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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161496/ion-transport-across-biological-membranes-by-carborane-capped-gold-nanoparticles
#1
Marcin P Grzelczak, Stephen P Danks, Robert C Klip, Domagoj Belic, Adnana Zaulet, Casper Kunstmann-Olsen, Dan F Bradley, Tatsuya Tsukuda, Clara Viñas, Francesc Teixidor, Jonathan J Abramson, Mathias Brust
2-3 nm carborane-capped gold nanoparticles (Au/carborane NPs) can act as artificial ion transporters across biological membranes. The particles themselves are large hydrophobic anions that have the ability to disperse in aqueous media and to partition over both sides of a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Their presence therefore causes a membrane potential that is determined by the relative concentrations of particles on each side of the membrane according to the Nernst-Equation. The particles tend to adsorb to both sides of the membrane and can flip across if changes in membrane potential require their repartitioning...
November 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160934/highly-efficient-perovskite-solar-cells-based-on-zn2ti3o8-nanoparticles-as-electron-transporting-material-with-efficiency-over-17
#2
Zhong-Ning Chen, Aiying Pang, Deli Shen, Mingdeng Wei
Developing ternary metal oxides as electron transporting layers (ETL) for perovskite solar cell is highly challenging in the field of third-generation photovoltaics. In this study, highly mesoporous zinc titanate oxide (Zn2Ti3O8) scaffold synthesized by ion-exchange method has been successfully used as ETL for the fabrication of methyl ammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells. The optimized devices exhibit 17.21% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.02 V, short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 21...
November 21, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160452/technical-issues-and-conservation-conditions-of-medicines-in-the-primary-health-care-of-the-brazilian-unified-health-system
#3
Ediná Alves Costa, Patrícia Sodré Araújo, Marcelo Tavares Pereira, Ana Cristina Souto, Gisélia Santana Souza, Augusto Afonso Guerra, Francisco de Assis Acurcio, Ione Aquemi Guibu, Juliana Alvares, Karen Sarmento Costa, Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski, Orlando Mario Soeiro, Silvana Nair Leite
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the technical issues and conditions of medicines conservation in Primary Health Care of Brazilian regions, responsible for pharmacy/dispensing unit profile; environmental, storage, and dose fractioning conditions; inventory control and waste management; fire and electrical failure safety items; transportation problems; advertising regulation; and pharmacovigilance. METHODS: This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços (National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services)-, a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of an information survey within a representative sample of municipalities, stratified by Brazilian regions, which constitute the study domains, and a sample of Primary Health Care services...
November 13, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159836/mechanisms-of-calcium-sequestration-by-isolated-malpighian-tubules-of-the-house-cricket-acheta-domesticus
#4
Austin Browne, Michael J O'Donnell
Hemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved by the Malpighian tubules, primarily by sequestering excess Ca(2+) within internal calcium stores (Ca-rich granules) most often located within type I (principal) tubule cells. Using both the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and the Ramsay secretion assay this study provides the first measurements of basolateral and transepithelial Ca(2+) fluxes across the Malpighian tubules of an Orthopteran insect, the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Ca(2+) transport was specific to midtubule segments, where 97% of the Ca(2+) entering the tubule is sequestered within intracellular calcium stores and the remaining 3% is secreted into the lumen...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159314/vasoconstriction-triggered-by-hydrogen-sulfide-evidence-for-na-k-2cl-cotransport-and-l-type-ca-2-channel-mediated-pathway
#5
Sergei N Orlov, Svetlana V Gusakova, Liudmila V Smaglii, Svetlana V Koltsova, Svetalana V Sidorenko
Objectives: This study examined the dose-dependent actions of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on isometric contractions and ion transport in rat aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC). Methods: Isometric contraction was measured in ring aortas segments from male Wistar rats. Activity of Na(+)/K(+)-pump and Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-)cotransport was measured in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta as ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-resistant, bumetanide-sensitive components of the (86)Rb influx, respectively...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158920/enhancement-in-tonically-active-glutamatergic-inputs-to-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-induced-high-blood-pressure
#6
Wei Wang, Zui Zou, Xing Tan, Ru-Wen Zhang, Chang-Zhen Ren, Xue-Ya Yao, Cheng-Bao Li, Wei-Zhong Wang, Xue-Yin Shi
Neuropathic pain increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension with the characteristic of sympathetic overactivity. The enhanced tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contributes to sympathetic overactivity and blood pressure (BP) in cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesize that neuropathic pain enhances tonically active glutamatergic inputs to the RVLM, which contributes to high level of BP and sympathetic outflow. Animal model with the trigeminal neuropathic pain was induced by the infraorbital nerve-chronic constriction injury (ION-CCI)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158540/calcium-binding-and-voltage-gating-in-cx46-hemichannels
#7
Bernardo I Pinto, Amaury Pupo, Isaac E García, Karel Mena-Ulecia, Agustín D Martínez, Ramón Latorre, Carlos Gonzalez
The opening of connexin (Cx) hemichannels in the membrane is tightly regulated by calcium (Ca(2+)) and membrane voltage. Electrophysiological and atomic force microscopy experiments indicate that Ca(2+) stabilizes the hemichannel closed state. However, structural data show that Ca(2+) binding induces an electrostatic seal preventing ion transport without significant structural rearrangements. In agreement with the closed-state stabilization hypothesis, we found that the apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity is increased as the voltage is made more negative...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157234/zinc-transporters-and-insulin-resistance-therapeutic-implications-for-type-2-diabetes-and-metabolic-disease
#8
REVIEW
Shaghayegh Norouzi, John Adulcikas, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Stephen Myers
BACKGROUND: Zinc is a metal ion that is essential for growth and development, immunity, and metabolism, and therefore vital for life. Recent studies have highlighted zinc's dynamic role as an insulin mimetic and a cellular second messenger that controls many processes associated with insulin signaling and other downstream pathways that are amendable to glycemic control. MAIN BODY: Mechanisms that contribute to the decompartmentalization of zinc and dysfunctional zinc transporter mechanisms, including zinc signaling are associated with metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157209/transcriptome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-zinc-uptake-related-genes-in-trichophyton-mentagrophytes
#9
Xinke Zhang, Pengxiu Dai, Yongping Gao, Xiaowen Gong, Hao Cui, Yipeng Jin, Yihua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Trichophyton mentagrophytes is an important zoonotic dermatophytic (ringworm) pathogen; causing severe skin infection in humans and other animals worldwide. Fortunately, commonly used fungal skin disease prevention and treatment measures are relatively simple. However, T. mentagrophytes is primarily studied at the epidemiology and drug efficacy research levels, yet current study has been unable to meet the needs of clinical medicine. Zinc is a crucial trace element for the growth and reproduction of fungi and other microorganisms...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155562/quantification-of-nanomaterial-nanomedicine-trafficking-in-vivo
#10
Liming Wang, Liang Yan, Jing Liu, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of nanomaterials (NMs) or nanomedicines (NMs), are fundamental biological processes that dominate their nanomedical functions or nanotoxicities. Mostly, NMs exist in biological systems as a form of nanoparticles (NPs). However, to determine the composition, spatial distribution, and states of existence of NMs/NPs in vivo, upon entry into the body, as well as to monitor the dynamic changes of these information over time remain a challenge for the current analytical methodology due to their limited efficiently in characterizing interactions between these complex(nano)-complex(bio) systems...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154907/an-integrated-mathematical-epithelial-cell-model-for-airway-surface-liquid-regulation-by-mechanical-forces
#11
Dan Wu, Richard C Boucher, Brian Button, Timothy Elston, Ching-Long Lin
A robust method based on reverse engineering was utilized to construct the ion-channel conductance functions for airway epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC). The ion-channel conductance models for both normal (NL) and cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia were developed and then coupled to an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism model and a fluid transport model (collectively called the integrated cell model) to investigate airway surface liquid (ASL) volume regulation and hence mucus concentration, by mechanical forces in NL and CF human airways...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153987/development-and-characterization-of-a-human-and-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayer-platform
#12
Kenji Kozuka, Ying He, Samantha Koo-McCoy, Padmapriya Kumaraswamy, Baoming Nie, Karen Shaw, Priscilla Chan, Michael Leadbetter, Limin He, Jason G Lewis, Ziyang Zhong, Dominique Charmot, Marwan Balaa, Andrew J King, Jeremy S Caldwell, Matthew Siegel
We describe the development and characterization of a mouse and human epithelial cell monolayer platform of the small and large intestines, with a broad range of potential applications including the discovery and development of minimally systemic drug candidates. Culture conditions for each intestinal segment were optimized by correlating monolayer global gene expression with the corresponding tissue segment. The monolayers polarized, formed tight junctions, and contained a diversity of intestinal epithelial cell lineages...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153712/facile-preparation-of-hexagonal-tin-sulfide-nanoplates-anchored-on-graphene-nanosheets-for-highly-efficient-sodium-storage
#13
Jiajia Ye, Lei Qi, Binbin Liu, Caixia Xu
Tin sulfide/graphene nanocomposite with hexagonal tin sulfide (SnS2) nanoplates anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets was easily synthesized by one-step controllable hydrothermal growth followed by mild reduction. The SnS2 hexagonal-plates distributed tightly and uniformly on the RGO support in a more favorable face-to-face (FTF) manner. The formation of SnS2 nanoplates with hexagonal morphology may result from the accelerating growth of six energetically equivalent high-index (1 1 0) crystal planes and prohibiting growth of the (0 0 1) crystal plane on graphene...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153319/thermodynamic-coupling-function-analysis-of-allosteric-mechanisms-in-the-human-dopamine-transporter
#14
Michael V LeVine, Michel A Cuendet, Asghar M Razavi, George Khelashvili, Harel Weinstein
Allostery plays a crucial role in the mechanism of neurotransmitter-sodium symporters, such as the human dopamine transporter. To investigate the molecular mechanism that couples the transport-associated inward release of the Na(+) ion from the Na2 site to intracellular gating, we applied a combination of the thermodynamic coupling function (TCF) formalism and Markov state model analysis to a 50-μs data set of molecular dynamics trajectories of the human dopamine transporter, in which multiple spontaneous Na(+) release events were observed...
November 15, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152327/proangiogenic-alginate-g-pyrrole-hydrogel-with-decoupled-control-of-mechanical-rigidity-and-electrically-conductivity
#15
Ross J DeVolder, Yongbeom Seo, Hyunjoon Kong
Background: An electrically conductive hydrogel has emerged to regulate cellular secretion activities with electrical stimulation. However, the electrical conductivity of typical hydrogel systems decreases with increasing elastic modulus of the hydrogels because of decreased transport of ions through a polymeric cross-linked mesh. Method: This study hypothesized that the inverse dependency between electrical conductivity and elastic modulus would be made through the cross-linking of conductive monomer-units conjugated to a hydrophilic polymeric backbone...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151691/parallel-mrna-proteomics-and-mirna-expression-analysis-in-cell-line-models-of-the-intestine
#16
Finbarr O'Sullivan, Joanne Keenan, Sinead Aherne, Fiona O'Neill, Colin Clarke, Michael Henry, Paula Meleady, Laura Breen, Niall Barron, Martin Clynes, Karina Horgan, Padraig Doolan, Richard Murphy
AIM: To identify miRNA-regulated proteins differentially expressed between Caco2 and HT-29: two principal cell line models of the intestine. METHODS: Exponentially growing Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were harvested and prepared for mRNA, miRNA and proteomic profiling. mRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST array. miRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix Genechip miRNA 3.0 array...
November 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151076/modulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-by-the-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-monoacylglycerol-and-diacylglycerol-lipase-inhibitors-as-an-attractive-target-for-secretory-diarrhoea-therapy
#17
A Wasilewski, A Misicka, M Sacharczuk, J Fichna
Secretory diarrhoea is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Our aim was to characterize the effect of inhibition of selected enzymes involved in the synthesis or degradation of endocannabinoids on electrolyte equilibrium in the mouse colonic tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PF-3845, JZL-184 and RHC-80267, as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), monoacylglycerol (MAGL) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), respectively on epithelial ion transport in isolated mouse colon stimulated by forskolin (FSK), veratridine (VER) and bethanechol (BET)...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150662/turbulent-mass-transfer-caused-by-vortex-induced-reconnection-in-collisionless-magnetospheric-plasmas
#18
T K M Nakamura, H Hasegawa, W Daughton, S Eriksson, W Y Li, R Nakamura
Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the main driver to transport solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere when the magnetopause features a large magnetic shear. However, even when the magnetic shear is too small for spontaneous reconnection, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability driven by a super-Alfvénic velocity shear is expected to facilitate the transport. Although previous kinetic simulations have demonstrated that the non-linear vortex flows from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability gives rise to vortex-induced reconnection and resulting plasma transport, the system sizes of these simulations were too small to allow the reconnection to evolve much beyond the electron scale as recently observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148727/substrate-assisted-in-situ-confinement-pyrolysis-of-zeolitic-imidazolate-frameworks-to-nitrogen-doped-hierarchical-porous-carbon-nanoframes-with-superior-lithium-storage
#19
Wei Tian, Jialiang Liu, Yixian Wang, Jingyan Liu, Yanpeng Li, Mingbo Wu
Porous carbons generated from the direct pyrolysis of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have showed great potential as a kind of promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, several common drawbacks, such as the inevitable structural damage during carbonization process and intrinsic micropore-dominated feature of MOFs-derived products, largely impede the exposure of active sites and mass transfer, thus usually resulting in inferior electrochemical performances. In this work, an effective and controllable approach was reported to construct nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon nanoframes (N-HPCFs) through in situ pyrolysis transformation of small-sized zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) that are in advance combined with a two-dimensional substrate templated from g-C3N4...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148706/porous-carbon-with-willow-leaf-shaped-pores-for-high-performance-supercapacitors
#20
Yanhong Shi, Lin-Lin Zhang, Tyler B Schon, Huan-Huan Li, Chao-Ying Fan, Xiao-Ying Li, Hai-Feng Wang, Xing-Long Wu, Haiming Xie, Haizhu Sun, Dwight S Seferos, Jingping Zhang
A novel kind of biomass-derived high oxygen containing carbon materials doped with nitrogen that have willow leaf shaped pores was synthesized. The obtained carbon materials have an exotic hierarchical pore structure composed of bowl shaped macropores, willow leaf shaped pores, and an abundance of micropores. This unique hierarchical porous structure provides an effective combination of high current densities with high capacitance due to a pseudocapacitive component that is afforded by the introduction of nitrogen and oxygen dopants...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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