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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342282/membrane-fluxes-bypass-flows-and-sodium-stress-in-rice-the-influence-of-silicon
#1
Rubens Flam-Shepherd, Wayne Q Huynh, Devrim Coskun, Ahmed M Hamam, Dev T Britto, Herbert J Kronzucker
Provision of silicon (Si) to roots of rice (Oryza sativa L.) can alleviate salt stress by blocking apoplastic, transpirational bypass flow of Na+ from root to shoot. However, little is known about how Si affects Na+ fluxes across cell membranes. Here, we measured radiotracer fluxes of 24Na+, plasma membrane depolarization, tissue ion accumulation, and transpirational bypass flow, to examine the influence of Si on Na+ transport patterns in hydroponically grown, salt-sensitive (cv. IR29) and salt-tolerant (cv...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342185/nanocarrier-mediated-foliar-zinc-fertilization-influences-expression-of-metal-homeostasis-related-genes-in-flag-leaves-and-enhances-gluten-content-in-durum-wheat
#2
Paresh Deshpande, Ashwin Dapkekar, Manoj Oak, Kishore Paknikar, Jyutika Rajwade
BACKGROUND: Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342177/a-new-fluorescent-dye-accumulation-assay-for-parallel-measurements-of-the-abcg2-abcb1-and-abcc1-multidrug-transporter-functions
#3
Edit Szabó, Dóra Türk, Ágnes Telbisz, Nóra Kucsma, Tamás Horváth, Gergely Szakács, László Homolya, Balázs Sarkadi, György Várady
ABC multidrug transporters are key players in cancer multidrug resistance and in general xenobiotic elimination, thus their functional assays provide important tools for research and diagnostic applications. In this study we have examined the potential interactions of three key human ABC multidrug transporters with PhenGreen diacetate (PGD), a cell permeable fluorescent metal ion indicator. The non-fluorescent, hydrophobic PGD rapidly enters the cells and, after cleavage by cellular esterases, in the absence of quenching metal ions, PhenGreen (PG) becomes highly fluorescent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341916/effects-of-surfactant-based-permeation-enhancers-on-mannitol-permeability-histology-and-electrogenic-ion-transport-responses-in-excised-rat-colonic-mucosae
#4
Sam Maher, Joanne Heade, Fiona McCartney, Seona Waters, Sinéad B Bleiel, David J Brayden
Surfactant-based intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are constituents of several oral macromolecule formulations in clinical trials. This study examined the interaction of a test panel of surfactant-based PEs with isolated rat colonic mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers in an attempt to determine if increases in transepithelial permeability can be separated from induction of mucosal perturbation. The aim was to assess the effects of PEs on (i) apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of [14C]-mannitol on (ii) histology score and (iii) short-circuit current (ΔIsc) responses to a cholinomimetic (carbachol, CCh)...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341728/multislip-friction-with-a-single-ion
#5
Ian Counts, Dorian Gangloff, Alexei Bylinskii, Joonseok Hur, Rajibul Islam, Vladan Vuletić
A trapped ion transported along a periodic potential is studied as a paradigmatic nanocontact frictional interface. The combination of the periodic corrugation potential and a harmonic trapping potential creates a one-dimensional energy landscape with multiple local minima, corresponding to multistable stick-slip friction. We measure the probabilities of slipping to the various minima for various corrugations and transport velocities. The observed probabilities show that the multislip regime can be reached dynamically at smaller corrugations than would be possible statically, and can be described by an equilibrium Boltzmann model...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340374/a-well-defined-unimolecular-channel-facilitates-chloride-transport
#6
Sujun Chen, Yongliang Zhao, Chunyan Bao, Yaowu Zhou, Chenxi Wang, Qiuning Lin, Linyong Zhu
A unimolecular ion channel was optimized by functionalization with a new type of rigid-rod oligomer. The macrocycle pendant endows chloride selectivity and the fluorescence feature and suitable length of the rod facilitates the visual insertion of channels into the lipid bilayer, resulting in efficient ion transport with an EC50 value of 0.36 μM.
January 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338183/plasma-induced-oxygen-vacancies-in-urchin-like-anatase-titania-coated-by-carbon-for-excellent-sodium-ion-battery-anodes
#7
Qingmeng Gan, Hanna He, Kuangmin Zhao, Zhen He, Suqin Liu, Shuping Yang
The incorporation of oxygen vacancies in anatase TiO2 has been studied as a promising way to accelerate the transport of electrons and Na+ ions, which is important for achieving excellent electrochemical properties for anatase TiO2. However, wittingly introducing oxygen vacancies in anatase TiO2 for sodium-ion anode by a facile and effective method is still a challenge. In this work, we report an innovative method to introduce oxygen vacancies into the urchin-like N-doped carbon coated anatase TiO2 (NC-DTO) by a facile plasma treatment...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338181/attaining-melt-processing-of-complementary-semiconducting-polymer-blends-at-130-%C3%A2-c-via-sidechain-engineering
#8
Aristide Gumyusenge, Xikang Zhao, Yan Zhao, Jianguo Mei
Complementary semiconducting polymer blends (c-SPBs) have been proposed and tested to achieve melt-processed high performance organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Prior to this study, melt-processing requires temperatures as high as 180 °C. To implement this technique into low-cost and large-area thin film manufacturing for flexible organic electronics, semiconducting materials meltable at temperatures tolerable by ubiquitous plastic substrates are still needed. We report here the design and melt-processing of a c-SPB consisting of a matrix polymer (DPP-C5) and its fully conjugated analogue...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337526/carbon-nanotube-web-with-carboxylated-polythiophene-assist-for-high-performance-battery-electrodes
#9
Yo-Han Kwon, Jung Jin Park, Lisa M Housel, Krysten Minnici, Guoyan Zhang, Sujin R Lee, Seung Woo Lee, Zhongming Chen, Suguru Noda, Esther S Takeuchi, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Amy C Marschilok, Elsa Reichmanis
A carbon nanotube (CNT) web electrode comprising magnetite spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs) linked by the carboxylated conjugated polymer, poly[3-(potassium-4-butanoate) thiophene] (PPBT), was designed to demonstrate benefits derived from the rational consideration of electron/ion transport coupled with the surface chemistry of the electrode materials components. To maximize transport properties, the approach introduces monodispersed spherical Fe3O4 (sFe3O4) for uniform Li+ diffusion and a FWNT web electrode frame that affords characteristics of long-ranged electronic pathways and porous networks...
January 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337389/thiazole-imide-based-all-acceptor-homopolymer-achieving-high-performance-unipolar-electron-transport-in-organic-thin-film-transistors
#10
Yongqiang Shi, Han Guo, Minchao Qin, Jiuyang Zhao, Yuxi Wang, Hang Wang, Yulun Wang, Antonio Facchetti, Xinhui Lu, Xugang Guo
High-performance unipolar n-type polymer semiconductors are critical for advancing the field of organic electronics, which relies on the design and synthesis of new electron-deficient building blocks with good solubilizing capability, favorable geometry, and optimized electrical properties. Herein, two novel imide-functionalized thiazoles, 5,5'-bithiazole-4,4'-dicarboxyimide (BTzI) and 2,2'-bithiazolothienyl-4,4',10,10'-tetracarboxydiimide (DTzTI), are successfully synthesized. Single crystal analysis and physicochemical study reveal that DTzTI is an excellent building block for constructing all-acceptor homopolymers, and the resulting polymer poly(2,2'-bithiazolothienyl-4,4',10,10'-tetracarboxydiimide) (PDTzTI) exhibits unipolar n-type transport with a remarkable electron mobility (μe ) of 1...
January 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336157/glycerol-hydrogen-bonding-network-dominates-structure-and-collective-dynamics-in-a-deep-eutectic-solvent
#11
A Faraone, D V Wagle, G A Baker, E C Novak, M Ohl, D Reuter, P Lunkenheimer, A Loidl, E Mamontov
The deep eutectic solvent glyceline formed by choline chloride and glycerol in 1:2 molar ratio is much less viscous compared to glycerol, which facilitates its use in many applications where high viscosity is undesirable. Despite the large difference in viscosity, we have found that the structural network of glyceline is completely defined by its glycerol constituent, which exhibits complex microscopic dynamic behavior, as expected from a highly correlated hydrogen-bonding network. Choline ions occupy interstitial voids in the glycerol network and show little structural or dynamic correlations with glycerol molecules...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335550/the-peg-responding-desiccome-of-the-alder-microsymbiont-frankia-alni
#12
Kais Ghedira, Emna Harigua-Souiai, Cherif Ben Hamda, Pascale Fournier, Petar Pujic, Sihem Guesmi, Ikram Guizani, Guylaine Miotello, Jean Armengaud, Philippe Normand, Haïtham Sghaier
Actinorhizal plants are ecologically and economically important. Symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria allows these woody dicotyledonous plants to colonise soils under nitrogen deficiency, water-stress or other extreme conditions. However, proteins involved in xerotolerance of symbiotic microorganisms have yet to be identified. Here we characterise the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-responding desiccome from the most geographically widespread Gram-positive nitrogen-fixing plant symbiont, Frankia alni, by next-generation proteomics, taking advantage of a Q-Exactive HF tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an ultra-high-field Orbitrap analyser...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333720/degree-of-sglt1-phosphorylation-is-associated-with-but-does-not-determine-segment-specific-glucose-transport-features-in-the-porcine-small-intestines
#13
Stefanie Klinger, Patrick Lange, Elisabeth Brandt, Karin Hustedt, Bernd Schröder, Gerhard Breves, Jens Herrmann
Glucose-induced electrogenic ion transport is higher in the porcine ileum compared with the jejunum despite equal apical abundance of SGLT1. The objective of this study was a detailed determination of SGLT1 and GLUT2 expressions at mRNA and protein levels along the porcine small intestinal axis. Phosphorylation of SGLT1 at serine 418 was assessed as a potential modulator of activity. Porcine intestinal tissues taken along the intestinal axis 1 h or 3 h after feeding were analyzed for relative mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein levels (immunoblot) of SGLT1, pSGLT1, GLUT2, (p)AMPK, β2 -receptor, and PKA substrates...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332400/multiscale-kinetic-modeling-reveals-ensemble-of-cl-h-exchange-pathways-in-clc-ec1-antiporter
#14
Heather B Mayes, Sangyun Lee, Andrew D White, Gregory A Voth, Jessica M J Swanson
Despite several years of research, the ion exchange mechanisms in chloride/proton antiporters and many other coupled transporters are not yet understood at the molecular level. Here, we present a novel approach to kinetic modeling and apply it to ion exchange in ClC-ec1. Our multiscale kinetic model (MKM) is developed by 1) calculating the state-to-state rate coefficients with reactive and polarizable molecular dynamics simulations, 2) optimizing these rates in a global kinetic network, and 3) predicting new electrophysiological results...
January 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331620/antagonistic-effect-of-nano-zno-and-cetyltrimethyl-ammonium-chloride-on-the-growth-of-chlorella-vulgaris-dissolution-and-accumulation-of-nano-zno
#15
Na Liu, Yipeng Wang, Fei Ge, Shixiang Liu, Huaixian Xiao
The interaction of nanoparticles with coexisting chemicals affects the fate and transport of nanoparticles, as well as their combined effects on aquatic organisms. Here, we evaluated the joint effect of ZnO nanoparticle (nano-ZnO) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and explored the possible mechanism. Results showed that an antagonistic effect of nano-ZnO and CTAC (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg L-1) was found because CTAC stop nano-ZnO being broken down into solution zinc ions (Zn2+)...
December 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331134/coarse-grained-model-of-nanoscale-segregation-water-diffusion-and-proton-transport-in-nafion-membranes
#16
Aleksey Vishnyakov, Runfang Mao, Ming-Tsung Lee, Alexander V Neimark
We present a coarse-grained model of the acid form of Nafion membrane that explicitly includes proton transport. This model is based on a soft-core bead representation of the polymer implemented into the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation framework. The proton is introduced as a separate charged bead that forms dissociable Morse bonds with water beads. Morse bond formation and breakup artificially mimics the Grotthuss hopping mechanism of proton transport. The proposed DPD model is parameterized to account for the specifics of the conformations and flexibility of the Nafion backbone and sidechains; it treats electrostatic interactions in the smeared charge approximation...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330500/integration-of-gwas-pathway-and-network-analyses-reveals-novel-mechanistic-insights-into-the-synthesis-of-milk-proteins-in-dairy-cows
#17
Sara Pegolo, Núria Mach, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato
The quantities and proportions of protein fractions have notable effects on the nutritional and technological value of milk. Although much is known about the effects of genetic variants on milk proteins, the complex relationships among the set of genes and pathways regulating the different protein fractions synthesis and secretion into milk in dairy cows are still not completely understood. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for milk nitrogen fractions in a cohort of 1,011 Brown Swiss cows, which uncovered 170 significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), mostly located on BTA6 and BTA11...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330471/slc26a3-dra-prevents-tnf-alpha-induced-barrier-dysfunction-and-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis
#18
Xiangming Ding, Dongxiao Li, Mengke Li, Han Wang, Qin He, Yunwu Wang, Hongbing Yu, Dean Tian, Qin Yu
SLC26A3 encodes a Cl-/HCO3- ion transporter that is also known as downregulated in adenoma (DRA) and is involved in HCO3-/mucus formation. The role of DRA in the epithelial barrier has not been previously established. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro mechanisms of DRA in the colon epithelial barrier. Immunofluorescence (IF) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies reveal that DRA binds directly to tight junction (TJ) proteins and affects the expression of TJ proteins in polarized Caco-2BBe cells...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330185/the-mgte-homolog-fici-acts-as-a-secondary-ferrous-iron-importer-in-shewanella-oneidensis-strain-mr-1
#19
Brittany D Bennett, Kaitlyn E Redford, Jeffrey A Gralnick
The transport of metals into and out of cells is necessary for the maintenance of appropriate intracellular concentrations. Metals are needed for incorporation into metalloproteins but become toxic at higher concentrations. Many metal transport proteins have been discovered in bacteria, including the Mg2+ transporter-E (MgtE) family of passive Mg2+/Co2+ cation-selective channels. Low sequence identity exists between members of the MgtE family, indicating that substrate specificity may differ among MgtE transporters...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328624/secondary-phase-stochastics-in-lithium-ion-battery-electrodes
#20
Aashutosh Mistry, Kandler Smith, Partha P Mukherjee
Lithium-ion battery electrodes exhibit complex interplay among multiple electrochemically coupled transport processes, which rely on the underlying functionality and relative arrangement of different constituent phases. The electrochemically inactive solid phases (e.g., conductive additive and binder, referred to as the secondary phase) while beneficial for improved electronic conductivity and mechanical integrity, may partially block the electrochemically active sites and introduce additional transport resistances in the pore (electrolyte) phase...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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