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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429158/food-insecurity-substance-use-and-sexual-transmission-risk-behavior-among-people-living-with-hiv-a-daily-level-analysis
#1
Jennifer A Pellowski, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Seth C Kalichman
People living with HIV in poverty have limited tangible and mental resources coupled with competing demands for these resources. Competing demands require individuals to make choices that may be beneficial to them in the short term but not in the long term. Past research has shown that food insecurity is related to sexual risk behaviors among people living with HIV. Individuals who are food insecure may sell sex in order to obtain food or lack of food may lead to a depletion of mental resources to negotiate safe sex...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428162/the-use-of-intervention-mapping-to-develop-a-tailored-web-based-intervention-condom-him
#2
Joyal Miranda, José Côté
BACKGROUND: Many HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention interventions are currently being implemented and evaluated, with little information published on their development. A framework highlighting the method of development of an intervention can be used by others wanting to replicate interventions or develop similar interventions to suit other contexts and settings. It provides researchers with a comprehensive development process of the intervention. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to describe how a systematic approach, intervention mapping, was used to develop a tailored Web-based intervention to increase condom use among HIV-positive men who have sex with men...
April 19, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426680/echocardiographic-findings-in-infants-with-presumed-congenital-zika-syndrome-retrospective-case-series-study
#3
Danielle Di Cavalcanti, Lucas V Alves, Geraldo J Furtado, Cleusa C Santos, Fabiana G Feitosa, Maria C Ribeiro, Paulo Menge, Izabelle M Lira, Joao G Alves
OBJECTIVE: To report the echocardiographic evaluation of 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was performed at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Brazil. 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome. All infants had microcephaly and head computed tomography findings compatible with congenital Zika syndrome. Zika IgM antibody was detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 23 infants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426273/preclinical-development-of-bcg-hiva-2auxo-int-harboring-an-integrative-expression-vector-for-a-hiv-tb-pediatric-vaccine-enhancement-of-stability-and-specific-hiv-1-t-cell-immunity
#4
Aakash Mahant, Narcís Saubi, Yoshiki Eto, Núria Guitart, Josep M ª Gatell, Tomáš Hanke, Joan Joseph
One of the critical issues that should be addressed in the development of a BCG-based HIV vaccine is genetic plasmid stability. Therefore, to address this issue we have considered using integrative vectors and the auxotrophic mutant of BCG complemented with a plasmid carrying a wild-type complementing gene. In this study, we have constructed an integrative E. coli-mycobacterial shuttle plasmid, p2auxo.HIVA(int), expressing the HIV-1 clade A immunogen HIVA. This shuttle vector employs an antibiotic resistance-free mechanism for plasmid selection and maintenance...
April 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426185/integrated-hiv-care-and-service-engagement-among-people-living-with-hiv-who-use-drugs-in-a-setting-with-a-community-wide-treatment-as-prevention-initiative-a-qualitative-study-in-vancouver-canada
#5
Alexandra B Collins, Surita Parashar, Robert S Hogg, Saranee Fernando, Catherine Worthington, Patrick McDougall, Rosalind Baltzer Turje, Ryan McNeil
INTRODUCTION: Social-structural inequities impede access to, and retention in, HIV care among structurally vulnerable people living with HIV (PLHIV) who use drugs. The resulting disparities in HIV-related outcomes among PLHIV who use drugs pose barriers to the optimization of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) initiatives. We undertook this study to examine engagement with, and impacts of, an integrated HIV care services model tailored to the needs of PLHIV who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada - a setting with a community-wide TasP initiative...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424288/virion-associated-vpr-alleviates-a-post-integration-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-dendritic-cells
#6
Caitlin M Miller, Hisashi Akiyama, Luis M Agosto, Ann Emery, Chelsea R Ettinger, Ronald I Swamstrom, Andrew J Henderson, Suryaram Gummuluru
Viral protein R (Vpr) is an HIV-1 accessory protein whose function remains poorly understood. In this report, we sought to determine the requirement of Vpr in facilitating HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), one of the first cells to encounter virus in the peripheral mucosal tissues. We characterize in this report a significant restriction to Vpr-deficient virus replication and spread in MDDCs alone and in cell-to-cell spread in MDDC - CD4(+) T cell co-cultures. This restriction to HIV-1 replication in MDDCs was observed in a single round of virus replication and was rescued by expression of Vpr in trans in the incoming virion...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421354/perceived-barriers-and-facilitators-to-integrating-hiv-prevention-and-treatment-with-cross-sex-hormone-therapy-for-transgender-women-in-lima-peru
#7
Sari L Reisner, Amaya G Perez-Brumer, Sarah A McLean, Javier R Lama, Alfonso Silva-Santisteban, Leyla Huerta, Jorge Sanchez, Jesse L Clark, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer
Transgender women (TW) represent a vulnerable population at increased risk for HIV infection in Peru. A mixed-methods study with 48 TW and 19 healthcare professionals was conducted between January and February 2015 to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing a model of care that integrates HIV services with gender-affirmative medical care (i.e., hormone therapy) in Lima, Peru. Perceived acceptability of the integrated care model was high among TW and healthcare professionals alike. Barriers included stigma, lack of provider training or Peruvian guidelines regarding optimal TW care, and service delivery obstacles (e...
April 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420249/increasing-hiv-testing-among-pregnant-women-in-nigeria-evaluating-the-traditional-birth-attendant-and-primary-health-center-integration-tap-in-model
#8
Amara Frances Chizoba, Jennifer R Pharr, Gina Oodo, Edith Ezeobi, Jude Ilozumb, Johnbull Egharevba, Echezona E Ezeanolue, Anthea Nwandu
Engaging Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) may be critical to preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in Nigeria. We integrated TBAs into Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and provided the TBAs with HIV counseling and testing (HCT) training for PMTCT (TAP-In). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of TAP-In on HCT uptake among pregnant women. A quasi-experimental design was used for this study. Twenty PHCs were assigned to the intervention group that integrated TAP-In and 20 were assigned to the control group...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418987/the-roles-of-behavioral-and-social-science-research-in-the-fight-against-hiv-aids-a-functional-framework
#9
Paul Gaist, Michael J Stirratt
Landmark advances have been made in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. These include proof-of-concept and public health implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and "treatment as prevention" (TasP) to reduce HIV transmission as well as definitive evidence of the clinical gain from early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Significant progress has been made in understanding and addressing the social contexts and behavioral factors that impact HIV prevention, care, and treatment interventions...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411091/comparison-of-dynamic-monitoring-strategies-based-on-cd4-cell-counts-in-virally-suppressed-hiv-positive-individuals-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-high-income-countries-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Ellen C Caniglia, Lauren E Cain, Caroline A Sabin, James M Robins, Roger Logan, Sophie Abgrall, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Daniel R Drozd, George R Seage, Fabrice Bonnet, Francois Dabis, Richard D Moore, Peter Reiss, Ard van Sighem, William C Mathews, Julia Del Amo, Santiago Moreno, Steven G Deeks, Roberto Muga, Stephen L Boswell, Elena Ferrer, Joseph J Eron, Sonia Napravnik, Sophie Jose, Andrew Phillips, Amy C Justice, Janet P Tate, John Gill, Antonio Pacheco, Valdilea G Veloso, Heiner C Bucher, Matthias Egger, Hansjakob Furrer, Kholoud Porter, Giota Touloumi, Heidi Crane, Jose M Miro, Jonathan A Sterne, Dominique Costagliola, Michael Saag, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines vary with respect to the optimal monitoring frequency of HIV-positive individuals. We compared dynamic monitoring strategies based on time-varying CD4 cell counts in virologically suppressed HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: In this observational study, we used data from prospective studies of HIV-positive individuals in Europe (France, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and the UK) and North and South America (Brazil, Canada, and the USA) in The HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and The Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems...
April 11, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409656/condomless-sex-and-hiv-transmission-among-serodifferent-couples-current-evidence-and-recommendations
#11
Alan Koff, Carole Goldberg, Onyema Ogbuagu
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a global pandemic. The primary driver of HIV incidence is sexual transmission between serodifferent individuals. Condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are effective at preventing sexually-transmitted HIV infections, and are considered an integral component of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. However, the demonstrated effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent HIV transmission, known as treatment as prevention, and of pre-exposure prophylaxis, have raised an intriguing dilemma on the necessity and additive preventive benefit of condom use among individuals in serodifferent relationships utilizing these prevention strategies...
April 14, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409013/lay-beliefs-about-hypertension-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-kenya
#12
Tecla M Temu, Ehete Bahiru, Fredrick Bukachi, Gerald S Bloomfield, Peter Muiruri, Carey Farquhar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension affects 23% of Kenyans and is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite this, hypertension awareness and treatment adherence is very low. We conducted a qualitative study to explore lay beliefs about hypertension among HIV-infected adults to inform the development of culture sensitive hypertension prevention and control program. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions were held for 53 HIV-infected adults at the HIV clinic in Kenya...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408207/transactivator-protein-an-alternative-for-delivery-of-recombinant-proteins-for-safer-reprogramming-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell
#13
REVIEW
Fazlina Nordin, Raja Norazireen Raja Ahmad, Farzin Farzaneh
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are somatic cells reprogrammed to pluripotency by forced expression of pluripotency factors. These cells are shown to have the same pluripotent potential as embryonic stem cells (ESC) and considered as an alternative to the much controversial usage of ESC which involved human embryos. However, the traditional method in reprogramming cells into iPSC using genome-integrating retro- or lenti- viruses remains an obstacle for its application in clinical setting. Although numerous studies have been conducted for a safer DNA-based reprogramming, reprogramming of iPSC by genetic modifications may raise the possibility of malignant transformation and has been a major limitation for its usage in clinical applications...
April 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407813/adapting-an-adherence-support-workers-intervention-engaging-traditional-healers-as-adherence-partners-for-persons-enrolled-in-hiv-care-and-treatment-in-rural-mozambique
#14
Carolyn M Audet, José Salato, Sten H Vermund, K Rivet Amico
BACKGROUND: Systematic adaptation of evidence-informed interventions that increase retention in care and improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are essential to ending the HIV epidemic in rural sub-Saharan Africa. We selected and adapted an adherence support worker intervention employed in Malawi for use by traditional healers in rural Mozambique. Given the levels of trust and dependence previously expressed by persons living with HIV (PLHIV) for traditional medicine, we adapted the program to engage traditional healers within the allopathic health system...
April 13, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400850/validity-assessment-of-the-promis-fatigue-domain-among-people-living-with-hiv
#15
L E Gibbons, R Fredericksen, D S Batey, L Dant, T C Edwards, K H Mayer, W C Mathews, L S Morales, M J Mugavero, F M Yang, E Paez, M M Kitahata, D L Patrick, H M Crane, P K Crane
PURPOSE: To evaluate psychometric characteristics and cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of the 7-item PROMIS(®) Fatigue Short Form and additional fatigue items among people living with HIV (PLWH) in a nationally distributed network of clinics collecting patient reported data at the time of routine clinical care. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal fatigue data were collected from September 2012 through April 2013 across clinics participating in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS)...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399938/validity-assessment-of-the-promis-fatigue-domain-among-people-living-with-hiv
#16
L E Gibbons, R Fredericksen, D S Batey, L Dant, T C Edwards, K H Mayer, W C Mathews, L S Morales, M J Mugavero, F M Yang, E Paez, M M Kitahata, D L Patrick, H M Crane, P K Crane
PURPOSE: To evaluate psychometric characteristics and cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of the 7-item PROMIS(®) Fatigue Short Form and additional fatigue items among people living with HIV (PLWH) in a nationally distributed network of clinics collecting patient reported data at the time of routine clinical care. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal fatigue data were collected from September 2012 through April 2013 across clinics participating in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS)...
April 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399000/overcoming-health-system-challenges-for-women-and-children-living-with-hiv-through-the-global-plan
#17
Surbhi Modi, Tegan Callahan, Jessica Rodrigues, Mwikemo D Kajoka, Helen M Dale, Judite O Langa, Marilena Urso, Matsepeli I Nchephe, Helene Bongdene, Sostena Romano, Laura N Broyles
To meet the ambitious targets set by the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan), the initial 22 priority countries quickly developed innovative approaches for overcoming long-standing health systems challenges and providing HIV testing and treatment to pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. The Global Plan spurred programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission to integrate HIV-related care and treatment into broader maternal, newborn, and child health services; expand the effectiveness of the health workforce through task sharing; extend health services into communities; strengthen supply chain and commodity management systems; reduce diagnostic and laboratory hurdles; and strengthen strategic supervision and mentorship...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398998/pediatric-treatment-scale-up-the-unfinished-agenda-of-the-global-plan
#18
Martina Penazzato, Anouk Amzel, Elaine J Abrams, Karusa Kiragu, Shaffiq Essajee, Irene Mukui, Peter Elyanu, Anath A Rwebembera, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha
Five million children have died of AIDS-related causes since the beginning of the epidemic. In 2011, the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan) created the political environment to catalyze both the resources and commitment to end pediatric AIDS. Implementation and scale-up have encountered substantial hurdles, however, which have resulted in slow progress. Reasons include a lack of emphasis on testing outside of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, an overall lack of integration and coordination with other services, a lack of training among providers, low confidence in caring for children living with HIV, and a lack of appropriate formulations for pediatric antiretrovirals...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398996/lessons-learned-from-option-b-in-the-evolution-toward-test-and-start-from-malawi-cameroon-and-the-united-republic-of-tanzania
#19
Thokozani Kalua, Beth A Tippett Barr, Joep J van Oosterhout, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Erik J Schouten, Sundeep Gupta, Amakobe Sande, Gerald Zomba, Hannock Tweya, Edgar Lungu, Deborah Kajoka, Pius Tih, Andreas Jahn
The acceleration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) activities, coupled with the rollout of 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, led to important discussions and innovations at global and country levels. One paradigm-shifting innovation was Option B+ in Malawi. It was later included in WHO guidelines and eventually adopted by all 22 Global Plan priority countries. This article presents Malawi's experience with designing and implementing Option B+ and provides complementary narratives from Cameroon and Tanzania...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398995/integrating-pmtct-into-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-and-related-services-experiences-from-the-global-plan-priority-countries
#20
Karusa Kiragu, Lynn Collins, Deborah Von Zinkernagel, Angela Mushavi
The urgency to scale-up sustainable programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) prompted priority countries of the Global Plan Toward the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan) to expand the delivery of PMTCT services through greater integration with sexual and reproductive health and child health services. Countries approached integration-what, where, and how services are provided-in diverse ways, with predominantly favorable results...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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