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Ion transporters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431314/effect-of-metals-on-microcystin-abundance-and-environmental-fate
#1
Guofei Dai, Ningyan Peng, Jiayou Zhong, Ping Yang, Binchun Zou, Hui Chen, Qian Lou, Yuanyuan Fang, Wei Zhang
Metals can react with microcystin (MC), which is released from cyanobacterial blooms through various mechanisms; these reactions may mitigate the environmental and health risks of MCs but may also cause harm to aquatic ecosystems and humans. Several studies were conducted, including laboratory tests, ecological simulations, and a field investigation of Poyang Lake. The laboratory studies showed that Fe(3+), Cu(2+), and Pb(2+) stimulated MC photodegradation under high light intensity at the water-sediment interface, which reduced the MC accumulation in the sediment...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430482/hopping-time-scales-and-the-phonon-liquid-electron-crystal-picture-in-thermoelectric-copper-selenide
#2
D J Voneshen, H C Walker, K Refson, J P Goff
The suppression of transverse phonons by liquidlike diffusion in superionic conductors has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce thermal conductivity in thermoelectric materials [H. Lui et al. Nat. Mater. 11, 422 (2012)NMAACR1476-112210.1038/nmat3273]. We have measured the ion transport and lattice dynamics in the original phonon-liquid electron-crystal Cu_{2}Se using neutron spectroscopy. We show that hopping time scales are too slow to significantly affect lattice vibrations and that the transverse phonons persist at all temperatures...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430359/sulfur-containing-gaseous-signal-molecules-ion-channels-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Wen Yu, Hongfang Jin, Chaoshu Tang, Junbao Du, Zhiren Zhang
Sulfur-containing gaseous signal molecules including hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) were previously recognized as toxic gases. However, extensive studies have revealed that they can be generated in the cardiovascular system via a sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic pathway, playing an important part in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins present in the membrane of all biological cells; functions include establishing a resting membrane potential and controlling action potentials and other electrical signals by conducting ions across the cell membrane...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430197/g-quadruplex-organic-frameworks
#4
Yi-Lin Wu, Noah E Horwitz, Kan-Sheng Chen, Diego A Gomez-Gualdron, Norman S Luu, Lin Ma, Timothy C Wang, Mark C Hersam, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha, Randall Q Snurr, Michael R Wasielewski
Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks often π stack into crystalline solids that allow precise spatial positioning of molecular building blocks. Inspired by the hydrogen-bonded G-quadruplexes found frequently in guanine-rich DNA, here we show that this structural motif can be exploited to guide the self-assembly of naphthalene diimide and perylene diimide electron acceptors end-capped with two guanine electron donors into crystalline G-quadruplex-based organic frameworks, wherein the electron donors and acceptors form ordered, segregated π-stacked arrays...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430192/a-monodisperse-transmembrane-%C3%AE-helical-peptide-barrel
#5
Kozhinjampara R Mahendran, Ai Niitsu, Lingbing Kong, Andrew R Thomson, Richard B Sessions, Derek N Woolfson, Hagan Bayley
The fabrication of monodisperse transmembrane barrels formed from short synthetic peptides has not been demonstrated previously. This is in part because of the complexity of the interactions between peptides and lipids within the hydrophobic environment of a membrane. Here we report the formation of a transmembrane pore through the self-assembly of 35 amino acid α-helical peptides. The design of the peptides is based on the C-terminal D4 domain of the Escherichia coli polysaccharide transporter Wza. By using single-channel current recording, we define discrete assembly intermediates and show that the pore is most probably a helix barrel that contains eight D4 peptides arranged in parallel...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430017/two-nramp6-isoforms-function-as-iron-and-manganese-transporters-and-contribute-to-disease-resistance-in-rice
#6
Cristina Peris-Peris, Albert Serra-Cardona, Ferrán Sánchez-Sanuy, Sonia Campo, Joaquin Ariño, Blanca San Segundo
Metal ions are essential elements for all living organisms. However, metals can be toxic when present in excess. In plants, metal homeostasis is partly achieved through the function of metal transporters, including the diverse natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMP). Among them, the OsNramp6 gene encodes a previously uncharacterized member of the rice NRAMP family that undergoes alternative splicing to produce different NRAMP6 proteins. In this work, we determined the metal transport activity and biological role of the full-length and the shortest NRAMP6 proteins (l-NRAMP6 and s-NRAMP6, respectively)...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429016/synergetic-effects-of-k-and-mg-2-ion-intercalation-on-the-electrochemical-and-actuation-properties-of-the-two-dimensional-ti3c2-mxene
#7
Qiang Gao, Jeremy Come, Michael Naguib, Stephen Jesse, Yury Gogotsi, Nina Balke
Two-dimensional materials, such as MXenes, are attractive candidates for energy storage and electrochemical actuators due to their high volume changes upon ion intercalation. Of special interest for boosting energy storage is the intercalation of multivalent ions such as Mg(2+), which suffers from sluggish intercalation and transport kinetics due to its ion size. By combining traditional electrochemical characterization techniques with electrochemical dilatometry and contact resonance atomic force microscopy, the synergetic effects of the pre-intercalation of K(+) ions are demonstrated to improve the charge storage of multivalent ions, as well as tune the mechanical and actuation properties of the Ti3C2 MXene...
April 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428797/silicon-regulates-antioxidant-activities-of-crop-plants-under-abiotic-induced-oxidative-stress-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Yoon-Ha Kim, Abdul L Khan, Muhammad Waqas, In-Jung Lee
Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in soil, where its availability to plants can exhilarate to 10% of total dry weight of the plant. Si accumulation/transport occurs in the upward direction, and has been identified in several crop plants. Si application has been known to ameliorate plant growth and development during normal and stressful conditions over past two-decades. During abiotic (salinity, drought, thermal, and heavy metal etc) stress, one of the immediate responses by plant is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen ((1)O2), superoxide ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (OH), which cause severe damage to the cell structure, organelles, and functions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426976/alternative-electron-transport-pathways-in-photosynthesis-a-confluence-of-regulation
#9
REVIEW
Jean Alric, Xenie Johnson
Photosynthetic reactions proceed along a linear electron transfer chain linking water oxidation at photosystem II (PSII) to CO2 reduction in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Alternative pathways poise the electron carriers along the chain in response to changing light, temperature and CO2 inputs, under prolonged hydration stress and during development. We describe recent literature that reports the physiological functions of new molecular players. Such highlights include the flavodiiron proteins and their important role in the green lineage...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426719/transcriptome-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-reveals-unique-and-selective-gene-signatures
#10
Moon Young Lee, Se Eun Ha, Chanjae Park, Paul J Park, Robert Fuchs, Lai Wei, Brian G Jorgensen, Doug Redelman, Sean M Ward, Kenton M Sanders, Seungil Ro
Transcriptome-scale data can reveal essential clues into understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms behind specific cellular functions and biological processes. Transcriptomics is a continually growing field of research utilized in biomarker discovery. The transcriptomic profile of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), which serve as slow-wave electrical pacemakers for gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle, has yet to be uncovered. Using copGFP-labeled ICC mice and flow cytometry, we isolated ICC populations from the murine small intestine and colon and obtained their transcriptomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426550/neuropathic-pain-after-chronic-nerve-constriction-may-not-correlate-with-chloride-dysregulation-in-mouse-trigeminal-nucleus-caudalis-neurons
#11
Alberto Castro, Ying Li, Charles Raver, Ramesh Chandra, Radi Masri, Mary Kay Lobo, Asaf Keller
Changes in chloride reversal potential in rat spinal cord neurons have previously been associated with persistent pain in nerve injury and inflammation models. These changes correlate with a decrease in the expression of the potassium% chloride transporter, KCC2, and with increases in neuronal excitability. Here, we test the hypothesis that similar changes occur in mice with neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of the trigeminal infraorbital nerve (CCI¬-ION). This model allows us to distinguish an acute pain phase (3-¬5 days after injury) from a persistent pain phase (12¬-14 days after CCI-¬ION)...
April 18, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426163/lipid-flip-flop-and-pore-nucleation-on-zwitterionic-bilayers-are-asymmetric-under-ionic-imbalance
#12
Jiaqi Lin, Roozbeh Dargazany, Alfredo Alexander-Katz
Lipid flip-flop and its associated transient pore formation are key thermodynamic properties of living cell membranes. However, there is a lack of understanding of whether ionic imbalance that exists ubiquitously across cell membranes affects lipid flip-flop and its associated functions. Potential of mean force calculations show that the free-energy barrier of lipid flip-flop on the extracellular leaflet reduces with the presence of ionic imbalance, whereas the barrier on the intracellular leaflet is generally not affected...
April 20, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425924/roles-of-copper-binding-proteins-in-breast-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Stéphanie Blockhuys, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede
Copper ions are needed in several steps of cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms, and involved copper-binding proteins, are mainly elusive. Since most copper ions in the body (in and outside cells) are protein-bound, it is important to investigate what copper-binding proteins participate and, for these, how they are loaded with copper by copper transport proteins. Mechanistic information for how some copper-binding proteins, such as extracellular lysyl oxidase (LOX), play roles in cancer have been elucidated but there is still much to learn from a biophysical molecular viewpoint...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425698/-dispersion-assembly-approach-to-synthesize-three-dimensional-graphene-polymer-composite-aerogel-as-a-powerful-organic-cathode-for-rechargeable-li-and-na-batteries
#14
Yu Zhang, Yanshan Huang, Guanhui Yang, Fanxing Bu, Ke Li, Imran Shakir, Yuxi Xu
Polymer cathode materials are promising alternatives to inorganic counterparts for both lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium ion batteries (SIBs) due to their high theoretical capacity, adjustable molecular structure and strong adaptability to different counter-ions in batteries, etc. However, they suffer from poor practical capacity and low rate capability because of their intrinsically poor conductivity. Herein, we report the synthesis of self-assembled graphene/poly(anthraquinonyl sufide) (PAQS) composite aerogel (GPA) with efficient integration of three-dimensional (3D) graphene framework with electroactive PAQS particles via a novel dispersion-assembly strategy, which can be used as a free-standing flexible cathode upon mechanical pressing...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425696/granadilla-inspired-structure-design-for-conversion-alloy-reaction-electrode-with-integrated-lithium-storage-behaviors
#15
Chaoji Chen, Linfeng Peng, Yiju Li, Lei Zhang, Jingwei Xiang, Pei Hu, Shijie Cheng, Yunhui Huang, Jia Xie
Conversion/alloy-reaction electrode materials promise much higher energy density than the commonly used ones based on intercalation chemistries. However, the low electronic conductivity, and specially the large volume expansion upon lithiation hinder their practical applications. Here for the first time, a unique granadilla-inspired structure was designed to prepare the conversion/alloy-reaction anode of carbon coated tin/calcium tin oxide (C@void@Sn/CaSnO3) ternary composite. The granadilla-inspired structure ensures the intimate contact between the Sn/CaSnO3 nanoparticles and the carbon matrix, providing not only conductive networks for electron transport and short distance for Li+ diffusion but also effective space for the electrode volume-expansion towards conversion/alloy reaction...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425695/reduced-graphene-oxide-containing-smart-hydrogels-with-excellent-electro-response-and-mechanical-property-for-soft-actuators
#16
Chao Yang, Zhuang Liu, Chen Chen, Kun Shi, Lei Zhang, Xiao-Jie Ju, Wei Wang, Rui Xie, Liang-Yin Chu
A novel reduced graphene oxide/poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) (rGO/poly(AMPS-co-AAm)) nanocomposite hydrogel that possesses excellent electro-response and mechanical property has been successfully developed. The rGO nanosheets that homogeneously dispersed in the hydrogels could provide prominent conductive platforms for promoting the ion transport inside the hydrogels to generate significant osmotic pressure between the external and internal of such nanocomposite hydrogels. Thus, the electro-responsive rate and degree of the hydrogel for both deswelling and bending performances become rapid and remarkable...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425544/in-situ-template-synthesis-of-hollow-nanospheres-assembled-from-nico2s4-c-ultrathin-nanosheets-with-high-electrochemical-activities-for-lithium-storage-and-orr-catalysis
#17
Xiaoyu Wu, Songmei Li, Bo Wang, Jianhua Liu, Mei Yu
Transition-metal sulfide hollow nanostructures have received intensive attention in energy-related applications due to their unique structural features and high electrochemical activities. Here, a well-designed composite of NiCo2S4@C is successfully fabricated using a facile in situ template removal method. The obtained composite shows unique microstructures of hollow nanospheres (∼650 nm in diameter) assembled from ultrathin NiCo2S4@C nanosheets, in which numerous scattered NiCo2S4 nanoparticles are embedded in ultrathin carbon nanosheets, exhibiting mesoporous features with a high surface area of 247...
April 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424489/porous-graphene-sponge-additives-for-lithium-ion-batteries-with-excellent-rate-capability
#18
Qian Cheng
Rate capability as well as power performance of lithium ion batteries (LiBs) is becoming more and more important, especially as the application targets of LiBs move from mobile devices to transportation, such as EVs and HEVs. In this research, we report porous graphene sponge additives for both anode and cathode materials for better rate performance. The charge capacity retention improved from 56% to 77% at 6C and from 7% to 45% at 10C with 0.5 wt% added to the anode, while the discharge capacity retention at the 6C rate improved from 43% to 76% and the 10C rate discharge improved from 16% to 40% with the same amount of MG added to the cathode...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423529/pif-promotes-brain-re-myelination-locally-while-regulating-systemic-inflammation-clinically-relevant-multiple-sclerosis-m-smegmatis-model
#19
Giuseppe Migliara, Martin Mueller, Alessia Piermattei, Chaya Brodie, Michael J Paidas, Eytan R Barnea, Francesco Ria
Neurologic disease diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease with few clinical forms and uncertain etiology. Current studies suggest that it is likely caused by infection(s) triggering a systemic immune response resulting in antigen/non-antigen-related autoimmune response in central nervous system (CNS). New therapeutic approaches are needed. Secreted by viable embryos, PreImplantation Factor (PIF) possesses a local and systemic immunity regulatory role...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423185/functional-identification-of-activity-regulated-high-affinity-glutamine-transport-in-hippocampal-neurons-inhibited-by-riluzole
#20
Jeffrey D Erickson
Glutamine (Gln) is considered the preferred precursor for the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate (Glu), the major excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS. Here, an activity-regulated, high-affinity Gln transport system is described in developing and mature neuron-enriched hippocampal cultures that is potently inhibited by riluzole (IC50 1.3 +/- 0.5μM), an anti-glutamatergic drug, and is blocked by low concentrations of 2-(methylamino)isobutyrate (MeAIB), a system A transport inhibitor. K(+) -stimulated MeAIB transport displays an affinity (Km ) for MeAIB of 37 +/- 1...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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