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Hui Han, Jinzhou Zhu, Yaqiong Wang, Zhengbin Zhu, Yanjia Chen, Lin Lu, Wei Jin, Xiaoxiang Yan, Ruiyan Zhang
Renal fibrosis is a significant threat to public health globally. Diverse primary aetiologies eventually result in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and immune cells influence this process. The roles of monocytes/macrophages, T cells and mast cells have been carefully examined, whilst only a few studies have focused on the effect of B cells. We investigated B cell function in tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), using genetic B cell-deficient μMT mice or CD20 antibody-mediated B cell depleted mice...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Massimo Del Fabbro, Stefano Corbella, Patrick Sequeira-Byron, Igor Tsesis, Eyal Rosen, Alessandra Lolato, Silvio Taschieri
BACKGROUND: When primary root canal therapy fails, periapical lesions can be retreated with or without surgery. Root canal retreatment is a non-surgical procedure that involves removal of root canal filling materials from the tooth, followed by cleaning, shaping and obturating of the canals. Root-end resection is a surgical procedure that involves exposure of the periapical lesion through an osteotomy, surgical removal of the lesion, removal of part of the root-end tip, disinfection and, commonly, retrograde sealing or filling of the apical portion of the remaining root canal...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yuanjie Yi, Jia Wen, Guangming Zeng, Taotao Zhang, Fenghu Huang, Haiyan Qin, Shiyu Tian
Three amendments including limestone, MnO2 and natural zeolite were assessed for their stabilisation effects on Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in sediment of east Dongting Lake, mid-south China. The metals were first subject to pollution status and potential ecological risk assessment to identify the current and potential hazards to ecology. Speciation of the metals in the sediment treated with amendments was then carried out by BCR sequential extraction procedure in order to evaluate metal contents and their potential mobility...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Carl R May, Mark Johnson, Tracy Finch
BACKGROUND: Context is a problem in research on health behaviour change, knowledge translation, practice implementation and health improvement. This is because many intervention and evaluation designs seek to eliminate contextual confounders, when these represent the normal conditions into which interventions must be integrated if they are to be workable in practice. DISCUSSION: We present an ecological model of the ways that participants in implementation and health improvement processes interact with contexts...
October 19, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Jessica Taaffe, David Wilson
Hepatitis caused by hepatitis B and C virus is increasingly becoming a significant global health threat, with widespread prevalence that may have severe disease and economic impacts in the future. Yet, preventative measures are not implemented universally and high costs of medicines limits treatment efforts. The global response to HIV/AIDS faced similar issues, but overcame them through a global movement that brought attention to the crisis and ultimately resulted in the creation and implementation of and access to better tools for HIV prevention and treatment...
October 16, 2016: Global Public Health
David McWilliams, Gemma Atkins, James Hodson, Catherine Snelson
BACKGROUND: Early mobility within the ICU is associated with a number of positive outcomes including reductions in ICU and hospital length of stay and better functional recovery. The exact definition of 'early' mobility is still not defined, with the actual ability to mobilise limited by a number of perceived factors. The Sara Combilizer is a combined tilt table and stretcher chair, which allows passive transfer of patients out of bed. This study aimed to assess whether the introduction of the Sara Combilizer reduced time taken to first mobilise for patients mechanically ventilated for at least five days and at risk of ICU acquired weakness...
October 10, 2016: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Mark Hanson, Mary Barker, Jodie M Dodd, Shiriki Kumanyika, Shane Norris, Eric Steegers, Judith Stephenson, Shakila Thangaratinam, Huixia Yang
Prevention of obesity in women of reproductive age is widely recognised to be important both for their health and for that of their offspring. Weight-control interventions, including drug treatment, in pregnant women who are obese or overweight have not had sufficient impact on pregnancy and birth outcomes, which suggests that the focus for intervention should include preconception or post-partum periods. Further research is needed into the long-term effects of nutritional and lifestyle interventions before conception...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
T Nguyen, S Johnston, L Clarke, P Smith, D Staines, S Marshall-Gradisnik
Transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily 3 (TRPM3) ion channels play a role in calcium (Ca(2+) ) cell signalling. Reduced TRPM3 has been identified in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients. However, the significance of TRPM3 and association with intracellular Ca(2+) mobilisation has yet to be determined. Fifteen CFS/ME patients (mean age 48.82 ± 9.83 years) and 25 health controls (mean age 39.2 ± 12.12 years) were examined. Isolated NK cells were labelled with fluorescent antibodies to determine TRPM3, CD107a, and CD69 receptors on CD56(Dim) CD16(+) NK cells and CD56(Bright) CD16(Dim/-) NK cells...
October 11, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Siegfried Zerche, Klaus-Thomas Haensch, Uwe Druege, Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei
BACKGROUND: Adventitious root (AR) formation in axillary shoot tip cuttings is a crucial physiological process for ornamental propagation that is utilised in global production chains for young plants. In this process, the nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolisms of a cutting are regulated by its total nitrogen content (Nt), dark exposure during transport and irradiance levels at distinct production sites and phases through a specific plasticity to readjust metabolite pools. Here, we examined how elevated Nt contents with a combined dark exposure of cuttings influence their internal N-pools including free amino acids and considered early anatomic events of AR formation as well as further root development in Petunia hybrida cuttings...
October 10, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Lincoln Fok, Pui Kwan Cheung, Guangda Tang, Wai Chin Li
Beach environments are known to be conducive to fragmentation of plastic debris, and highly fragmented plastic particles can interact with smaller organisms. Even through stranded plastic debris may not interact directly with marine organisms, backwash processes may transport this debris back to coastal waters, where it may affect a wide range of marine life at different trophic levels. This study analysed the size distribution of stranded plastic debris (<10 mm) collected from eight coastal beaches in Guangdong Province, China...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Alison Turner, Abeda Mulla, Andrew Booth, Shiona Aldridge, Sharon Stevens, Fraser Battye, Peter Spilsbury
BACKGROUND: NHS England's Five Year Forward View (NHS England, Five Year Forward View, 2014) formally introduced a strategy for new models of care driven by simultaneous pressures to contain costs, improve care and deliver services closer to home through integrated models. This synthesis focuses on a multispecialty community provider (MCP) model. This new model of care seeks to overcome the limitations in current models of care, often based around single condition-focused pathways, in contrast to patient-focused delivery (Royal College of General Practitioners, The 2022 GP: compendium of evidence, 2012) which offers greater continuity of care in recognition of complex needs and multimorbidity...
October 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Manuel González-Sánchez, Maria Ruiz-Muñoz, Ana Belén Ávila-Bolívar, Antonio I Cuesta-Vargas
BACKGROUND: To analyse the effect of real-time kinematic feedback (KRTF) when learning two ankle joint mobilisation techniques comparing the results with the traditional teaching method. METHODS: Double-blind randomized trial. SETTINGS: Faculty of Health Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: undergraduate students with no experience in manual therapy. Each student practised intensely for 90 min (45 min for each mobilisation) according to the random methodology assigned (G1: traditional method group and G2: KRTF group)...
October 6, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Stefan J Schaller, Matthew Anstey, Manfred Blobner, Thomas Edrich, Stephanie D Grabitz, Ilse Gradwohl-Matis, Markus Heim, Timothy Houle, Tobias Kurth, Nicola Latronico, Jarone Lee, Matthew J Meyer, Thomas Peponis, Daniel Talmor, George C Velmahos, Karen Waak, J Matthias Walz, Ross Zafonte, Matthias Eikermann
BACKGROUND: Immobilisation predicts adverse outcomes in patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Attempts to mobilise critically ill patients early after surgery are frequently restricted, but we tested whether early mobilisation leads to improved mobility, decreased SICU length of stay, and increased functional independence of patients at hospital discharge. METHODS: We did a multicentre, international, parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial in SICUs of five university hospitals in Austria (n=1), Germany (n=1), and the USA (n=3)...
October 1, 2016: Lancet
Theodore J Iwashyna, Carol L Hodgson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Lancet
A Geisler, J B Dahl, A P H Karlsen, E Persson, O Mathiesen
BACKGROUND: The majority of clinical trials regarding post-operative pain treatment focuses on the average analgesic efficacy, rather than on efficacy in individual patients. It has been argued, that in acute pain trials, the underlying distributions are often skewed, which makes the average unfit as the only way to measure efficacy. Consequently, dichotomised, individual responder analyses using a predefined 'favourable' response, e.g. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scores ≤ 30, have recently been suggested as a more clinical relevant outcome...
October 3, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Sarah Hanson, Jane Cross, Andy Jones
Walking groups have known health benefits but may not operate in communities with the greatest health needs, leading to the potential for increasing health inequity. This study examined the process of implementing a new volunteer led walking group scheme in a deprived community in England with poor physical activity, health and socio-economic indicators. Documentary evidence and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and volunteer walk leaders undertaken at the beginning and end of the funding period were analysed thematically...
September 25, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Iordan Kostadinov, Mark Daniel, Michelle Jones, Margaret Cargo
Issue addressed: The context of community-based childhood obesity prevention programs can influence the effects of these intervention programs. Leadership readiness for community mobilisation for childhood obesity prevention is one such contextual factor. This study assessed perceived community leadership readiness (PCLR) at two time points in a state-wide, multisite community-based childhood obesity prevention program.Methods: PCLR was assessed across 168 suburbs of 20 intervention communities participating in South Australia's Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) program...
September 28, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Katrin Wilhelm, Jürgen Wilhelm, Manfred Fürll
The present study investigated whether changes of energy metabolism post-partum (pp) are associated with claw health. For this purpose, back-fat-thickness (BFT) was measured and blood samples were taken from 146 cows at four examination times. The serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose were measured. Furthermore, in the first week postpartum (pp) and at 8 weeks pp, a claw trimming was done and the presence and extent of sole haemorrhages (SH) was recorded. Animals with high BFT at calving and therefore high fat mobilisation and whose FFA and BHB levels in the first week pp exceeded the reference values had fewer pathological changes of the claws than thinner animals whose FFA and BHB levels stayed within reference ranges...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Matteo Minghetti, Kristin Schirmer
To understand conditions affecting bioavailability and toxicity of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cit-AgNP) and dissolved silver at the luminal enterocyte interface, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gut cells (RTgutGC) in media of contrasting composition: two amino acid-containing media, one of which was supplemented with proteins, as can be expected during digestion; and two protein and amino acid-free media contrasting low and high chloride content, as can be expected in the lumen of fish adapting to freshwater or seawater, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Elizabeth Starmann, Martine Collumbien, Nambusi Kyegombe, Karen Devries, Lori Michau, Tina Musuya, Charlotte Watts, Lori Heise
There is now a growing body of research indicating that prevention interventions can reduce intimate partner violence (IPV); much less is known, however, about how couples exposed to these interventions experience the change process, particularly in low-income countries. Understanding the dynamic process that brings about the cessation of IPV is essential for understanding how interventions work (or don't) to reduce IPV. This study aimed to provide a better understanding of how couples' involvement with SASA!-a violence against women and HIV-related community mobilisation intervention developed by Raising Voices in Uganda-influenced processes of change in relationships...
September 29, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
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