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Aboriginal health

Rachel Shentow-Bewsh, Daniyal Zuberi
With rates of obesity among adults and youth rising in Canada, it is clear that the current approaches currently used to reduce the prevalence of obesity, with an emphasis on individual weight management interventions focused on restrictive dieting, are not proving successful at a population level. Given that obesity is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes, is placing a multi-billion-dollar economic burden on Canada and disproportionately affects disadvantaged groups, such as Aboriginal Canadians and women of low socioeconomic status, it is a health and social issue that must be addressed immediately by social workers and policy makers...
June 13, 2018: Social Work in Public Health
Yvonne Dimitropoulos, Hasantha Gunasekera, Anthony Blinkhorn, Roy Byun, Norma Binge, Kylie Gwynne, Michelle Irving
INTRODUCTION: As part of an oral health service for Aboriginal people in central northern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, oral health promotion was identified as a priority by the local Aboriginal community. The objective of this study was to collaborate with local Aboriginal communities to determine (1) the oral health needs of Aboriginal children aged 5-12 years, (2) the oral health knowledge and attitudes towards oral health of parents/guardians and (3) the perceived barriers and enablers towards oral health promotion for school children by local school staff and community health workers...
June 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Lisa Jamieson, Gail Garvey, Joanne Hedges, Amanda Mitchell, Terry Dunbar, Cathy Leane, Isaac Hill, Kate Warren, Alex Brown, Xiangqun Ju, David Roder, Richard Logan, Newell Johnson, Megan Smith, Annika Antonsson, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancer is an important, understudied cancer affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer. Current generation HPV vaccines are effective against the 2 most common types of high-risk HPVs in cancer (hrHPVs 16/18). OBJECTIVES: This study aims (1) to yield population estimates of oncogenic genotypes of HPV in the mouth and oropharynx of defined Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations; (2) to estimate the proportion of oropharyngeal cancer attributable to HPV among these Australian citizens; (3) to estimate the impact of HPV vaccination as currently implemented on rates of oropharyngeal cancer among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians; and (4) taking into account impact on oropharyngeal as well as cervical cancer, to evaluate efficacy and cost-effectiveness of targeted extended HPV vaccination to older ages, among our study population...
June 8, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Angela Langton, Rosalind Moxham, Sarah Hirst, Louise Houtzager, Julie Coutelas, Amanda Rider, Christine Yusuf
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, demographics and location of food insecurity (FI) among people living with HIV at six health sites in Sydney, Australia and to identify the factors relating to FI. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study recruiting people living with HIV receiving HIV care from six sites across the Sydney metropolitan area. The United States Department of Agriculture abbreviated six-item Subset Food Insecurity Tool was used to assess FI and a demographic questionnaire was completed...
June 8, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Christian Young, Jonathan C Craig, Kathleen Clapham, Sandra Williams, Anna Williamson
OBJECTIVE: In caregivers of urban Aboriginal children, to determine the frequency of major stressful life events, the proportion who meet criteria for resilience, and factors that are associated with resilience. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services located in urban or regional areas in New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 574 caregivers of Aboriginal children participating in the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health...
June 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Rachelle Arkles, Claire Jankelson, Kylie Radford, Lisa Jackson Pulver
Dementia in Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is an area of significant health and community concern. In this article, we use a hermeneutic mode of interpretation to deepen understanding of experience and meaning in dementia for family carers of older Aboriginal people in urban Australia. Specifically, we draw from the hermeneutic concept of "world disclosure" to illuminate the dementia experience in three ways: through an artwork of the brain and dementia; through concrete description of the lived relation of caregiving; and through an epochal perspective on the significance of contemporary caregiving in dementia...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Christina Tsou, Charmaine Green, Gordon Gray, Sandra Claire Thompson
Population-based studies have associated poor living conditions with the persistent disparity in the health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This project assesses the applicability of the Health Community Assessment Tool and its role in improving the environment of a small community in the Midwest of Western Australia (WA). The action research cycles started with the initial reflection on the suitability of the HCAT version 2 for the local community context and whether it was fit-for-purpose. The researcher provided 'critical companionship', while the participants of the study were invited to be co-researchers (the Assessors) who critically examined the HCAT and assess the community...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kate Pennington, Rhonda Owen, Jenny Mun
The 2009 influenza season was considered a significant season triggered by the April 2009 emergence of a novel influenza A virus prompting a World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a public health emergency of international concern. The overall number of notifications in the Australian 2009 influenza season was the highest since national reporting to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) began in 2001, and substantially higher than in prior years. Over 59,000 notifications were reported to the NNDSS, almost ten times the five year mean and representing a crude notification rate of 272...
December 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Jodie Bailie, Frances Clare Cunningham, Roxanne Gwendalyn Bainbridge, Megan E Passey, Alison Frances Laycock, Ross Stewart Bailie, Sarah L Larkins, Jenny S M Brands, Shanthi Ramanathan, Seye Abimbola, David Peiris
Efforts to strengthen health systems require the engagement of diverse, multidisciplinary stakeholder networks. Networks provide a forum for experimentation and knowledge creation, information exchange and the spread of good ideas and practice. They might be useful in addressing complex issues or 'wicked' problems, the solutions to which go beyond the control and scope of any one agency. Innovation platforms are proposed as a novel type of network because of their diverse stakeholder composition and focus on problem solving within complex systems...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Hannah C Moore, Parveen Fathima, Heather F Gidding, Nicholas de Klerk, Bette Liu, Vicky Sheppeard, Paul V Effler, Thomas L Snelling, Peter McIntyre, Christopher C Blyth
Reported infant vaccination coverage at age 12 months in Australia is >90%. On-time coverage of the 2-4-6 month schedule and coverage in specific populations is rarely reported. We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1.9 million Australian births, 1996-2012, combining individual birth and perinatal records with immunisation records through probabilistic linkage. We assessed on-time coverage across 13 demographic and perinatal characteristics of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines (DTP) defined as vaccination 14 days prior to the scheduled due date, to 30 days afterwards...
May 31, 2018: Vaccine
Jackson Thomas, Rachel Davey, Gregory M Peterson, Christine Carson, Shelley F Walton, Tim Spelman, Tom Calma, Pascale Dettwiller, Jacinta Tobin, Faye McMillan, Paul Collis, Mark Naunton, Sam Kosari, Julia K Christenson, Andrew Bartholomaeus, John McEwen, Peter Fitzpatrick, Kavya E Baby
INTRODUCTION: In remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, scabies affects 7 out of 10 children before their first birthday. This is more than six times the rate seen in the rest of the developed world. Scabies infestation is frequently complicated by bacterial infection, leading to the development of skin sores and other more serious consequences, such as septicaemia and chronic heart and kidney diseases. Tea tree oil (TTO) has been used as an antimicrobial agent for several decades with proven clinical efficacy...
May 31, 2018: BMJ Open
Stephanie M Topp, Alexandra Edelman, Sean Taylor
BACKGROUND: Health policy in Australia positions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Workers (AHWs) as central to improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' health, with high expectations of their contribution to closing the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous health outcomes. Understanding how AHWs' governance and accountability relationships influence their ability to address such health inequities has policy, programme and ethical significance. We sought to map the evidence of AHWs' experiences of accountability in the Australian health system...
May 30, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Gordon T W Mander, Lorraine Reynolds, Aiden Cook, Marcella M Kwan
INTRODUCTION: Appointment non-attendance contributes added cost to the healthcare sector through wasted resource allocations. Medical imaging departments commonly schedule appointments for most modalities; however, no study has quantified patient attendance rates in the Australian regional setting. This is despite evidence that regional, rural and remote Australians tend to demonstrate poorer health than metropolitan counterparts. This study aims to identify the factors that influence appointment non-attendance at a teaching hospital in regional Australia...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Judith A Meiklejohn, Brian Arley, Ross Bailie, Jon Adams, Gail Garvey, Jennifer H Martin, Euan T Walpole, Patricia C Valery
Indigenous Australians diagnosed with cancer experience higher mortality and lower survival rates compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Reasons are multifaceted and complex. Knowledge about Indigenous cancer survivors' perspectives of positive cancer survivorship is a gap in research evidence. The study explored cancer survivorship perspectives of Indigenous cancer survivors, their support people and healthcare workers with a view to developing recommendations for cancer survivorship. Indigenous Australians who completed cancer treatment in the previous 6 months to 5 years, their support people and primary healthcare workers were recruited from primary healthcare centres and a large tertiary Queensland hospital...
May 28, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Torres Woolley, Tarun Sen Gupta, Sarah Larkins
OBJECTIVE: The James Cook University medical school's mission is to produce a workforce appropriate for the health needs of northern Australia. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: James Cook University medical graduate data were obtained via cross-sectional survey of 180 early-career James Cook University medical graduates from 2005-2011 (response rate of 180/298 contactable graduates = 60%). Australian medical practitioner data for 2005-2009 graduates were obtained via the 2015 'Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life' wave 8 dataset...
May 25, 2018: Australian Journal of Rural Health
Gordon Ngo, Graham Trope, Yvonne Buys, Ya-Ping Jin
OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of access to eyeglass insurance by Canadians. DESIGN: A population-based, cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 134 072 respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey 2003 who were aged ≥12 years. METHODS: We compared self-reported insurance coverage for eyeglasses or contact lenses provided by private, government, or employer-paid plans. RESULTS: Overall, 55...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Amanda Jayakody, Erin Passmore, Christopher Oldmeadow, Jamie Bryant, Mariko Carey, Eunice Simons, Aaron Cashmore, Louise Maher, Kiel Hennessey, Jacinta Bunfield, Maurice Terare, Andrew Milat, Rob Sanson-Fisher
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases are more prevalent and occur at a much younger age in Aboriginal people in Australia compared with non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people also have higher rates of unplanned hospital readmissions and emergency department presentations. There is a paucity of research on the effectiveness of follow up programs after discharge from hospital in Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to assess the impact of a telephone follow up program, 48 Hour Follow Up, on rates of unplanned hospital readmissions, unplanned emergency department presentations and mortality within 28 days of discharge among Aboriginal people with chronic disease...
May 18, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Kathryn A McFarlane, Jenni Judd, Hylda Wapau, Nina Nichols, Kerrianne Watt, Sue Devine
INTRODUCTION: Health promotion is a key component of comprehensive primary health care. Health promotion approaches complement healthcare management by enabling individuals to increase control over their health. Many primary healthcare staff have a role to play in health promotion practice, but their ability to integrate health promotion into practice is influenced by their previous training and experience. For primary healthcare staff working in rural and remote locations, access to professional development can be limited by what is locally available and prohibitive in terms of cost for travel and accommodation...
May 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Jenny Brands, Gail Garvey, Kate Anderson, Joan Cunningham, Jennifer Chynoweth, Isabella Wallington, Bronwyn Morris, Vikki Knott, Samantha Webster, Lauren Kinsella, John Condon, Helen Zorbas
Indigenous Australians experience a substantially higher cancer mortality rate than non-Indigenous Australians. While cancer outcomes are improving for non-Indigenous Australians, they are worsening for Indigenous Australians. Reducing this disparity requires evidence-based and culturally-appropriate guidance. The purpose of this paper is to describe an initiative by Cancer Australia and Menzies School of Health Research (Menzies) to develop Australia’s first National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework using a process of co-design with relevant stakeholders...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kathleen Clapham, Keziah Bennett-Brook, Kate Hunter
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Aboriginal Australian children experience higher rates of injury than other Australian children. However few culturally acceptable programs have been developed or evaluated. The Illawarra Aboriginal Medical Service (IAMS) developed the Safe Homes Safe Kids program as an injury prevention program targeting disadvantaged Aboriginal families with children aged 0-5 in an urban region of NSW. Delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers the program aims to reduce childhood injury by raising awareness of safety in the home...
May 9, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
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