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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628509/inhibition-in-the-amygdala-anxiety-circuitry
#1
REVIEW
Olga Babaev, Carolina Piletti Chatain, Dilja Krueger-Burg
Inhibitory neurotransmission plays a key role in anxiety disorders, as evidenced by the anxiolytic effect of the benzodiazepine class of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists and the recent discovery of anxiety-associated variants in the molecular components of inhibitory synapses. Accordingly, substantial interest has focused on understanding how inhibitory neurons and synapses contribute to the circuitry underlying adaptive and pathological anxiety behaviors. A key element of the anxiety circuitry is the amygdala, which integrates information from cortical and thalamic sensory inputs to generate fear and anxiety-related behavioral outputs...
April 9, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621486/neural-circuit-mechanisms-of-social-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Patrick Chen, Weizhe Hong
We live in a world that is largely socially constructed, and we are constantly involved in and fundamentally influenced by a broad array of complex social interactions. Social behaviors among conspecifics, either conflictive or cooperative, are exhibited by all sexually reproducing animal species and are essential for the health, survival, and reproduction of animals. Conversely, impairment in social function is a prominent feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia...
April 4, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616302/alterations-in-white-matter-network-topology-contribute-to-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Julie M Hall, James M Shine, Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Moran Gilat, Kathryn M Broadhouse, Jennifer Y Y Szeto, Courtney C Walton, Ahmed A Moustafa, Simon J G Lewis
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common symptom in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite current advances, the neural mechanisms underpinning this disturbance remain poorly understood. To this end, we investigated the structural organisation of the white matter connectome in PD freezers and PD non-freezers. We hypothesized that freezers would show an altered network architecture, which could hinder the effective information processing that characterizes the disorder. Twenty-six freezers and twenty-four well-matched non-freezers were included in this study...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601053/implications-of-information-theory-for-computational-modeling-of-schizophrenia
#4
Steven M Silverstein, Michael Wibral, William A Phillips
Information theory provides a formal framework within which information processing and its disorders can be described. However, information theory has rarely been applied to modeling aspects of the cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia. The goal of this article is to highlight the benefits of an approach based on information theory, including its recent extensions, for understanding several disrupted neural goal functions as well as related cognitive and symptomatic phenomena in schizophrenia. We begin by demonstrating that foundational concepts from information theory-such as Shannon information, entropy, data compression, block coding, and strategies to increase the signal-to-noise ratio-can be used to provide novel understandings of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia and metrics to evaluate their integrity...
October 2017: Computational psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595580/the-use-of-vibrotactile-feedback-during-dual-task-standing-balance-conditions-in-people-with-unilateral-vestibular-hypofunction
#5
Chia-Cheng Lin, Susan L Whitney, Patrick J Loughlin, Joseph M Furman, Mark S Redfern, Kathleen H Sienko, Patrick J Sparto
HYPOTHESIS: People with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) would have increased postural sway and slower reaction times while using vibrotactile feedback (VTF) during dual-task conditions compared with age-matched controls. BACKGROUND: VTF has been shown to improve real-time balance performance in persons with vestibular disorders. Future use of this technology outside of the laboratory environment as a real-time balance aid requires that using VTF during dual-tasking scenarios be studied...
March 27, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575155/atypical-audiovisual-temporal-function-in-autism-and-schizophrenia-similar-phenotype-different-cause
#6
Jean-Paul Noel, Ryan A Stevenson, Mark T Wallace
Binding across sensory modalities yields substantial perceptual benefits, including enhanced speech intelligibility. The coincidence of sensory inputs across time is a fundamental cue for this integration process. Recent work has suggested that individuals with diagnoses of Schizophrenia (SZ) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) will characterize auditory and visual events as synchronous over larger temporal disparities than their neurotypical counterparts. Namely, these clinical populations possess an enlarged temporal binding window (TBW)...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560310/neural-mechanisms-underlying-successful-and-deficient-multi-component-behavior-in-early-adolescent-adhd
#7
Annet Bluschke, Krutika Gohil, Maxi Petzold, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting cognitive control. These functions are important to achieve goals when different actions need to be executed in close succession. This type of multi-component behavior, which often further requires the processing of information from different modalities, is important for everyday activities. Yet, possible changes in neurophysiological mechanisms have not been investigated in adolescent ADHD. We examined N = 31 adolescent ADHD patients and N = 35 healthy controls (HC) in two Stop-Change experiments using either uni-modal or bi-modal stimuli to trigger stop and change processes...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554643/changes-in-neural-activation-underlying-attention-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-following-treatment-with-positive-search-training-in-anxious-children
#8
Allison M Waters, Yuan Cao, Rachel Kershaw, Georg M Kerbler, David H K Shum, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Michelle G Craske, Brendan P Bradley, Karin Mogg, Daniel S Pine, Ross Cunnington
Prior research indicates that positive search training (PST) may be a promising home-based computerised treatment for childhood anxiety disorders. It explicitly trains anxious individuals in adaptive, goal-directed attention-search strategies to search for positive and calm information and ignore goal-irrelevant negative cues. Although PST reduces anxiety symptoms, its neural effects are unknown. The main aim of this study was to examine changes in neural activation associated with changes in attention processing of positive and negative stimuli from pre- to post-treatment with PST in children with anxiety disorders...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550743/emotional-speech-processing-deficits-in-bipolar-disorder-the-role-of-mismatch-negativity-and-p3a
#9
Morgwn Paris, Yatin Mahajan, Jeesun Kim, Tanya Meade
BACKGROUND: Deficits in emotional prosody processing have been observed in bipolar disorder (BD). While recent neural studies have explored impaired processing of facial expressions, little is known about deficits in emotional speech processing, or the specific stages of processing at which they occur. This study examined if pre-attentive detection and attention to emotional speech is impaired in BD, relative to healthy individuals. METHODS: The EEG data was collected from 14 individuals with BD and 14 healthy control (HC) participants while the auditory stimuli was presented via a passive three-stimulus oddball sequence which included emotionally (neutral, happy, sad) spoken syllables and acoustically matched nonvocal tones...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546369/how-ultraviolet-light-touches-the-brain-and-endocrine-system-through-skin-and-why
#10
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Przemyslaw M Plonka, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Ralf Paus
The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain/restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. While ultraviolet energy (UV) has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis, but also induces skin pathology (e...
March 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519469/the-parietal-lobe-and-language
#11
H Branch Coslett, Myrna F Schwartz
Although the parietal lobe was considered by many of the earliest investigators of disordered language to be a major component of the neural systems instantiating language, most views of the anatomic substrate of language emphasize the role of temporal and frontal lobes in language processing. We review evidence from lesion studies as well as functional neuroimaging, demonstrating that the left parietal lobe is also crucial for several aspects of language. First, we argue that the parietal lobe plays a major role in semantic processing, particularly for "thematic" relationships in which information from multiple sensory and motor domains is integrated...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519464/the-history-of-the-neurophysiology-and-neurology-of-the-parietal-lobe
#12
Giovanni Berlucchi, Giuseppe Vallar
The development and change of knowledge on the function of the parietal lobe from the second half of the 19th century to the early 1970s are reviewed. Motor and somatosensory functions were initially localized in a broad frontoparietal region. At the beginning of the 20th century the motor cortex was restricted to the posterior frontal lobe. The separate attribution of somatosensory functions to the parietal lobe was initially based on anatomic considerations, but mostly on localized bodily sensations elicited by electric stimulation in awake patients...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516448/-autistic-regression-clinical-and-aetiological-aspects
#13
V L Ruggieri, C L Arberas
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental dysfunctions that are characterised by deficits in social integration and communication, associated with restricted interests and stereotypic behaviour. A high percentage are related to language disorders, sensory dysfunctions, attention deficit disorder, bipolarity, intellectual disability or epilepsy, among other comorbidities. It is estimated that around 30% of children with autism, with typical early development, may present regression in the first years of life, which was already reported by Kanner in one of his original cases...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499580/-body-schema-multisensory-integration-and-developmental-disorders
#14
Annika Reinersmann, Thomas Lücke
Our body is both, the object experiencing the world and the subject of our self- experience. As an object, the body provides sensory information via the bodily surface, which is processed and integrated into a coherent representation of the body, the body schema. This representation is considered to form a crucial structure underlying bodily self-identification. The process of integrating multimodal information into a coherent body representation has received extensive research interest with the aim to further clarify its neuronal correlates and functioning in health and disease...
March 2, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495377/embodied-cognition-and-the-direct-induction-of-affect-as-a-compliment-to-cognitive-behavioural-therapy
#15
Tania Pietrzak, Christina Lohr, Beverly Jahn, Gernot Hauke
We make the case for the possible integration of affect experience induced via embodiment techniques with CBT for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings. Theoretically we propose a possible integration of cognitive behavioural theory, neuroscience, embodied cognition and important processes of client change outcomes such as the therapeutic alliance to enhance client outcomes. We draw from evidence of bidirectional effects between embodiment modes of bottom-up (sensory-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top-down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes such as CBT in psychotherapy...
February 26, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492651/are-visual-functions-diagnostic-signs-of-the-minimally-conscious-state-an-integrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Berno U H Overbeek, Henk J Eilander, Jan C M Lavrijsen, Raymond T C M Koopmans
Visual pursuit (VP) and visual fixation (VF) have been recognized as the first signs of emerging consciousness and, therefore, are considered indicative of the minimally conscious state (MCS). However, debate exists about their status as they are considered either conscious reactions or reflexes. The aim of this study is to review the evidence of the definition, operationalization, and assessment of VP and VF in unconscious patients. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for relevant papers between May 26, 1994 and October 1, 2016...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483865/altered-processing-and-integration-of-multisensory-bodily-representations-and-signals-in-eating-disorders-a-possible-path-toward-the-understanding-of-their-underlying-causes
#17
Giuseppe Riva, Antonios Dakanalis
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM V) eating problems are the clinical core of eating disorders (EDs). However, the importance of shape and weight overvaluation symptoms in these disorders underlines the critical role of the experience of the body in the etiology of EDs. This article suggests that the transdiagnostic centrality of these symptoms in individuals with EDs may reflect a deficit in the processing and integration of multisensory bodily representations and signals...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483346/the-functional-highly-sensitive-brain-a-review-of-the-brain-circuits-underlying-sensory-processing-sensitivity-and-seemingly-related-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Bianca Acevedo, Elaine Aron, Sarah Pospos, Dana Jessen
During the past decade, research on the biological basis of sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)-a genetically based trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsivity to environmental and social stimuli-has burgeoned. As researchers try to characterize this trait, it is still unclear how SPS is distinct from seemingly related clinical disorders that have overlapping symptoms, such as sensitivity to the environment and hyper-responsiveness to incoming stimuli. Thus, in this review, we compare the neural regions implicated in SPS with those found in fMRI studies of-Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to elucidate the neural markers and cardinal features of SPS versus these seemingly related clinical disorders...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473778/assessment-of-the-praxis-circuit-in-glioma-surgery-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-postoperative-and-long-term-apraxia-a-new-intraoperative-test
#19
Marco Rossi, Luca Fornia, Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Gianmarco Zuccon, Enrica Fava, Daniela Milani, Alessandra Casarotti, Marco Riva, Federico Pessina, Gabriella Cerri, Lorenzo Bello
OBJECTIVE Apraxia is a cognitive-motor deficit affecting the execution of skilled movements, termed praxis gestures, in the absence of primary sensory or motor disorders. In patients affected by stroke, apraxia is associated with lesions of the lateral parietofrontal stream, connecting the posterior parietal areas with the ventrolateral premotor area and subserving sensory-motor integration for the hand movements. In the neurosurgical literature to date, there are few reports regarding the incidence of apraxia after glioma surgery...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464374/heterogeneous-pattern-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Laurène Leclair-Visonneau, Laurent Magy, Christelle Volteau, Thomas Clairembault, Séverine Le Dily, Cécile Préterre, Arnaud Peyre, Philippe Damier, Michel Neunlist, Yann Péréon, Pascal Derkinderen
Dysautonomic symptoms are frequent non-motor complaints in patients with Parkinson's disease. Numerous neuropathological studies have shown that Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease, are widely distributed throughout the peripheral autonomic nervous systems and across end organs. However, few investigations integrally explored the symptoms and physiology of dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease. We, therefore, performed a comprehensive evaluation of the autonomic function in a prospective group of 45 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
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