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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921726/chlamydia-trachomatis-regulates-innate-immune-barrier-integrity-and-mediates-cytokine-and-antimicrobial-responses-in-human-uterine-ecc-1-epithelial-cells
#1
Lucy Rudo Mukura, Danica K Hickey, Marta Rodriguez-Garcia, John V Fahey, Charles R Wira
PROBLEM: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide and known to increase the risk for HIV acquisition. Few studies have investigated how infection of epithelial cells compromises barrier integrity and antimicrobial response. METHOD OF STUDY: ECC-1 cells, a human uterine epithelial cell line, were treated with live and heat-killed C. trachomatis. Epithelial barrier integrity measured as transepithelial resistance (TER), chemokines antimicrobial levels, and antimicrobial mRNA expression was measured by ELISA and Real-time RT-PCR...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917838/human-smoothened-inhibits-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection
#2
Takeshi Yoshida, Akiko Hamano, Asuka Ueda, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Shoji Yamaoka
Human SMOOTHENED (SMO) was identified by expression cloning as a new host factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection. Forced expression of SMO inhibited HIV-1 replication and infection with a single-round lentiviral vector, but not infection with a murine leukemia virus-based retroviral vector in human MT-4 T cells. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that stable expression of SMO impaired formation of the integrated form of lentiviral DNA, but did not interrupt reverse transcription. This inhibition was evident in MT-4 and HUT102 human T cell lines expressing low levels of SMO mRNA, but not in SupT1 or Jurkat T cell lines expressing higher levels of SMO mRNA...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914817/ledgf-p75-deficiency-increases-deletions-at-the-hiv-1-cdna-ends
#3
Murilo T D Bueno, Daniel Reyes, Manuel Llano
Processing of unintegrated linear HIV-1 cDNA by the host DNA repair system results in its degradation and/or circularization. As a consequence, deficient viral cDNA integration generally leads to an increase in the levels of HIV-1 cDNA circles containing one or two long terminal repeats (LTRs). Intriguingly, impaired HIV-1 integration in LEDGF/p75-deficient cells does not result in a correspondent increase in viral cDNA circles. We postulate that increased degradation of unintegrated linear viral cDNA in cells lacking the lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) account for this inconsistency...
September 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910489/nucleoside-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-attenuate-angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-by-impairing-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-signalling-in-endothelial-cells
#4
Lin Song, Sha Ding, Zhen Ge, Xiaolong Zhu, Cong Qiu, Yuewen Wang, Enyin Lai, Weijun Yang, Yi Sun, Samson A Chow, Luyang Yu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a major clinical challenge for HIV-positive patients. However, the role of ART in blood vessel growth is largely unknown. Here, we examined an integral component of ART, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and investigated their effects on key microvascular functions, including angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis capability of endothelial cells (ECs) was evaluated using migration, proliferation and tube formation assays in vitro, and mouse ear and Matrigel plug assays in vivo...
September 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902916/targeted-n-glycan-deletion-at-the-receptor-binding-site-retains-hiv-env-nfl-trimer-integrity-and-accelerates-the-elicited-antibody-response
#5
Viktoriya Dubrovskaya, Javier Guenaga, Natalia de Val, Richard Wilson, Yu Feng, Arlette Movsesyan, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam, Andrew B Ward, Richard T Wyatt
Extensive shielding by N-glycans on the surface of the HIV envelope glycoproteins (Env) restricts B cell recognition of conserved neutralizing determinants. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in selected HIV-infected individuals reveals that Abs capable of penetrating the glycan shield can be generated by the B cell repertoire. Accordingly, we sought to determine if targeted N-glycan deletion might alter antibody responses to Env. We focused on the conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) since this is a known neutralizing determinant that is devoid of glycosylation to allow CD4 receptor engagement, but is ringed by surrounding N-glycans...
September 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902857/willingness-to-use-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-malaysia-findings-from-an-online-survey
#6
Sin How Lim, Gitau Mburu, Adam Bourne, Joselyn Pang, Jeffrey A Wickersham, Clayton Koh Thuan Wei, Ilias Adam Yee, Bangyuan Wang, Matteo Cassolato, Iskandar Azwa
OBJECTIVE: We examined willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia. METHODS: An online survey of 990 MSM was conducted between March and April 2016. Eligibility criteria included being biological male, Malaysian citizen, 18 years of age or above, identifying as MSM, and being HIV negative or unknown status. Participants' demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, attitudes towards PrEP, and preferences regarding future access to PrEP were collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#7
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899439/psychological-morbidity-and-parenting-stress-in-mothers-of-primary-school-children-by-timing-of-acquisition-of-hiv-infection-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-rural-south-africa
#8
T J Rochat, B Houle, A Stein, R M Pearson, M L Newell, R M Bland
Longitudinal maternal mental health data are needed from high HIV prevalence settings. The Siyakhula Cohort (SC) is a population-based cohort of HIV-positive and negative mothers (n=1506) with HIV-negative children (n=1536) from rural South Africa. SC includes 767 HIV-negative mothers; 465 HIV-positive in pregnancy; 272 HIV-positive since pregnancy (n=2 missing HIV status). A subgroup (n=890) participated in a non-randomized breastfeeding intervention [Vertical Transmission Study (VTS)]; the remaining (n=616) were resident in the same area and received antenatal care at the time of the VTS, but were not part of the VTS, instead receiving the standard of care Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programme...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899396/transcriptomic-meta-analysis-identifies-gene-expression-characteristics-in-various-samples-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-nonprogressive-disease
#9
Le-Le Zhang, Zi-Ning Zhang, Xian Wu, Yong-Jun Jiang, Ya-Jing Fu, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: A small proportion of HIV-infected patients remain clinically and/or immunologically stable for years, including elite controllers (ECs) who have undetectable viremia (<50 copies/ml) and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) who maintain normal CD4(+) T cell counts for prolonged periods (>10 years). However, the mechanism of nonprogression needs to be further resolved. In this study, a transcriptome meta-analysis was performed on nonprogressor and progressor microarray data to identify differential transcriptome pathways and potential biomarkers...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899162/high-levels-of-viral-suppression-among-east-african-hiv-infected-women-and-men-in-serodiscordant-partnerships-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-with-high-cd4-counts-and-during-pregnancy
#10
Andrew Mujugira, Jared Baeten, Lara Kidoguchi, Jessica Haberer, Connie Celum, Deborah Donnell, Kenneth Ngure, Elizabeth Bukusi, Nelly Mugo, Stephen Asiimwe, Josephine Odoyo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Nulu Bulya, Elly Katabira, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: People who are asymptomatic and feel healthy, including pregnant women, may be less motivated to initiate ART or achieve high adherence. We assessed whether ART initiation, and viral suppression 6, 12 and 24-months after ART initiation, were lower in HIV-infected members of serodiscordant couples who initiated during pregnancy or with higher CD4 counts. METHODS: We used data from the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label study of the delivery of integrated PrEP and ART (at any CD4 count) for HIV prevention among high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894986/fertility-intentions-pregnancy-and-use-of-prep-and-art-for-safer-conception-among-east-african-hiv-serodiscordant-couples
#11
Renee Heffron, Kerry Thomson, Connie Celum, Jessica Haberer, Kenneth Ngure, Nelly Mugo, Elizabeth Bukusi, Elly Katabira, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Stephen Asiimwe, Edna Tindimwebwa, Jared M Baeten
African HIV serodiscordant couples often desire pregnancy, despite sexual HIV transmission risk during pregnancy attempts. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce HIV risk and can be leveraged for safer conception but how well these strategies are used for safer conception is not known. We conducted an open-label demonstration project of the integrated delivery of PrEP and ART among 1013 HIV serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda followed quarterly for 2 years. We evaluated fertility intentions, pregnancy incidence, the use of PrEP and ART during peri-conception, and peri-conception HIV incidence...
September 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894715/survival-rates-among-co-infected-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-tuberculosis-in-tehran-iran
#12
Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Masoud Sabouri Ghannad, Jalal Poorolajal, Minoo Mohraz, Leila Molaeipoor
BACKGROUND: The number of deaths related with co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV remains inappropriately high worldwide. TB is anticipated to be the major reason of HIV-related deaths globally. This study aimed to find out and evaluate the characteristics of the possible risk factors influencing the survival time of co-infected patients with HIV/TB in Tehran the capital of Iran. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on the referred patients to the one of two Behavioral Diseases Counseling Centers, Imam Khomeini, and Zamzam Centers, Tehran, Iran, in 2004-2013...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893794/effects-of-hiv-1-tat-and-methamphetamine-on-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-function-in-vitro
#13
Sulay Patel, Crystal R Leibrand, Preetha Palasuberniam, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Babette Weksler, Fay M Jahr, Joseph L McClay, Kurt F Hauser, MaryPeace McRae
Human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection results in neurocognitive deficits in about one half of infected individuals. Despite systemic effectiveness, restricted antiretroviral penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major limitation in fighting CNS-localized infection. Drug abuse exacerbates HIV-induced cognitive and pathologic CNS changes. This study's purpose was to investigate the effects of the HIV-1 protein, Tat, and methamphetamine on factors affecting drug penetration across an in vitro BBB model...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893282/development-of-targeted-adjuvants-for-hiv-1-vaccines
#14
REVIEW
Jun Liu, Mario Ostrowski
Finding new adjuvants is an integrated component of the efforts in developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Compared with traditional adjuvants, a modern adjuvant in the context of HIV-1 prevention would elicit a durable and potent memory response from B cells, CD8(+) T cells, and NK cells but avoid overstimulation of HIV-1 susceptible CD4(+) T cells, especially at genital and rectal mucosa, the main portals for HIV-1 transmission. We briefly review recent advances in the studies of such potential targeted adjuvants, focusing on three classes of molecules that we study: TNFSF molecules, TLRs agonists, and NODs agonists...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893078/assessing-home-based-rehabilitation-within-the-development-of-an-integrated-model-of-care-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-a-resource-poor-community
#15
Saul Cobbing, Jill Hanass-Hancock, Hellen Myezwa
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) are living longer lives but are at a greater risk of developing disability. South Africa has the largest antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in the world, shifting HIV from a deadly to a chronic disease. The integration of rehabilitation into chronic care is therefore now crucial to ensure the highest quality of life of PLHIV. AIM: To describe how a home-based rehabilitation (HBR) programme adhered to the fundamental principles of a theoretical model of integrated care developed for the study setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
August 31, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891655/longitudinal-intra-individual-variability-in-neuropsychological-performance-relates-to-white-matter-changes-in-hiv
#16
Jacob D Jones, Taylor Kuhn, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Elyse J Singer, Charles H Hinkin, April D Thames
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that intraindividual variability (IIV) of neuropsychological performance may be sensitive to HIV-associated neurologic compromise. IIV may be particularly dependent upon the integrity of frontal-subcortical systems, and therefore may be a meaningful phenotype in HIV. We examined the relationship between change in IIV and white matter integrity among HIV seropositive (HIV+) and HIV seronegative (HIV-) individuals. METHOD: The sample consisted of 38 HIV+ participants and 26 HIV- control participants who underwent neuroimaging and a neuropsychological evaluation at baseline and at 2-year follow-up evaluation...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888151/evaluation-of-the-ac-ok-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-screening-measure-in-an-international-sample-of-latino-immigrants
#17
Ligia M Chavez, Patrick E Shrout, Ye Wang, Francisco Collazos, Rodrigo Carmona, Margarita Alegría
BACKGROUND: Early detection and intervention in primary care is integral to behavioral health. Valid, practical screening assessments are scarce, particularly for non-English speaking populations. We address this need by evaluating the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the AC-OK Screen for Co-occurring Disorders for first and second generation immigrant Latinos in Massachusetts, USA, and Madrid and Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: 567 Latino participants were recruited in waiting areas of clinics or by referral from Primary Care, Mental Health, Substance Use, and HIV Treatment Clinics, as well as Community Agencies...
August 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887140/envisioning-women-centered-hiv-care-perspectives-from-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#18
Nadia O'Brien, Saara Greene, Allison Carter, Johanna Lewis, Valerie Nicholson, Gladys Kwaramba, Brigitte Ménard, Elaina Kaufman, Nourane Ennabil, Neil Andersson, Mona Loutfy, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Angela Kaida
BACKGROUND: Women comprise nearly one-quarter of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Canada. Compared with men, women living with HIV experience inequities in HIV care and health outcomes, prompting a need for gendered and tailored approaches to HIV care. METHOD: Peer and academic researchers from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study conducted focus groups to understand women's experience of seeking care, with the purpose of identifying key characteristics that define a women-centered approach to HIV care...
September 5, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886198/tat-mediated-transduction-of-bacterial-redox-proteins-generates-a-cytoprotective-effect-on-neuronal-cells
#19
Cecilia L Balaban, Claudia Banchio, Eduardo A Ceccarelli
Cell penetrating peptides, also known as protein transduction domains, have the capacity to ubiquitously cross cellular membranes carrying many different cargos with negligible cytotoxicity. As a result, they have emerged as a powerful tool for macromolecular delivery-based therapies. In this study, catalytically active bacterial Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (LepFNR) and Heme oxygenase (LepHO) fused to the HIV TAT-derived protein transduction peptide (TAT) were efficiently transduced to neuroblastoma SHSY-5Y cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886165/low-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-rate-but-high-loss-to-follow-up-among-mothers-and-babies-in-mandalay-myanmar-a-cohort-study
#20
Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Myo Minn Oo, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Khaing Hnin Phyo, Thet Ko Aung, Theingi Mya, Nilar Aung, Htun Nyunt Oo, Petros Isaakidis
INTRODUCTION: Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016...
2017: PloS One
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