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Ion transporters

W J Capecchi, J K Anderson, P J Bonofiglo, J Kim, S Sears
The neutron emissivity profile in the Madison Symmetric Torus is being reconstructed through the use of a collimated neutron detector. A scintillator-photomultiplier tube (PMT) system is employed to detect the fusion neutrons with the plasma viewing volume defined by a 55 cm deep, 5 cm diameter aperture. Effective detection of neutrons from the viewing volume is achieved through neutron moderation using 1300 lbs of high density polyethylene shielding, which modeling predicts attenuates the penetrating flux by a factor of 10(4) or more...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
P J Bonofiglo, J K Anderson, A F Almagri, J Kim, J Clark, W Capecchi, S H Sears, J Egedal
A fast ion loss detector has been constructed and implemented on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) to investigate energetic ion losses and transport due to energetic particle and MHD instabilities. The detector discriminates particle orbits solely on pitch and consists of two thin-foil, particle collecting plates that are symmetric with respect to the device aperture. One plate collects fast ion signal, while the second aids in the minimization of background and noise effects. Initial measurements are reported along with suggestions for the next design phase of the detector...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
A Shimizu, T Ido, M Nishiura, S Kato, K Ogawa, H Takahashi, H Igami, Y Yoshimura, S Kubo, T Shimozuma
Two-dimensional spatial profiles of potential fluctuation were measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). For 2D spatial profile measurements, the probe beam energy has to be changed, which requires the adjustment of many deflectors in the beam transport line to optimize the beam trajectory, since the transport line of LHD-HIBP system is long. The automatic beam adjustment system was developed, which allows us to adjust the beam trajectory easily. By analyzing coherence between potential fluctuation and magnetic probe signal, the noise level of the mode power spectrum of the potential fluctuation can be reduced...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
X Y Peng, Z J Chen, X Zhang, T F Du, Z M Hu, L J Ge, Y M Zhang, J Q Sun, G Gorini, M Nocente, M Tardocchi, L Q Hu, G Q Zhong, N Pu, S Y Lin, B N Wan, X Q Li, G H Zhang, J X Chen, T S Fan
The 2.5 MeV TOFED (Time-Of-Flight Enhanced Diagnostics) neutron spectrometer with a double-ring structure has been installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to perform advanced neutron emission spectroscopy diagnosis of deuterium plasmas. This work describes the response function of the TOFED spectrometer, which is evaluated for the fully assembled instrument in its final layout. Results from Monte Carlo simulations and dedicated experiments with pulsed light sources are presented and used to determine properties of light transport from the scintillator...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
K Tanaka, S Coda, M Yoshida, H Sasao, Y Kawano, R Imazawa, H Kubo, Y Kamada
A tangential viewing phase contrast imaging system is being designed for the JT-60SA tokamak to investigate microturbulence. In order to obtain localized information on the turbulence, a spatial-filtering technique is applied, based on magnetic shearing. The tangential viewing geometry enhances the radial localization. The probing laser beam is injected tangentially and traverses the entire plasma region including both low and high field sides. The spatial resolution for an Internal Transport Barrier discharge is estimated at 30%-70% of the minor radius at k = 5 cm(-1), which is the typical expected wave number of ion scale turbulence such as ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
M E Weller, P Beiersdorfer, V A Soukhanovskii, E W Magee, F Scotti
Three extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometers have been mounted on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). All three are flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometers and are dubbed X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (XEUS, 8-70 Å), Long-Wavelength Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (LoWEUS, 190-440 Å), and Metal Monitor and Lithium Spectrometer Assembly (MonaLisa, 50-220 Å). XEUS and LoWEUS were previously implemented on NSTX to monitor impurities from low- to high-Z sources and to study impurity transport while MonaLisa is new and provides the system increased spectral coverage...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Kalyan C Kondapalli, R Todd Alexander, Jennifer L Pluznick, Rajini Rao
Increased renal reabsorption of sodium is a significant risk factor in hypertension. An established clinical marker for essential hypertension is elevated sodium lithium countertransport (SLC) activity. NHA2 is a newly identified Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter with potential genetic links to hypertension, which has been shown to mediate SLC activity and H(+)-coupled Na(+)(Li(+)) efflux in kidney-derived MDCK cells. To evaluate a putative role in sodium homeostasis, we determined the effect of dietary salt on NHA2...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Haibin Hu, Trond M Kortner, Karina Gajardo, Elvis Chikwati, John Tinsley, Åshild Krogdahl
In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI)...
2016: PloS One
Mariarosaria Ferraro, Matteo Masetti, Maurizio Recanatini, Andrea Cavalli, Giovanni Bottegoni
Serotonin transporter (SERT) modulates serotonergic signaling via re-uptake of serotonin in pre-synaptic cells. The inclusion in cholesterol-enriched membrane domains is crucial for SERT activity, suggesting a cross-talk between the protein and the sterol. Here, we develop a protocol to identify potential cholesterol interaction sites coupling statistical analysis to multi-microsecond coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of SERT in a previously validated raft-like membrane model. Six putative sites were found, including a putative CRAC motif on TM4 and a CARC motif on TM10...
2016: PloS One
M Löffler, E A Carrey, E Zameitat
Orotate (OA) is well-known as a precursor in biosynthesis of pyrimidines; in mammals it is released from the mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) for conversion to UMP by the cytoplasmic UMP synthase enzyme. OA is also a normal part of the diet, being found in milk and dairy products, and it is converted to uridine for use in the pyrimidine salvage pathway predominantly in liver, kidney and erythrocytes. Early research into nutrition identified orotate as "vitamin B13," and its use as a complex with organic cations or metal ions was promulgated in body-building, and in assisting therapies of metabolic syndromes...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Cheng Lian, Alejandro Gallegos, Honglai Liu, Jianzhong Wu
Ionic transport through nanopores is of fundamental importance for the design and development of nanofiltration membranes and novel electrochemical devices including supercapacitors, fuel cells and batteries. Recent experiments have shown an unusual variation of electrical conductance with the pore size and the electrolyte parameters that defies conventional scaling relations. Here ionic transport through voltage-gated nanopores was studied by using the classical density functional theory for ion distributions in combination with the Navier-Stokes equation for the electroosmotic flow...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Namrata Madan, Yunhui Xu, Qiming Duan, Moumita Banerjee, Isabel Larre, Sandrine V Pierre, Zijian Xie
The Na/K-ATPase α1 polypeptide supports both ion pumping and signaling functions. The Na/K-ATPase α3 polypeptide differs from α1 in both its primary structure and its tissue distribution. Alpha3 expression seems particularly important in neurons, and recent clinical evidence supports a unique role of this isoform in normal brain function. The nature of this specific role of α3 has remained elusive, because the ubiquitous presence of α1 has hindered efforts to characterize α3-specific functions in mammalian cell systems...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Richard Coffey, Mitchell D Knutson
The relationship between iron and β cell dysfunction has long been recognized as individuals with iron overload display an increased incidence of diabetes. This link is usually attributed to the accumulation of excess iron in β cells leading to cellular damage and impaired function. Yet, the molecular mechanism(s) by which human β cells take up iron has not been determined. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of the metal-ion transporters ZIP14, ZIP8, and DMT1 to iron uptake by human β cells...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Laura Fontenas, Flavia De Santis, Vincenzo Di Donato, Cindy Degerny, Béatrice Chambraud, Filippo Del Bene, Marcel Tawk
Axon ensheathment by specialized glial cells is an important process for fast propagation of action potentials. The rapid electrical conduction along myelinated axons is mainly due to its saltatory nature characterized by the accumulation of ion channels at the nodes of Ranvier. However, how these ion channels are transported and anchored along axons is not fully understood. We have identified N-myc downstream-regulated gene 4, ndrg4, as a novel factor that regulates sodium channel clustering in zebrafish. Analysis of chimeric larvae indicates that ndrg4 functions autonomously within neurons for sodium channel clustering at the nodes...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
Janne P Capra, Sinikka M Eskelinen
A prerequisite for tissue electrolyte homeostasis is highly regulated ion and water transport through kidney or intestinal epithelia. In the present work, we monitored changes in the cell and luminal volumes of type II Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in a 3D environment in response to drugs, or to changes in the composition of the basal extracellular fluid. Using fluorescent markers and high-resolution spinning disc confocal microscopy, we could show that lack of sodium and potassium ions in the basal fluid (tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) buffer) induces a rapid increase in the cell and luminal volumes...
September 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Xiaokun Huang, Weiyi Zhang
The misfit layered Bi2A2Co2O8 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds experience an insulator to metal transition as A's ionic radius increases. This feature is contradictory to the conventional wisdom that larger lattice constant favors insulating rather than metallic state, and is also difficult to be reconciled using the Anderson weak localization theory. In this paper, we show from the first-principles calculation that an insulator-metal transition takes place from a nonmagnetic low-spin state of Co(3+) ions to a hexagonally arranged intermediate-spin low-spin mixed-state in CoO2 plane when ionic radius increases from Ca to Ba...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhao Zhuo, Shenglin Fang, Qiaoling Hu, Danping Huang, Jie Feng
The absorption of different iron sources is a trending research topic. Many studies have revealed that organic iron exhibits better bioavailability than inorganic iron, but the concrete underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the differences in bioavailability of ferrous sulfate and ferrous glycinate in the intestines of SD rats using Illumina sequencing technology. Digital gene expression analysis resulted in the generation of almost 128 million clean reads, with expression data for 17,089 unigenes...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yong Gao, Yi Lu, Meiqin Wu, Enxing Liang, Yan Li, Dongping Zhang, Zhitong Yin, Xiaoyun Ren, Yi Dai, Dexiang Deng, Jianmin Chen
Maize is moderately sensitive to salt stress; therefore, soil salinity is a serious threat to its production worldwide. Here, excellent salt-tolerant maize inbred line TL1317 and extremely salt-sensitive maize inbred line SL1303 were screened to understand the maize response to salt stress and its tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, membrane stability index, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, maximum photochemical efficiency, photochemical efficiency, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, and proline and water soluble sugar content analyses were used to identify that the physiological effects of osmotic stress of salt stress were obvious and manifested at about 3 days after salt stress in maize...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
M J Loveridge, M J Lain, I D Johnson, A Roberts, S D Beattie, R Dashwood, J A Darr, R Bhagat
Lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4 (LFP) has demonstrated promising performance as a cathode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), by overcoming the rate performance issues from limited electronic conductivity. Nano-sized vanadium-doped LFP (V-LFP) was synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal process using supercritical water as a reagent. The atomic % of dopant determined the particle shape. 5 at. % gave mixed plate and rod-like morphology, showing optimal electrochemical performance and good rate properties vs...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shaohui Li, Jingwei Chen, Mengqi Cui, Guofa Cai, Jiangxin Wang, Peng Cui, Xuefei Gong, Pooi See Lee
Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are promising electrical energy storage systems for mid-to-large-scale applications due to the high energy and large power output without sacrificing long cycle stability. However, due to the different energy storage mechanisms between anode and cathode, the energy densities of LICs often degrade noticeably at high power density, because of the sluggish kinetics limitation at the battery-type anode side. Herein, a high-performance LIC by well-defined ZnMn2 O4 -graphene hybrid nanosheets anode and N-doped carbon nanosheets cathode is presented...
November 28, 2016: Small
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