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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645279/diabetes-care-in-a-complex-humanitarian-emergency-setting-a-qualitative-evaluation
#1
Adrianna Murphy, Michel Biringanine, Bayard Roberts, Beverley Stringer, Pablo Perel, Kiran Jobanputra
BACKGROUND: Evidence is urgently needed from complex emergency settings to support efforts to respond to the increasing burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). We conducted a qualitative study of a new model of DM health care (Integrated Diabetic Clinic within an Outpatient Department [IDC-OPD]) implemented by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Mweso Hospital in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We aimed to explore patient and provider perspectives on the model in order to identify factors that may support or impede it...
June 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645145/systematic-procedures-to-promote-u-s-hiv-medication-adherence-via-photovoice
#2
Michelle Teti, Victoria Shaffer, Wilson Majee, Rose Farnan, Mary Gerkovich
Medication adherence is essential to promote the health of people living with HIV (PL-HIV) and prevent HIV transmission in the U.S. Novel medication health promotion interventions are needed that address patient-centeredness, understandability, and communication with providers. The aims of this article are to define the systematic stages we used to develop an effective health promotion intervention via the products (e.g. images and stories) of Photovoice. We designed an intervention to improve HIV adherence knowledge, attitudes, and communication with providers through Photovoice...
June 21, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641539/role-of-host-factors-on-the-regulation-of-tat-mediated-hiv-1-transcription
#3
Guillaume Mousseau, Susana T Valente
BACKGROUND: The viral transactivator Tat protein is a key modulator of HIV-1 replication, as it regulates transcriptional elongation from the integrated proviral genome. Tat recruits the human transcription elongation factor b, and other host proteins, such as the super elongation complex, to activate the cellular RNA polymerase II, normally stalled shortly after transcription initiation at the HIV promoter. By means of a complex set of interactions with host cellular factors, Tat determines the fate of viral activity within the infected cell...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641056/the-odd-couple-using-biomedical-and-intersectional-approaches-to-address-health-inequities
#4
Olena Hankivsky, Lesley Doyal, Gillian Einstein, Ursula Kelly, Janet Shim, Lynn Weber, Robin Repta
BACKGROUND: Better understanding and addressing health inequities is a growing global priority. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we contribute to the literature examining complex relationships between biological and social dimensions in the field of health inequalities. Specifically, we explore the potential of intersectionality to advance current approaches to socio-biological entwinements. DESIGN: We provide a brief overview of current approaches to combining both biological and social factors in a single study, and then investigate the contributions of an intersectional framework to such work...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640065/effectiveness-of-an-integrated-approach-to-hiv-and-hypertension-care-in-rural-south-africa-controlled-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#5
Soter Ameh, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Eustasius Musenge, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé
BACKGROUND: South Africa faces a dual burden of HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases. In 2011, a pilot Integrated Chronic Disease Management (ICDM) model was introduced by the National Health Department into selected primary health care (PHC) facilities. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the ICDM model in controlling patients' CD4 counts (>350 cells/mm) and blood pressure [BP (<140/90 mm Hg)] in PHC facilities in the Bushbuckridge municipality, South Africa...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639991/evaluation-of-a-nutritional-support-intervention-in-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-in-bamako-mali
#6
Julie Jesson, Aba Coulibaly, Mariam Sylla, Clémentine N'diaye, Fatoumata Dicko, David Masson, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: We assessed a nutritional support intervention in malnourished HIV-infected children in a HIV-care program of the University Hospital Gabriel Touré, Bamako, Mali. METHODS: All HIV-infected children <15 years were diagnosed for malnutrition between 07 and 12/2014. Malnutrition was defined according to the WHO growth standards with Z-scores. Two types were studied: acute malnutrition (AM) and chronic malnutrition (CM). All participants were enrolled in a 6-month prospective interventional cohort, receiving Ready-To-Use Therapeutic Food, according to type of malnutrition...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638104/anti-proliferative-therapy-for-hiv-cure-a-compound-interest-approach
#7
Daniel B Reeves, Elizabeth R Duke, Sean M Hughes, Martin Prlic, Florian Hladik, Joshua T Schiffer
In the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 infection is no longer tantamount to early death. Yet the benefits of treatment are available only to those who can access, afford, and tolerate taking daily pills. True cure is challenged by HIV latency, the ability of chromosomally integrated virus to persist within memory CD4(+) T cells in a non-replicative state and activate when ART is discontinued. Using a mathematical model of HIV dynamics, we demonstrate that treatment strategies offering modest but continual enhancement of reservoir clearance rates result in faster cure than abrupt, one-time reductions in reservoir size...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637733/integration-of-sexually-transmitted-infection-sti-services-into-hiv-care-and-treatment-services-for-women-living-with-hiv-a-systematic-review
#8
Caitlin E Kennedy, Sabina A Haberlen, Manjulaa Narasimhan
OBJECTIVE: To review and critically appraise the existing evidence on integration of sexually transmitted infection (STI) services into HIV care and treatment services for women living with HIV. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Four electronic databases were searched through 16February 2017 using keywords for HIV, STIs and integration. Reference lists of included articles and other reviews were also screened. REVIEW METHODS: We included studies that compared women living with HIV who received STI services integrated into HIV care and treatment services with those who received HIV care and treatment services without integrated STI services or standard of care...
June 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634661/depression-and-art-initiation-among-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-in-kenya-and-uganda
#9
Jennifer Velloza, Connie Celum, Jessica E Haberer, Kenneth Ngure, Elizabeth Irungu, Nelly Mugo, Jared M Baeten, Renee Heffron
Depression is a known barrier for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but less is understood about its effects on ART initiation. We followed 1013 HIV-infected individuals participating in the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label study of integrated pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and ART delivery for HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. Associations between depression, measured annually with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-Depression (HSCL-D), and ART initiation were assessed with Cox proportional hazards regression...
June 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632768/the-cost-of-demand-creation-activities-and-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-targeting-school-going-adolescents-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#10
Gavin George, Michael Strauss, Elias Asfaw
BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. However, there remains a limited body of economic analysis on the cost of VMMC programming, and the demand creation activities used to mobilize males, especially among adolescent boys in school. This study addresses this gap by presenting the costs of a VMMC program which adopted two demand creation strategies targeting school-going males in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628854/prevalence-and-predictors-of-hcv-among-a-cohort-of-opioid-treatment-patients-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#11
Barrot H Lambdin, Jennifer Lorvick, Jessie K Mbwambo, John Rwegasha, Saria Hassan, Paula Lum, Alex H Kral
BACKGROUND: The government of Tanzania launched an opioid treatment program (OTP), using methadone, in Dar es Salaam in February of 2011. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, especially among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted a cross-sectional study among PWID engaged in OTP in Dar es Salaam to describe the prevalence and predictors of HCV antibody serostatus. METHODS: Routine programmatic data on patients enrolled in Muhimbili National Hospital's OTP clinic from February 2011 to January 2013 were utilized...
June 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628349/evaluation-of-a-client-centered-linkage-intervention-for-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-at-an-urban-united-states-lgbt-center-the-linkage-to-care-specialist-project
#12
Jesse Bendetson, Rhodri Dierst-Davies, Risa Flynn, Matthew R Beymer, Amy R Wohl, K Rivet Amico, Robert K Bolan
Linkage to care (LTC) is a key element of the HIV care continuum, and a crucial bridge from testing and diagnosis to receipt of antiretroviral therapies and viral suppression. In 2012, the Los Angeles LGBT Center hired a full-time LTC specialist (LTC-S), who developed a unique client-centered approach to LTC. This single-arm demonstration project was designed to systematically evaluate the LTC-S intervention. Individuals who were newly diagnosed with HIV between March 2014 and September 2015 were eligible for enrollment...
June 19, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628041/hiv-persistence-clonal-expansion-of-cells-in-the-latent-reservoir
#13
Kyungyoon J Kwon, Robert F Siliciano
While antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV-1 to undetectable levels, the virus generally reappears if treatment is stopped. Resurgence of the virus is due to the reactivation of T cells harboring latent integrated provirus, and recent studies indicate that proliferation of these latently infected cells helps maintain the HIV-1 reservoir. In this issue of the JCI, Lee et al. evaluated CD4+ T cell subsets to determine whether certain populations are more likely to harbor full-length, replication-competent provirus...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623185/a-web-based-data-collection-platform-for-multisite-randomized-behavioral-intervention-trials-development-key-software-features-and-results-of-a-user-survey
#14
Riddhi A Modi, Michael J Mugavero, Rivet K Amico, Jeanne Keruly, Evelyn Byrd Quinlivan, Heidi M Crane, Alfredo Guzman, Anne Zinski, Solange Montue, Katya Roytburd, Anna Church, James H Willig
BACKGROUND: Meticulous tracking of study data must begin early in the study recruitment phase and must account for regulatory compliance, minimize missing data, and provide high information integrity and/or reduction of errors. In behavioral intervention trials, participants typically complete several study procedures at different time points. Among HIV-infected patients, behavioral interventions can favorably affect health outcomes. In order to empower newly diagnosed HIV positive individuals to learn skills to enhance retention in HIV care, we developed the behavioral health intervention Integrating ENGagement and Adherence Goals upon Entry (iENGAGE) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), where we deployed an in-clinic behavioral health intervention in 4 urban HIV outpatient clinics in the United States...
June 16, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622763/treatment-decisions-and-mortality-in-hiv-positive-presumptive-smear-negative-tb-in-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-era-a-cohort-study
#15
Sabine M Hermans, Juliet A Babirye, Olive Mbabazi, Francis Kakooza, Robert Colebunders, Barbara Castelnuovo, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Yukari C Manabe
BACKGROUND: The Xpert™ MTB/RIF (XP) has a higher sensitivity than sputum smear microscopy (70% versus 35%) for TB diagnosis and has been endorsed by the WHO for TB high burden countries to increase case finding among HIV co-infected presumptive TB patients. Its impact on the diagnosis of smear-negative TB in a routine care setting is unclear. We determined the change in diagnosis, treatment and mortality of smear-negative presumptive TB with routine use of Xpert MTB/RIF (XP). METHODS: Prospective cohort study of HIV-positive smear-negative presumptive TB patients during a 12-month period after XP implementation in a well-staffed and trained integrated TB/HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda...
June 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620802/at-risk-alcohol-use-among-hiv-positive-patients-and-the-completion-of-patient-reported-outcomes
#16
Jacqueline E Rudolph, Stephen R Cole, Jessie K Edwards, Richard Moore, Conall O'Cleirigh, Wm Christopher Mathews, Katerina Christopoulos
Heavy drinking is prevalent among people living with HIV. Studies use tools like patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to quantify alcohol use in a detailed, timely manner. However, if alcohol misuse influences PRO completion, selection bias may result. Our study included 14,145 adult HIV patients (133,036 visits) from CNICS who were eligible to complete PROs at an HIV primary care visit. We compared PRO completion proportions between patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of at-risk alcohol use in the prior year...
June 15, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614670/hiv-testing-and-positivity-patterns-of-partners-of-hiv-diagnosed-people-in-partner-services-programs-united-states-2013-2014
#17
Wei Song, Mesfin S Mulatu, Michele Rorie, Hui Zhang, John W Gilford
OBJECTIVE: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) partner services are an integral part of comprehensive HIV prevention programs. We examined the patterns of HIV testing and positivity among partners of HIV-diagnosed people who participated in partner services programs in CDC-funded state and local health departments. METHODS: We analyzed data on 21 484 partners submitted in 2013-2014 by 55 health departments. We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine patterns of HIV testing and positivity by demographic characteristics and geographic region...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612475/how-hiv-affects-health-and-service-use-for-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities
#18
A Durbin, H K Brown, S Bansal, T Antoniou, J K H Jung, Y Lunsky
OBJECTIVE(S): Although rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are similar for individuals with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), very little is known about the health needs and service use of those with IDD and HIV. Among a population with IDD, we compared the physical and mental health profiles, as well as general and mental health service use for those with and without HIV. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada using linked administrative health and social service databases...
July 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610923/l368f-v408f-double-mutant-of-ibd-of-ledgf-p75-retains-interaction-with-m178i-mutant-of-hiv-1-integrase
#19
Anu George, Nidhanapati K Raghavendra
Lens-epithelium-derived-growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is an essential host protein for integration of HIV-1 DNA into host genome. Earlier alanine scanning mutational analysis has revealed that residues I365, D366 and F406 in the integrase binding domain (IBD) of p75 are critical for interaction with HIV-1 integrase (IN), while K364, V408 have intermediate effect and residues N367, L368, R405, K407 show wild type binding with IN. To gain insight into contribution of side chains of L368 and V408 that are adjacent to critical residues I365 and F406, respectively, site directed mutation of these residues to Ile/Leu, Met and Phe has been performed and characterized in this study...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610602/associations-of-criminal-justice-and-substance-use-treatment-involvement-with-hiv-hcv-testing-and-the-hiv-treatment-cascade-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-oakland-california
#20
Barrot H Lambdin, Alex H Kral, Megan Comfort, Andrea M Lopez, Jennifer Lorvick
BACKGROUND: People who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs are at-risk for criminal justice involvement as well as HIV and HCV infection. Compared to criminal justice involvement, substance use treatment (SUT) can be cost-effective in reducing drug use and its associated health and social costs. We conducted a cross-sectional study of people who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs to examine the association between incarceration, community supervision and substance use treatment with HIV/HCV testing, components of the HIV treatment cascade, social and physical vulnerability and risk behavior...
June 14, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
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