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John J Halperin
The nervous system is involved in 10-15% of patients infected with B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii and B. garinii. This review will address widespread misconceptions about the clinical phenomenology, diagnostic approach and response to treatment of neuroborreliosis. Areas covered: Improvements in diagnostic testing have allowed better definition of the clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis, with lymphocytic meningitis and uni- or multifocal inflammation of peripheral/cranial nerves predominating. Despite widespread concern that post-treatment cognitive/behavioral symptoms might be attributable to persisting infection or aberrant inflammation within the central nervous system a large body of evidence indicates this is extremely improbable...
January 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Elena Grebenciucova, Joseph R Berger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights some of the important changes in the immune system that occur in the process of normal aging. Immunosenescence as a concept is directly relevant to the world of neuro-inflammation, as it may be a contributing factor to the risks associated with some of the current immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies used in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) and other inflammatory disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Profound qualitative and quantitative changes occur in the adaptive and innate immunity compartments during aging...
August 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Hiroshi Kuroda
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system...
July 2015: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Jun Hasegawa, Hiroshi Hidaka, Shinichi Kuriyama, Taku Obara, Ken Hashimoto, Yutaka Tateda, Yuri Okumura, Toshimitsu Kobayashi, Yukio Katori
On March 11, 2011, Japan's northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department during the four years from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2014...
2015: PloS One
Ö Grindborg, P Naucler, J Sjölin, M Glimåker
Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is challenging for the admitting physician because it is a rare but fulminant disease, usually presenting without typical symptoms, and rapid treatment is pivotal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of initial management by infectious diseases (ID) physicians vs. non-ID physicians. A total of 520 consecutive adults (>17 years old), 110 with initial ID management and 410 with non-ID management, registered in the Swedish quality registry for community-acquired ABM January 2008 to December 2013, were analysed retrospectively...
June 2015: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Georg N Herlitz, Renee L Arlow, Nora H Cheung, Susette M Coyle, Benjamin Griffel, Marie A Macor, Stephen F Lowry, Steve E Calvano, Stephen C Gale
INTRODUCTION: Human injury or infection induces systemic inflammation with characteristic neuroendocrine responses. Fluctuations in autonomic function during inflammation are reflected by beat-to-beat variation in heart rate, termed heart rate variability (HRV). In the present study, we determine threshold doses of endotoxin needed to induce observable changes in markers of systemic inflammation, investigate whether metrics of HRV exhibit a differing threshold dose from other inflammatory markers, and investigate the size of data sets required for meaningful use of multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis of HRV...
February 2015: Shock
Xiaoyu Luo, Johnny J He
Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system and play important roles in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Detection of HIV proviral DNA, RNA, and early gene products but not late structural gene products in astrocytes in vivo and in vitro indicates that astrocytes are susceptible to HIV infection albeit in a restricted manner. We as well as others have shown that cell-free HIV is capable of entering CD4- astrocytes through human mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis...
February 2015: Journal of Neurovirology
Yoann Launey, Nicolas Nesseler, Audren Le Cousin, Fanny Feuillet, Ronan Garlantezec, Yannick Mallédant, Philippe Seguin
INTRODUCTION: Fever is associated with a poor outcome in severely brain-injured patients, and its control is one of the therapies used in this condition. But, fever suppression may promote infection, and severely brain-injured patients are frequently exposed to infectious diseases, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Therefore, we designed a study to explore the role of a fever control protocol in VAP development during neuro-intensive care. METHODS: An observational study was performed on severely brain-injured patients hospitalized in a university ICU...
December 15, 2014: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
He Jing, Yongxin Hao, Qiang Bi, Jiaozhen Zhang, Pingting Yang
During an inflammatory or infectious process, innate immune cells produce large amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines that act on the brain to cause cognitive dysfunctions. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is one of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, it is important to study how the excessive TNF-α affects the cognitive functions of central nervous system and possible antagonists to its effects. In the present study, we conducted behavioral experiments of rats to determine whether murine TNF-α administered directly into the brain would elicit behavioral effects related to learning and memory impairments...
February 2015: Neuroscience Research
Mervan Bekdas, Ali Evren Tufan, Ismail Necati Hakyemez, Tekin Tas, Hüseyin Altunhan, Fatih Demircioglu, Erol Kısmet
BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuro-developmental disorders of childhood and adolescence. Studies focusing on the relationship of infectious agents and ADHD are scarce. It is also known that cerebellar injury may lead to hyperactive behavior. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between viral agents of cerebellitis and the diagnosis of ADHD. METHODS: The study group was formed of 60 consecutive ADHD patients and 30 healthy children...
June 2014: African Health Sciences
R M Kannan, E Nance, S Kannan, D A Tomalia
Dendrimers are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles with 'onion skin-like' branched layers. Beginning with a core, these nanostructures grow in concentric layers to produce stepwise increases in size that are similar to the dimensions of many in vivo globular proteins. These branched tree-like concentric layers are referred to as 'generations'. The outer generation of each dendrimer presents a precise number of functional groups that may act as a monodispersed platform for engineering favourable nanoparticle-drug and nanoparticle-tissue interactions...
December 2014: Journal of Internal Medicine
U Sudhir, Anil T Kumar, Gita Srinivasan, Ravi V Kumar, K Punith
Seizures are frequent in patients over 60 years. Often, there is an underlying causative disorder, which aids in the treatment of these patients. To study the aetiological profile of seizures in patients aged 60 years and above, 100 elderly patients with seizures, attending medicine or neurology OPD or admitted under these departments for seizures were studied. A complete history and detailed examination followed by biochemical, haematological, serological tests and neuro-imaging were obtained. Additional studies including cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and toxicology tests were done as and when indicated...
October 2013: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
P Meylan, T Kuntzer, L Toutous Trellu, P H Lalive
Infections affecting frequently the nervous system include Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and syphilis. These three most dreaded neuro-infectious diseases observed in Switzerland are discussed, based on diagnostic criteria, screening testing, and treatments modalities. Neuroborreliosis and neurosyphilis are bacterial infectious diseases treatable by antibiotics, whereas the treatment of tick-borne encephalitis, a viral disease, is only based on preventive vaccination.
May 1, 2013: Revue Médicale Suisse
A H Seuc, M López, L Rodríguez, J F Montequín
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the possibility of predicting short-term major lower-limb amputation (SMLA) in patients with vascular diagnoses, based only on clinical variables measured on admission. METHODS: A longitudinal, retrospective cohort study of patients with peripheral vascular diagnoses admitted at our Institute was carried out. A stratified sample of 463 patients admitted during 1997, 2000 and 2003, was studied. Logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of amputation; twelve clinical variables measured on admission were considered as potential predictors...
February 2009: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1960: Ceskoslovenská Neurologie
S Condette-Auliac, J C Lacour, R Anxionnat, M Braun, M Wagner, C Moret, S Bracard, L Picard
The spinal canal is an uncommon site for abscess formation resulting from bloodstream disseminated infection. Prognosis is often unfavorable. Rapid treatment is essential for satisfactory neurological recovery. Abscesses within the spinal canal are thus diagnostic and therapeutic emergencies. The neuro-infectious and inflammatory manifestations and laboratory findings vary considerably and are insufficient for diagnosis. MRI plays a decisive role. The most commonly reported signs are the presence of an intramedullary collection giving a low-intensity signal on T1-weighted images and a high-intensity signal on T2-weighted images with peripheral contrast uptake and generally extended adjacent medullary edema...
October 1998: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
R G Golodets, E L Maksutova
A study of patients with severe forms of neuroinfections permitted to follow up the development of psychopathological syndromes and detect some correlations between their structures and the traits of the different stages of the disease. At the acne of the disease there are frequent and severe syndromes of disturbed consciousness with the prevalence of deep unconscious states compared to the more obliviated productive variants in the framework of exogenous types of psychic reactions. On the eventual stages of the disease there are distinct correlations between the severity of the acute period and the formation of more expressed variants of the psychoorganic syndrome (organic brain syndrome)...
1978: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
V P Kutin, G V Kutin
The report contains a clinical analysis and the results of a paraclinical study of 4894 patients with mental disorders of different etiology. The following 4 types of development were distinguished: abortive, periodical, remittent, continuous. The authors propose a structure of neuropsychic disorders and the main groups of psychopathological syndrome and their frequency. Some criteria for the differential diagnosis of this group of disorders is outlined.
1978: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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