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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340353/molecular-structure-of-the-human-cftr-ion-channel
#1
Fangyu Liu, Zhe Zhang, László Csanády, David C Gadsby, Jue Chen
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that uniquely functions as an ion channel. Here, we present a 3.9 Å structure of dephosphorylated human CFTR without nucleotides, determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Close resemblance of this human CFTR structure to zebrafish CFTR under identical conditions reinforces its relevance for understanding CFTR function. The human CFTR structure reveals a previously unresolved helix belonging to the R domain docked inside the intracellular vestibule, precluding channel opening...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339846/estimation-of-whole-body-radiation-exposure-from-brachytherapy-for-oral-cancer-using-a-monte-carlo-simulation
#2
Y Ozaki, H Watanabe, A Kaida, M Miura, K Nakagawa, K Toda, R Yoshimura, Y Sumi, T Kurabayashi
Early stage oral cancer can be cured with oral brachytherapy, but whole-body radiation exposure status has not been previously studied. Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection Committee (ICRP) recommended the use of ICRP phantoms to estimate radiation exposure from external and internal radiation sources. In this study, we used a Monte Carlo simulation with ICRP phantoms to estimate whole-body exposure from oral brachytherapy. We used a Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) to model oral brachytherapy with 192Ir hairpins and 198Au grains and to perform a Monte Carlo simulation on the ICRP adult reference computational phantoms...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339550/the-tension-sensitive-ion-transport-activity-of-msl8-is-critical-for-its-function-in-pollen-hydration-and-germination
#3
Eric S Hamilton, Elizabeth S Haswell
All cells respond to osmotic challenges, including those imposed during normal growth and development. Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels provide a conserved mechanism for regulating osmotic forces by conducting ions in response to increased membrane tension. We previously demonstrated that the MS ion channel MscS-Like 8 (MSL8) is required for pollen to survive multiple osmotic challenges that occur during the normal process of fertilization, and that it can inhibit pollen germination. However, it remained unclear whether these physiological functions required ion flux through a mechanically gated channel provided by MSL8...
January 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335346/a-facile-method-to-in-situ-synthesize-porous-ni%C3%A2-geo%C3%A2-nano-sheets-on-nickel-foam-as-advanced-anode-electrodes-for-li-ion-batteries
#4
Delong Ma, Xiaomin Shi, Anming Hu
A strategy for growth of porous Ni₂GeO₄ nanosheets on conductive nickel (Ni) foam with robust adhesion as a high-performance electrode for Li-ion batteries is proposed and realized, through a facile two-step method. It involves the low temperature hydro-thermal synthesis of bimetallic (Ni, Ge) hydroxide nanosheets precursor on Ni foam substrates and subsequent thermal transformation to porous Ni₂GeO₄ nanosheets. The as-prepared Ni₂GeO₄ nanosheets possess many interparticle mesopores with a size range from 5 to 15 nm...
November 19, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335319/influence-of-quantum-dot-concentration-on-carrier-transport-in-zno-tio%C3%A2-nano-hybrid-photoanodes-for-quantum-dot-sensitized-solar-cells
#5
Francis S Maloney, Uma Poudyal, Weimin Chen, Wenyong Wang
Zinc oxide nanowire and titanium dioxide nanoparticle (ZnO:TiO₂ NW/NP) hybrid films were utilized as the photoanode layer in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a ZnS passivation layer were deposited on the ZnO:TiO₂ NW/NP layer as a photosensitizer by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Cells were fabricated using a solid-state polymer electrolyte and intensity-modulated photovoltage and photocurrent spectroscopy (IMVS/PS) was carried out to study the electron transport properties of the cell...
October 25, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334479/signal-induced-release-of-guests-from-a-photolatent-metal-phenolic-supramolecular-cage-and-its-hybrid-assemblies
#6
Chiyoung Park, Beom Joo Yang, Ki Beom Jeong, Chae Bin Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Bon-Cheol Ku
The coordination chemistry of plant polyphenols and metal ions can be used for coating various substrates and for creating modular superstructures. We herein explored this chemistry for the controlled release of guests from mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). The selective adsorption of tannic acids (TAs) on MSN silica walls opens the MSN mesoporous channels without disturbing mass transport. The channel may be closed by the coordination of TA with Cu(II) ions. Upon exposure to light, photolysis of Trojan horse guests (photoacid generators, PAGs) leads to acid generation, which enables the release of payloads by decomposing the outer coordination shell consisting of TA and Cu(II) ...
March 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332673/hierarchical-porous-nico2o4-nanosheet-arrays-directly-grown-on-carbon-cloth-with-superior-lithium-storage-performance
#7
Li Zhao, Lei Wang, Peng Yu, Chungui Tian, He Feng, Zhongwei Diao, Honggang Fu
Binary metal oxides have been explored as advanced candidates in lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes due to their high specific capacity. Herein, the hierarchical structures of porous NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly grown on a conductive carbon cloth substrate (3D NCO-PSA/CC) were obtained by a facile in situ synthetic strategy. When applied as a binder-free LIB anode, it exhibited satisfactory performance with a high discharge capacity (a first discharge capacity of 2090.8 mA h g(-1) and a stable capacity of 1687...
March 23, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332210/an-update-on-the-regulation-of-photosynthesis-by-thylakoid-ion-channels-and-transporters-in-arabidopsis
#8
Cornelia Spetea, Andrei Herdean, Guillaume Allorent, Luca Carraretto, Giovanni Finazzi, Ildikò Szabo
In natural variable environments, plants rapidly adjust photosynthesis for optimal balance between light absorption and utilization. There is increasing evidence suggesting that ion fluxes across the chloroplast thylakoid membrane play an important role in this regulation, by affecting the proton motive force, and consequently photosynthesis and thylakoid membrane ultrastructure. This minireview presents an update on the thylakoid ion channels and transporters characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana as being involved in these processes, as well as an outlook at the evolutionary conservation of their functions in other photosynthetic organisms...
March 23, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330875/lysine300-is-essential-for-stability-but-not-for-electrogenic-transport-of-the-e-coli-nhaa-na-h-antiporter
#9
Octavian Călinescu, Manish Dwivedi, Miyer Patiño-Ruiz, Etana Padan, Klaus Fendler
Na(+)/H(+) antiporters are located in the cytoplasmic and intracellular membranes and play crucial roles in regulating intracellular pH, Na(+), and volume. The NhaA antiporter of Escherichia coli is the best studied member of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger family and a model system for all related Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, including eukaryotic representatives. Several amino acid residues are important for the transport activity of NhaA, including Lys300, a residue that has recently been proposed to carry one of the two H(+) that NhaA exchanges for one Na(+) ion during one transport cycle...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330553/physiological-and-molecular-insights-into-the-high-salinity-tolerance-of-pongamia-pinnata-l-pierre-a-potential-biofuel-tree-species
#10
Sureshbabu Marriboina, Debashree Sengupta, Sumit Kumar, Attipalli R Reddy
Soil salinity is gradually becoming a threat to the global economy by affecting agricultural productivity worldwide. Here, we analyze the salinity tolerance of Pongamia pinnata with an insight into the underlying physiological and molecular responses. Despite a reduction in net photosynthetic rate, P. pinnata efficiently maintained its leaf water potentials even at 500mM NaCl for 15days and displayed no visible stress symptoms. Na(+) localization analysis using CoroNa-Green AM revealed effective Na(+) sequestration in the roots when compared to leaves...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330142/an-overview-of-physico-chemical-mechanisms-of-biogas-production-by-microbial-communities-a-step-towards-sustainable-waste-management
#11
REVIEW
Ramansu Goswami, Pritam Chattopadhyay, Arunima Shome, Sambhu Nath Banerjee, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Anil K Mathew, Shibani Chaudhury
Biogas is a combination of methane, CO2, nitrogen, H2S and traces of few other gases. Almost any organic waste can be biologically transformed into biogas and other energy-rich organic compounds through the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus helping in sustainable waste management. Although microbes are involved in each step of AD, knowledge about those microbial consortia is limited due to the lack of phylogenetic and metabolic data of predominantly unculturable microorganisms. However, culture-independent methods like PCR-based ribotyping has been successfully employed to get information about the microbial consortia involved in AD...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328149/comparative-genomic-analyses-of-transport-proteins-encoded-within-the-red-algae-chondrus-crispus-galdieria-sulphuraria-and-cyanidioschyzon-merolae
#12
Justin Lee, Shounak Ghosh, Milton H Saier
Galdieria sulphuraria and Cyanidioschyzon merolae are thermo-acidophilic unicellular red algal cousins capable of living in volcanic environments, although the former can additionally thrive in the presence of toxic heavy metals. Bioinformatic analyses of transport systems were carried out on their genomes, as well as that of the mesophilic multicellular red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish moss). We identified transport proteins related to the metabolic capabilities, physiological properties, and environmental adaptations of these organisms...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328016/a-tunable-3d-nanostructured-conductive-gel-framework-electrode-for-high-performance-lithium-ion-batteries
#13
Ye Shi, Jun Zhang, Andrea M Bruck, Yiman Zhang, Jing Li, Eric A Stach, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Amy C Marschilok, Esther S Takeuchi, Guihua Yu
This study develops a tunable 3D nanostructured conductive gel framework as both binder and conductive framework for lithium ion batteries. A 3D nanostructured gel framework with continuous electron pathways can provide hierarchical pores for ion transport and form uniform coatings on each active particle against aggregation. The hybrid gel electrodes based on a polypyrrole gel framework and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles as a model system in this study demonstrate the best rate performance, the highest achieved mass ratio of active materials, and the highest achieved specific capacities when considering total electrode mass, compared to current literature...
March 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327752/umbrella-sampling-molecular-dynamics-simulations-reveal-concerted-ion-movement-through-g-quadruplex-dna-channels
#14
Parisa Akhshi, Gang Wu
We have applied the umbrella sampling (US) method in all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to obtain potential of mean force (PMF) profiles for ion transport through three representative G-quadruplex DNA channels: [d(TG4T)]4, [d(G3T4G4)]2, and d[G4(T4G4)3]. The US MD results are in excellent agreement with those obtained previously with the adaptive biasing force (ABF) method. We then utilized the unique features in the US MD method to investigate multi-ion effects in [d(G3T4G4)]2 and discovered that the concerted ion movement is crucial for fully explaining the unusual experimental results on ion movement in this particular G-quadruplex system...
March 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326766/various-structured-molybdenum-based-nanomaterials-as-advanced-anode-materials-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#15
Zexing Wu, Wen Lei, Jie Wang, Rong Liu, Kedong Xia, Cuijuan Xuan, Deli Wang
A facile and scalable solvothermal high-temperature treatment strategy was developed to construct few-layered ultra-small MoS2 with less than three layers. These are embedded in carbon spheres (MoS2-C) and can be used as advanced anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In the resulting architecture, the intimate contact between MoS2 surface and carbon spheres can effectively avert aggregation and volume expansion of MoS2 during the lithiation-delithiation process. Moreover, it improves the structural integrity of the electrode remarkably, while the conductive carbon spheres provide quick transport of both electrons and ions within the electrode...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324721/ultradispersed-nanoarchitecture-of-sns-nanoparticles-reduced-graphene-oxide-for-enhanced-sodium-storage-performance
#16
Junming Li, Xingxing Zhao, Zhian Zhang
SnSanodes for Na-ions (NIBs) batteries are known for theirs significantly high theoretical capacities involving conversion reactions and alloying/dealloying mechanisms. However, the large volume expansion of the SnS materials during electrode reactions and the lowelectrical conductivity could cause severe structural degradation and electrodes pulverization, consequently resulting in capacity fading. In this study, Ultradispersed nanoarchitecture of SnS nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (SnS/rGO) is prepared by the in situ growing SnS nanoparticles on the graphene followed by the thermal treatment...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324648/influence-of-modern-stormwater-management-practices-on-transport-of-road-salt-to-surface-waters
#17
Joel W Snodgrass, Joel Moore, Steven M Lev, Ryan E Casey, David R Ownby, Robert F Flora, Grant Izzo
Application of road salts in regions with colder climates is leading to ground and surface water contamination. However, we know little about how modern stormwater management practices affect the movement of road salt through urban watersheds. We investigated groundwater contamination and transport of road salts at two stormwater ponds in Baltimore County, Maryland. In association with the ponds, we documented a plume of contaminated groundwater that resulted in Cl- loadings to the adjacent stream of 6,574 to 40,008 kg Cl- per winter, depending on winter snowfall...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324160/regulation-of-blood-oxygen-transport-in-hibernating-mammals
#18
Inge G Revsbech, Angela Fago
Along with the periodic reductions in O2 requirements of mammalian hibernators during winter, the O2 affinity of the blood of mammalian hibernators is seasonally regulated to help match O2 supply to consumption, contributing to limit tissue oxidative stress, particularly at arousals. Specifically, mammalian hibernators consistently show an overall increase in the blood-O2 affinity, which causes a decreased O2 unloading to tissues, while having similar or lower tissue O2 tensions during hibernation. This overview explores how the decreased body temperature and concentration of red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) that occur in hibernation contribute separately or in combination to the concurrent increase in the O2 affinity of the hemoglobin, the O2 carrier protein of the blood...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322562/massively-enhanced-electroosmotic-transport-in-nanochannels-grafted-with-end-charged-polyelectrolyte-brushes
#19
Guang Chen, Siddhartha Das
We establish that nanochannels grafted with pH-responsive, end-charged polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes demonstrate a massive augmentation in the strength of the electroosmotic (EOS) transport in presence of an external electric field. This contradicts the existing understanding that the EOS transport is severely retarded in channels grafted with the PE brushes due to the brush-induced enhanced drag force. Our mathematical model, developed on the basis of the fact that the ion concentration polarization (ICP) effect can be neglected, explains this enhancement of the EOS transport by noting that the end-charged PE brushes demonstrate a unique ability of localizing the electric double layer (or the EDL) or equivalently localizing the maximum charge density of the electrolyte ions at the location of its end, i...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322499/formation-of-a-surficial-bifunctional-nanolayer-on-nb2-o5-for-ultrastable-electrodes-for-lithium-ion-battery
#20
Jun Young Cheong, Chanhoon Kim, Ji-Won Jung, Ki Ro Yoon, Su-Ho Cho, Doo-Young Youn, Hye-Yeon Jang, Il-Doo Kim
Safe and long cycle life electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries are significantly important to meet the increasing demands of rechargeable batteries. Niobium pentoxide (Nb2 O5 ) is one of the highly promising candidates for stable electrodes due to its safety and minimal volume expansion. Nevertheless, pulverization and low conductivity of Nb2 O5 have remained as inherent challenges for its practical use as viable electrodes. A highly facile method is proposed to improve the overall cycle retention of Nb2 O5 microparticles by ammonia (NH3 ) gas-driven nitridation...
March 21, 2017: Small
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