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Yuko Arita, Michael Kirk, Neha Gupta, Ramkumar Menon, Darios Getahun, Morgan R Peltier
OBJECTIVE: Tributyltin (TBT) is a persistent pollutant but its effects on placental function are poorly understood as are its possible interactions with infection. We hypothesized that TBT alters the production of sex hormones and biomarkers for inflammation and neurodevelopment in an infection-dependent manner. METHODS: Placental explant cultures were treated with 0-5000 nM TBT in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli. A conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of steroids (progesterone, P4; testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) as well as biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp-130) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)], oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin (8-IsoP)] and neurodevelopment [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] were quantified...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Reiji Yoshimura, Taro Kishi, Kiyokazu Atake, Asuka Katsuki, Nakao Iwata
Background: There are complicated interactions between catecholaminergic neurons and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. However, no reports have addressed the relationship among 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and BDNF in the blood. Objective: This paper sought to investigate correlations between serum BDNF and plasma levels of MHPG and HVA in people with major depression (MD). Materials and methods: A total of 148 patients (male/female 65/83, age 49...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kedarlal Sharma, JuhiSingh, Emma E Frost, Prakash P Pillai
MethylCpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic regulator and essential for brain development.MeCP2 mutations are associated with a spectrum of neuro-developmental disorders that vary depending on the patient gender, most notably Rett Syndrome. MeCP2 is essential for normal neuronal maturation, and glial cell function in the brain. Besides, its role in neurodevelopmental disorders, MeCP2 is involved in many cancers such as breast, colorectal, lung, liver, and prostate cancer. Glioma is the most lethal form of brain cancer...
March 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Yuan Sheng Tao, Shang Guo Piao, Ying Shun Jin, Ji Zhe Jin, Hai Lan Zheng, Hai Yan Zhao, Sun Woo Lim, Chul Woo Yang, Can Li
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level induces a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, the expression and role of BDNF in the kidney have not been explored. The present study examined the expression of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors in an experimental model of chronic cyclosporine A (CsA) nephropathy. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats on a salt-deplete diet were treated daily for four weeks with vehicle or CsA...
March 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Aleksandra Wyciszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pawlak-Buś, Piotr Leszczyński, Mariusz Puszczewicz, Włodzimierz Paprzycki, Wojciech Kozubski, Sławomir Michalak
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains poorly understood. Damage within the CNS is driven by the autoimmune response; however, immunopathophysiology of neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE is multifactorial. Immune cell neurotrophin production could be neuroprotective against autoimmunity-driven CNS damage, as has been shown in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether immune cell neurotrophin production is associated with damage severity in NPSLE...
March 14, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Nathália Kersting, Bárbara Kunzler Souza, Igor Araujo Vieira, Rafael Pereira Dos Santos, Danielly Brufatto Olguins, Lauro José Gregianin, André Tesainer Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi Brunetto, Rafael Roesler, Caroline Brunetto de Farias, Gilberto Schwartsmann
OBJECTIVE: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a type of childhood cancer probably arising from stem mesenchymal or neural crest cells. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) acts as a driver oncogene in many types of solid tumors. However, its involvement in ES remains poorly understood. METHODS: Human SK-ES-1 and RD-ES ES cells were treated with EGF, the EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG1478), or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) inhibitors...
March 14, 2018: Oncology
Mariusz Papp, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Ewa Litwa, Monika Niemczyk, Katarzyna Tota-Glowczyk, Agata Faron-Gorecka, Maciej Kusmider, Joanna Solich, Marta Szlachta, Paul Willner
We have previously reported the effects of intracranial injections of dopamine D1, D2 and D3 ligands in animals subjected to the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) test following exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and chronic treatment with risperidone (RSP). Here, we present some molecular biological data from the same animals. It was predicted that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) would reflect behavioural performance, implying an increase following acute administration of a D2 agonist or a D3 antagonist, blockade of this effect by CMS and its restoration by chronic RSP...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Hyun Jun Kim, Sang Yeoup Lee, Hwa Gyeong Lee, Yang Hee Cho, Eun Mi Ko
Few studies have been undertaken to develop cognitive functional improvement-focused exercise programs and determine their effect. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of a cognitive enhancement fitness program (CEFP) on short-term memory and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels according to the cognitive state in middle-aged women. A total of 30 healthy volunteers aged 40-59 years were divided into two groups, that is, a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group and a non-MCI group based on results from the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Alan H Nagahara, Bayard R Wilson, Iryna Ivasyk, Imre Kovacs, Saytam Rawalji, John R Bringas, Phillip J Pivirotto, Waldy San Sebastian, Lluis Samaranch, Krystof S Bankiewicz, Mark H Tuszynski
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene delivery to the entorhinal cortex is a candidate for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to reduce neurodegeneration that is associated with memory loss. Accurate targeting of the entorhinal cortex in AD is complex due to the deep and atrophic state of this brain region. Using MRI-guided methods with convection-enhanced delivery, we were able to accurately and consistently target AAV2-BDNF delivery to the entorhinal cortex of non-human primates; 86 ± 3% of transduced cells in the targeted regions co-localized with the neuronal marker NeuN...
March 13, 2018: Gene Therapy
Yong-Ku Kim, Byung-Joo Ham, Kyu-Man Han
The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Dong-Dong Shi, Celia M Dong, Leon C Ho, C T W Lam, Xi-Dan Zhou, Ed X Wu, Zhong-Jun Zhou, Xiao-Min Wang, Zhang-Jin Zhang
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as "chemobrain," is a common side effect. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resveratrol, a natural polyphenol that has nootropic effects, could prevent chemobrain and its underlying mechanisms. Mice received three injections of docetaxel, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (DAC) in combination, a common chemotherapy regimen, at two-day intervals within one week. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg per day) was orally administered for three weeks, beginning one week before the DAC treatment...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
George Inana, Christopher Murat, Weijun An, Xiang Yao, Ian R Harris, Jing Cao
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the elderly characterized by retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration with accumulation of abnormal intracellular deposits (lipofuscin) and photoreceptor death. RPE is vital for the retina and integrity of photoreceptors through its phagocytic function which is closely linked to formation of lipofuscin through daily phagocytosis of discarded photoreceptor outer segments (POS). Although phagocytosis has been implicated in AMD, it has not been directly shown to be altered in AMD...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Yu-Fei Ni, Hao Wang, Qiu-Yan Gu, Fei-Ying Wang, Ying-Jie Wang, Jin-Liang Wang, Bo Jiang
Major depressive disorder has become one of the most serious neuropsychiatric disorders worldwide. However, currently available antidepressants used in clinical practice are ineffective for a substantial proportion of patients and always have side effects. Besides being a lipid-regulating agent, gemfibrozil is an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). We investigated the antidepressant effects of gemfibrozil on C57BL/6J mice using the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), as well as the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
P Zanos, T D Gould
Clinical studies have demonstrated that a single sub-anesthetic dose of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine induces rapid and sustained antidepressant actions. Although this finding has been met with enthusiasm, ketamine's widespread use is limited by its abuse potential and dissociative properties. Recent preclinical research has focused on unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of ketamine in an effort to develop novel pharmacotherapies, which will mimic ketamine's antidepressant actions but lack its undesirable effects...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
K Francis, A Dougali, K Sideri, C Kroupis, V Vasdekis, K Dima, A Douzenis
OBJECTIVE: Several lines of evidence point to a probable relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the BDNF serum level in ASD. The study aimed to assess those levels in children with ASD and their families. METHOD: BDNF serum levels were measured in 45 ASD children without intellectual disability (ID) and allergies, age 30-42 months and age-matched normal controls...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Lili Zhang, Zhaomin Fan, Yuechen Han, Lei Xu, Wenwen Liu, Xiaohui Bai, Meijuan Zhou, Jianfeng Li, Haibo Wang
Valproic acid (VPA), a medication primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder, has been applied to the repair of central and peripheral nervous system injury. The present study investigated the effect of VPA on functional recovery, survival of facial motor neurons (FMNs), and expression of proteins in rats after facial nerve trunk transection by functional measurement, Nissl staining, TUNEL, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. Following facial nerve injury, all rats in group VPA showed a better functional recovery, which was significant at the given time, compared with group NS...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Na Wang, Renkai Wang, Ruoqing Wang, Songlin Chen
The Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a typical female heterogamete species that exhibits female-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has severely hindered the sustainable development of the species in aquaculture. In the present study, four important somatotropic and reproductive tissues including brain, pituitary, liver, and gonad from 15 females and 15 males were used for transcriptome analysis via RNA-seq. A mean of 37,533,991 high-quality clean reads was obtained from each library and 806, 1482, 818, and 14,695 differentially expressed genes in female and male were identified from the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonad, respectively (fold change ≥ 2 and q < 0...
March 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Ginetta Collo, Laura Cavalleri, Federica Bono, Cristina Mora, Stefania Fedele, Roberto William Invernizzi, Massimo Gennarelli, Giovanna Piovani, Tilo Kunath, Mark J Millan, Emilio Merlo Pich, PierFranco Spano
The antiparkinsonian ropinirole and pramipexole are D3 receptor- (D3R-) preferring dopaminergic (DA) agonists used as adjunctive therapeutics for the treatment resistant depression (TRD). While the exact antidepressant mechanism of action remains uncertain, a role for D3R in the restoration of impaired neuroplasticity occurring in TRD has been proposed. Since D3R agonists are highly expressed on DA neurons in humans, we studied the effect of ropinirole and pramipexole on structural plasticity using a translational model of human-inducible pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Paul A Smith, Cindy Schmid, Stefan Zurbruegg, Magali Jivkov, Arno Doelemeyer, Diethilde Theil, Valérie Dubost, Nicolau Beckmann
Longitudinal brain atrophy quantification is a critical efficacy measurement in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical trials and the determination of No Evidence of Disease Activity (NEDA). Utilising fingolimod as a clinically validated therapy we evaluated the use of repeated brain tissue volume measures during chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a new preclinical efficacy measure. Brain volume changes were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 Tesla and correlated to treatment-induced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) measured in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, spinal cord and brain...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Julie A Morgan, Andrew T Olagunju, Frances Corrigan, Bernhard T Baune
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise in adults improves depressive symptoms (DS) and major depressive disorder (MDD), however the clinical effects of ceasing exercise are largely unknown. METHODS: Seven databases were searched from inception to December 2017. Eligibility criteria included English language studies investigating the effects of ceasing exercise on DS or MDD in regularly active adults with or without prior DS or MDD. Blood based markers related to exercise cessation (EC) were assessed, if recorded...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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