, Yoshiaki Ando, Takahiro Usui, Yasuaki Hotta, Nagisa Miyazaki, Akiko Tsujimoto, Ryogen Zaikokuji, Atsumu Matsumoto, Tomonori Kawaguchi, Tomoaki Doi, Takahiro Yoshida, Shozo Yoshida, Keisuke Kumada, Hiroaki Ushikoshi, Izumi Toyoda, Shinji Ogura
BACKGROUND: The most recent diagnostic criteria for sepsis includes organ failure. Microvascular endothelial injury is thought to lead to the multiple organ failure seen in sepsis, although the precise mechanism is still controversial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the primary complication during the sequential development of multiple organ dysfunction in sepsis, and endothelial injury is deeply involved. Sugar-protein glycocalyx coats all healthy vascular endothelium, and its disruption is one factor thought to contribute to microvascular endothelial dysfunction during sepsis...
March 16, 2018: Chest
Samuel Pinelli, Nelly Agrinier, Nidhal Bouchahda, Pierre Adrien Metzdorf, Edoardo Camenzind, Batric Popovic
AIMS: To assess both epicardiac macrovascular as well as microvascular and tissue reperfusion following different intravenous preadmission antithrombotic strategies prior primary PCI in STEMI patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive STEMI patients (n = 488) undergoing pPCI received prehospitally either bivalirudin (n = 179), bivalirudin and periprocedural GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) (n = 109), heparin (n = 99) or heparin and periprocedural GPI (n = 101)...
February 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Yong-Cheng Liu, Yi-Ze Mao, Jun-Cheng Wang, Jun Wang, Xiang-Ming Lao, Min-Shan Chen, Sheng-Ping Li
BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic resection is not common in patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aims to evaluate retrospectively the clinical characteristics and surgical results of HCC patients undergoing hepatectomy plus diaphragmatic resection. METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2013, 52 HCC patients underwent curative resections combined with diaphragmatic resection, with 11 patients had pathological diaphragmatic invasion (DI), 41 patients had diaphragmatic fibrous adhesion (DFA)...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
T Mücke, L H Schmidt, A M Fichter, K-D Wolff, L M Ritschl
Venous congestion results in tissue damage and remains the most common reason for failure of transfer of microvascular free flaps if it is not recognised early. The purpose of this study was to measure the critical duration of venous congestion and the resultant survival of flaps according to the duration of venous stasis. A standard epigastric flap was raised and repositioned in 35 rats, seven of which acted as controls. The superficial inferior epigastric vein was fully occluded for four, five, six, or seven hours in the rest (n=7 each group)...
March 16, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Tarek Malas, Talal Al-Atassi, Tim Brandys, Viren Naik, Harry Lapierre, Buu-Khanh Lam
OBJECTIVE: There is mounting evidence supporting the benefit of surgical simulation on the learning of skills independently and in a patient-safe environment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of visualization of surgical steps via instructional media on performance of an end-to-side microvascular anastomosis. METHODS: Thirty-two first- and second-year surgical trainees from the University of Ottawa received an expert-guided, didactic lecture on vascular anastomosis and performed an end-to-side anastomosis on a procedural model to assess baseline skills...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Shunchang Ma, Pankaj K Agarwalla, Harry R van Loveren, Siviero Agazzi
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is a rare but important anatomic variant that contributes to trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the responsible vessel(s) away from the trigeminal nerve provides the most complete and durable relief from TN. The role and technique of MVD for TN associated with a PTA has not been fully defined in the literature. Furthermore, assessment of PTA anatomy intraoperatively with a microscope is challenging...
March 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Marco Ellis, Lisa Hwang, Ni-Ka Ford, Konstantin Slavin
BACKGROUND: Full-thickness scalp defects pose a reconstructive problem, especially in the setting of infection, chemotherapy/radiation, and underlying cranial defects. Current options include dermal matrices, skin grafts, and local flaps. Local flaps often fail, requiring subsequent microvascular free flap reconstruction. OBJECTIVE: To describe the visor flap, a novel bipedicled advancement flap design, and its role in reconstruction of scalp defects. METHODS: A retrospective review of 21 adult patients who developed scalp defects reconstructed using the visor flap from 2013 to 2017...
March 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Hak Chang, SeungHwan Hwang, SooA Lim, SuRak Eo, Kyung Won Minn, Ki Yong Hong
BACKGROUND: Muscle flap is a valuable option in soft tissue reconstruction. Denervated skeletal muscle is known to undergo degeneration. However, information regarding histological and genetic changes in muscle free flap without reinnervation over long-term follow-up remains unclear. METHODS: We collected flap muscles obtained during secondary exploration surgery after more than 15 years of previous muscle free flap without reinnervation. Compared with normal muscle and fat, histomorphometric and gene expression analysis of flap muscle were performed...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Patrick Nasarre, Ingrid V Bonilla, John S Metcalf, Eleanor G Hilliard, Nancy Klauber-DeMore
TRAF3-interacting protein 3 (TRAF3IP3) is expressed in the immune system and participates in cell maturation, tissue development, and immune response. In a previous study, we reported that TRAF3IP3 levels were substantially increased in the vasculature of breast cancer tissues, suggesting a proangiogenic role. In this study, we investigated TRAF3IP3 tumorigenic function. TRAF3IP3 protein was present in several cancer cell lines, with highest levels in melanoma. In addition, tumor microarray analysis on 23 primary melanoma and nine positive lymph nodes revealed that 70% of human primary melanoma and 66% of lymph node metastases were positive for TRAF3IP3...
March 16, 2018: Melanoma Research
Ryan Rosenberry, Susie Chung, Michael D Nelson
Exercise represents a major hemodynamic stress that demands a highly coordinated neurovascular response in order to match oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reactive hyperemia (in response to a brief period of tissue ischemia) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and provides important insight into vascular health and vasodilatory capacity. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is equally important in health and disease, as it determines the energy supply for myocellular processes. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive approach using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess each of these major clinical endpoints (reactive hyperemia, neurovascular coupling, and muscle oxidative capacity) during a single clinic or laboratory visit...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Satomi Sonoda, Yosuke Okada, Hiroko Mori, Fumi Uemura, Kei Sugai, Maiko Hajime, Kenichi Tanaka, Akira Kurozumi, Manabu Narisawa, Keiichi Torimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka
The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the association between glucose profile using the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The subjects were 160 inpatients with T2DM. The mean blood glucose (MBG) level, percentage of time in a 24-hour period spent with blood glucose level higher than 180 mg/dl (time at >180 mg/dl), standard deviation (SD), and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) were measured continuously over 48 hours using the CGMS...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Jian Liu, Qian Zhu, Yun Li, Guo-Liang Qiao, Chang Xu, De-Liang Guo, Jie Tang, Rui Duan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the independent predictive factors of microvascular invasion (MVI) for curative resection of HCC and to investigate the impacts of MVI and HBeAg on long-term recurrence and survival after resection. METHODS: The clinicopathological parameters of 237 patients with HCC with MVI who underwent hepatic resection from April 2005 to November 2010 were investigated. Clinical features and factors associated with the clinical outcomes of 386 patients with HCC without MVI were used for comparison...
March 15, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Shiteng Suo, Lan Zhang, Hui Tang, Qihong Ni, Suqin Li, Haimin Mao, Xiangyu Liu, Shengyun He, Jianxun Qu, Qing Lu, Jianrong Xu
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques including arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD), and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), are capable of measuring tissue perfusion-related parameters. We sought to evaluate and compare these three CMR techniques in characterizing skeletal muscle perfusion in lower extremities and to investigate their abilities to diagnose and assess the severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Nany Hairunisa, Hasniza Zaman Huri
Altered mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the most common denominator to numerous metabolic diseases. The present study sought to investigate the correlation between mtDNA content in lymphocytes and associated clinical risk factors for impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We included 23 healthy control and 42 IFG participants in this cross-sectional study. The measurements of mtDNA content in lymphocytes and pro-inflammatory markers derived from both normal and diseased individuals were quantified. Spearman partial correlation and multivariate statistical analyses were employed to evaluate the association between mtDNA content and other metabolic covariates in IFG...
March 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Filipa Caeiro Alves, Rute Aguiar, Pedro Pessegueiro, Carlos Pires
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) comprises a process of sequential endothelial damage, microvascular thrombosis, consumptive thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia that can affect several organs, including the kidney. A 36-year-old woman was presented with a petechial rash 3 weeks after an upper respiratory tract infection. Laboratory results showed normocytic normochromic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and evidence of TMA with decreased haptoglobin, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase and a peripheral blood smear with numerous schistocytes...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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