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Ion transporters

Claudia Kathe, Thomas Haynes Hutson, Stephen Brendan McMahon, Lawrence David Falcon Moon
Brain and spinal injury reduce mobility and often impair sensorimotor processing in the spinal cord leading to spasticity. Here, we establish that complete transection of corticospinal pathways in the pyramids impairs locomotion and leads to increased spasms and excessive mono- and polysynaptic low threshold spinal reflexes in rats. Treatment of affected forelimb muscles with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding human Neurotrophin-3 at a clinically-feasible time-point after injury reduced spasticity...
October 19, 2016: ELife
S S Garcia, Q Du, H Wu
The oral cavity is a dynamic environment characterized by hundreds of bacterial species, saliva, and an influx of nutrients and metal ions such as copper. Although there is a physiologic level of copper in the saliva, the oral cavity is often challenged with an influx of copper ions. At high concentrations copper is toxic and must therefore be strictly regulated by pathogens for them to persist and cause disease. The cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans manages excess copper using the copYAZ operon that encodes a negative DNA-binding repressor (CopY), the P1-ATPase copper exporter (CopA), and the copper chaperone (CopZ)...
December 21, 2015: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Jangsun Hwang, Mintai P Hwang, Moonhyun Choi, Youngmin Seo, Yeonho Jo, Jaewoo Son, Jinkee Hong, Jonghoon Choi
Heavy metal pollution has been a problem since the advent of modern transportation, which despite efforts to curb emissions, continues to play a critical role in environmental pollution. Copper ions (Cu(2+)), in particular, are one of the more prevalent metals that have widespread detrimental ramifications. From this perspective, a simple and inexpensive method of detecting Cu(2+) at the micromolar level would be highly desirable. In this study, we use porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs), obtained via anodic etching of Si wafers, as a basis for undecylenic acid (UDA)- or acrylic acid (AA)-mediated hydrosilylation...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hemant R Badwaik, Kalyani Sakure, Kartik T Nakhate, Pranita Kashayap, Hemant Dhongade, Amit Alexander, Ajazuddin, Dulal Krishna Tripathi
The effect of Ca(2+) ion cross-linker on acryalamide grafted carboxymethyl xanthan gum (CMXG-g-PAAm) on the drug release was investigated. Previously, CMXG was synthesized from XG and further grafted to CMXG-g-PAAm to retard the drug release. Once the CaCl2 solution is added to CMXG-g-PAAm, Ca(2+) considerably affected the drug release mechanism mainly by diffusion and erosion. In order to validate the grafted polymer, tablets were prepared using wet granulation and dry granulation methods It has been noticed that the tablets prepared by wet granulation successfully controls the release of the drug over an extended period of time...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nikolaos Th Skoulikidis, Leonidas Vardakas, Yorgos Amaxidis, Panagiotis Michalopoulos
Desiccation and re-flooding processes play a key role on hydrological features of non-perennial rivers. This study addresses the effects of these processes on the aquatic quality and unravels underlying biogeochemical processes of an intermittent river reach in southern Greece containing a spring-fed pool. Combined spatio-temporal sampling for physicochemical parameters, major ions and nutrients and high frequency automatic monitoring during a hydrological year (2010-2011) indicate that during the dry period, solute variation was controlled by "concentration" processes (i...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Minhua Cao, Jinwen Qin, Bing Liu
Tin anode materials have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical capacity, although a rapid capacity fade is commonly observed mainly due to structural degradation from volume expansion. Here, we report a versatile strategy based on basil seed-inspired design for constructing monodisperse core-shell Sn@C hybrid confined in a carbon matrix (Sn basil seeds). Analogous to the structure of basil seeds soaked in water, Sn basil seeds have been taken to tackle this volume expansion problem in lithium ion batteries (LIBs)...
October 17, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Haiyan Luan, Peng Wu, Mingxiao Wang, Hongyu Sui, Lili Fan, Ruimin Gu
Adenosine is a molecule produced by several organs within the body, including the kidneys, where it acts as an autoregulatory factor. It mediates ion transport in several nephron segments, including the proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb (TAL). Ion transport is dictated in part by anionic chloride channels, which regulate crucial kidney functions, including the reabsorption of Na+ and Cl‑, urine concentration, and establishing and maintaining the corticomedullary osmotic gradient. The present study investigated the effects of adenosine on the mRNA expression of chloride voltage‑gated channel Kb (CLCNKB), a candidate gene involved in hypertension, which encodes for the ClC‑Kb channel...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Assiya Yermukhambetova, Chun Tan, Sohrab R Daemi, Zhumabay Bakenov, Jawwad A Darr, Daniel J L Brett, Paul R Shearing
Lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries offer higher theoretical specific capacity, lower cost and enhanced safety compared to current Li-ion battery technology. However, the multiple reactions and phase changes in the sulfur conversion cathode result in highly complex phenomena that significantly impact cycling life. For the first time to the authors' knowledge, a multi-scale 3D in-situ tomography approach is used to characterize morphological parameters and track microstructural evolution of the sulfur cathode across multiple charge cycles...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yanglei Xu, Xin Sui, Jiaqiao Jiang, Jin Zhai, Longcheng Gao
A CO-regulated ion nanochannel is demonstrated, which is inspired by the living activity of CO-induced smooth muscle vasodilation. The mechanism relies on the fact that CO has a higher affinity with ferroporphyrin compared to carboxyl groups on the surface of the nanochannels. The cooperation effect of the released carboxyl groups and the conical asymmetric shape leads the ion transportation to be diode-like.
October 17, 2016: Advanced Materials
Maolin Sha, Yusheng Liu, Huaze Dong, Fabao Luo, Fangling Jiang, Zhongfeng Tang, Guanglai Zhu, Guozhong Wu
Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are generally considered as structurally heterogeneous with inherent polar/apolar phase separation. However, even after a decade of research, local dynamics in the heterogeneous structures of ILs remain neglected. Such local dynamics may influence the ion transport of electrolytes, as well as the reaction rate of solvents. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulation to analyze the local dynamics for the structural heterogeneity of ILs. Calculations of the diffusion, reorientation, and association dynamics showed a distinct heterogeneous dynamics between the polar and apolar regions of ILs...
October 17, 2016: Soft Matter
Veronika Metlenko, WooChul Jung, Sean R Bishop, Harry L Tuller, Roger A De Souza
Oxygen transport in the mixed ionic-electronic conducting perovskite-oxides SrTi1-yFeyO3-δ (with y = 0.5 and y = 1.0) was studied by oxygen isotope exchange measurements. Experiments were performed on thin-film samples that were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on MgO substrates. Isotope penetration profiles were introduced by (18)O2/(16)O2 exchanges into the plane of the films at various temperatures in the range 773 < T/K < 973 at an oxygen activity aO2 = 0.5. Isotope profiles were determined subsequently by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and their analysis yielded tracer diffusion coefficients D* and oxygen surface exchange coefficients k*...
October 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Janet C Tait, Evan W Mercer, Lucie Gerber, George N Robertson, William S Marshall
In eurythermic vertebrates, acclimation to the cold may produce changes in physiological control systems. We hypothesize that relatively direct osmosensitive control will operate better than adrenergic receptor mediated control of ion transport in cold vs. warm conditions. Fish were acclimated to full strength seawater (SW) at 21°C and 5°C for four weeks, gill samples and blood were taken and opercular epithelia mounted in Ussing style chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) at 21°C and 5°C (measured at acclimation temperature), was significantly inhibited by the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine but the ED50 dose was significantly higher in cold conditions (93...
October 13, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Feng Xie, Wei Wang
The feasibility of using emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) with the guanidine extractant LIX 7950 as the mobile carrier for detoxifying copper-containing waste cyanide solutions has been determined. Relatively stable ELMs can be maintained under suitable stirring speed during mixing ELMs and the external solution. Effective extraction of copper cyanides by ELMs only occurs at pH below 11. High copper concentration in the external phase and high volume ratio of the external phase to ELMs result in high transport rates of copper and cyanide...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Andrew P Degnan, George O Tora, Hong Huang, David A Conlon, Carl D Davis, Umesh M Hanumegowda, Xiaoping Hou, Yi Hsiao, Joanna Hu, Rudolph Krause, Yu-Wen Li, Amy E Newton, Rick L Pieschl, Joseph Raybon, Thorsten Rosner, Jung-Hui Sun, Matthew T Taber, Sarah J Taylor, Michael K Wong, Huiping Zhang, Nicholas J Lodge, Joanne J Bronson, John E Macor, Kevin W Gillman
Combination studies of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists and serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have shown promise in preclinical models of depression. Such a combination may offer important advantages over the current standard of care. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of an indazole-based chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1 receptor antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors to overcome issues of ion channel blockade. This effort culminated in the identification of compound 9, an analog that demonstrated favorable oral bioavailability, excellent brain uptake, and robust in vivo efficacy in a validated depression model...
October 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ru Zheng, Yue Li, Huiying Sun, Xiaoyin Lu, Bao-Fa Sun, Rui Wang, Lina Cui, Cheng Zhu, Hai-Yan Lin, Hongmei Wang
The syncytiotrophoblast (STB) plays a key role in maintaining the function of the placenta during human pregnancy. However, the molecular network that orchestrates STB development remains elusive. The aim of this study was to obtain broad and deep insight into human STB formation via transcriptomics. We adopted RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to investigate genes and isoforms involved in forskolin (FSK)-induced fusion of BeWo cells. BeWo cells were treated with 50 μM FSK or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control for 24 and 48 h, and the mRNAs at 0, 24 and 48 h was sequenced...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Tongkai Chen, Chuwen Li, Ye Li, Yi Xiang, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, Ying Zheng
Schisantherin A (SA) is a promising anti-Parkinsonism Chinese herbal medicine but with poor water solubility and challenges to be delivered to the brain. We formulated SA as nanocrystals (SA-NC), aiming to improve its solubility, pharmacokinetic profile and thus provide a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The rod-shaped SA-NC had a particle size of ~160 nm with 33.3% drug loading, and the nanocrystals exhibited a fast dissolution rate in vitro. The intact drug nanocrystals could be internalized into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which were followed by rapid intracellular release, and most of the drug was transported to the basolateral side in its soluble form...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Xuewei Fu, Yead Jewel, Yu Wang, Jin Liu, Wei-Hong Katie Zhong
Simultaneous achievement of good electrochemical and mechanical properties is crucial for practical applications of solid ion conductors. Conventional polymer conductors suffer from low conductivity, low transference number and deteriorated mechanical properties with the enhancement of conductivity, resulting from the coupling between ion transport and polymer movement. Here we present a successful fabrication and fundamental understanding of a high performance soy protein-based solid conductor. The conductor shows ionic conductivity of ~ 10(-5) S/cm, transference number of 0...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Hayden Wilson, David Mycock, Isabel M Weiersbye
Tamarix usneoides is a halophyte tree endemic to south-western Africa. This species is known to excrete a range of ions from specialised glandular structures on its leaves. To understand the mechanisms involved in the transport, sequestration and excretion of ions by the glands, a study was performed on salt gland distribution and ultrastructure. The glands are vesiculated trichomes, comprised of eight cells viz., two basal collecting cells and six excretory cells, partially bounded by a secondary cell wall which, could serve as an impermeable barrier, forcing excess ions to move from the apoplast of the surrounding tissue into the cytoplasm of the basal excretory cells...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Liang Xu, Zhen-Feng Zhou
Physiological integration can enhance the performance of clonal plants in aquatic and terrestrial heterogeneous habitats and associated ecotones. Similar to nutrients, pollutants may be transported among connected ramets via physiological integration. Few studies have examined the expansion of amphibious clonal plants from terrestrial to aquatic environments, particularly when the local water supply is polluted with heavy metals. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using the amphibious plant Alternanthera philoxeroides to determine whether Cu can spread among clonal plants and examine the corresponding effects of this pollution on the expansion of clonal plants in aquatic-terrestrial ecotones...
2016: PloS One
Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Leni R Rivera, TinaMarie Lieu, Daniel P Poole, Hyun-Jung Cho, David M Bravo, John B Furness
TRPA1 is a ligand-activated cation channel found in the intestine and other tissues. Components of food that stimulate TRPA1 receptors (phytonutrients) include allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde and linalool, but these may also act at other receptors. Cells lining the intestinal mucosa are immunoreactive for TRPA1 and Trpa1 mRNA occurs in mucosal extracts, suggesting that the TRPA1 receptor is the target for these agonists. However, in situ hybridisation reveals Trpa1 expression in 5-HT containing enteroendocrine cells, not enterocytes...
October 10, 2016: Nutrients
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