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Sensory integration disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929962/retina-specific-loss-of-ikbkap-elp1-causes-mitochondrial-dysfunction-that-leads-to-selective-retinal-ganglion-cell-degeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-familial-dysautonomia
#1
Yumi Ueki, Veronika Shchepetkina, Frances Lefcort
Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive disorder marked by developmental and progressive neuropathies. It is caused by an intronic point mutation in the inhibitor of kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP, also called ELP1) gene IKBKAP/ELP1 , a component of the Elongator complex. Due to variation in tissue-specific splicing, the mutation primarily affects the nervous system. One of the most debilitating hallmarks of FD that affects patients' quality of life is progressive blindness. To determine the pathophysiological mechanisms that are triggered by the absence of IKAP in the retina, we generated retina-specific Ikbkap conditional knockout (CKO) mice using a Pax6-Cre , which abolished Ikbkap expression in all the cell types of the retina...
June 21, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924402/altered-perception-action-binding-modulates-inhibitory-control-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#2
Vanessa Petruo, Benjamin Bodmer, Valerie C Brandt, Leoni Baumung, Veit Roessner, Alexander Münchau, Christian Beste
BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is a multifaceted neuropsychiatric developmental disorder with onset in childhood or adolescence and frequent remissions in early adulthood. A rather new emerging concept of this syndrome suggests that it is a disorder of purposeful actions, in which sensory processes and their relation to motor responses (actions) play a particularly important role. Thus, this syndrome might be conceived as a condition of altered 'perception-action binding'...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917237/the-extracellular-matrix-glycoprotein-tenascin-x-regulates-peripheral-sensory-and-motor-neurones
#3
Rubina Aktar, Madusha Peiris, Asma Fikree, Vincent Cibert-Goton, Maxim Walmsley, Iain R Tough, Paulo Watanabe, Eduardo J A Araujo, Sahar D Mohammed, Jean-Marie Delalande, David C Bulmer, S Mark Scott, Helen M Cox, Nicol C Voermans, Qasim Aziz, L Ashley Blackshaw
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is not only an integral structural molecule, but is also critical for a wide range of cellular functions. The glycoprotein tenascin-X (TNX) predominates in the ECM of tissues like skin and regulates tissue structure through anti-adhesive interactions with collagen. Monogenic TNX deficiency causes painful joint hypermobility and skin hyperelasticity, symptoms characteristic of hypermobility-Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (hEDS). hEDS patients also report consistently increased visceral pain and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907663/reorganization-of-destabilized-nodes-of-ranvier-in-%C3%AE-iv-spectrin-mutants-uncovers-critical-timelines-for-nodal-restoration-and-prevention-of-motor-paresis
#4
Julia Saifetiarova, Qian Shi, Martin Paukert, Masayuki Komada, Manzoor A Bhat
Disorganization of nodes of Ranvier is associated with motor and sensory dysfunctions. Mechanisms that allow nodal recovery during pathological processes remain poorly understood. A highly enriched nodal cytoskeletal protein βIV Spectrin anchors and stabilizes the nodal complex to actin cytoskeleton. Loss of murine βIV Spectrin allows the initial nodal organization, but causes gradual nodal destabilization. Mutations in human βIV SPECTRIN cause auditory neuropathy and impairment in motor coordination and similar phenotypes are caused by nodal disruption due to demyelination...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907639/t-type-calcium-channels-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-mediate-sensory-integration-as-measured-using-a-spontaneous-oddity-task-in-rats
#5
Wendie N Marks, Madeline E Parker, Nadine K Zabder, Quentin Greba, Terrance P Snutch, John G Howland
The roles of low-voltage-activated (T-type) calcium channels in brain diseases have been studied extensively. Less is known regarding the involvement of T-type channels in cognition and behavior. Sensory integration (SI) is a cognitive process whereby the brain uses unimodal or multimodal sensory features to create a comprehensive representation of the environment. The multisensory object oddity (MSO) task assesses SI using combinations of sensory features of objects, either in the same or different sensory modalities...
July 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897593/shared-and-distinct-functional-architectures-of-brain-networks-across-psychiatric-disorders
#6
Mingrui Xia, Fay Y Womer, Miao Chang, Yue Zhu, Qian Zhou, Elliot Kale Edmiston, Xiaowei Jiang, Shengnan Wei, Jia Duan, Ke Xu, Yanqing Tang, Yong He, Fei Wang
Brain network alterations have increasingly been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the similarities and differences in functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD. A total of 512 participants (121 with SCZ, 100 with BD, 108 with MDD, and 183 healthy controls, matched for age and sex) completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at a single site. Four global measures (the clustering coefficient, the characteristic shortest path length, the normalized clustering coefficient, and the normalized characteristic path length) were computed at a voxel level to quantify segregated and integrated configurations...
April 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892074/impaired-hippocampal-representation-of-place-in-the-fmr1-knockout-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#7
Tara Arbab, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Francesco P Battaglia
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an X-chromosome linked intellectual disability and the most common known inherited single gene cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Building upon demonstrated deficits in neuronal plasticity and spatial memory in FXS, we investigated how spatial information processing is affected in vivo in an FXS mouse model (Fmr1-KO). Healthy hippocampal neurons (so-called place cells) exhibit place-related activity during spatial exploration, and their firing fields tend to remain stable over time...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887301/treatment-of-post-traumatic-psychiatric-disorders-a-continuum-of-immediate-post-immediate-and-follow-up-care-mediated-by-specific-psychotherapeutic-principles-clinical-experience-in-french-speaking-countries
#8
Yann Auxéméry
BACKGROUND: People who witness a horrific event are at risk of suffering from acute psychological disorders, potentially leading to chronic post-traumatic symptoms and severe medico-psycho-social complications. Traumatised individuals suffer from psychological damage that is initially indescribable: they are often unable to ask for care in the immediate aftermath of an event. Afterwards, traumatic events and their post-traumatic consequences are still often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc...
June 7, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872928/increased-risk-of-developing-psychiatric-disorders-in-children-with-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-receiving-sensory-integration-therapy-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Ruu-Fen Tzang, Yue-Cune Chang, Kai-Liang Kao, Yu-Hsin Huang, Hui-Chun Huang, Yu-Chiao Wang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Shu-I Wu, Fung-Chang Sung, Robert Stewart
Parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to prefer sensory integration (SI) training rather than guideline-recommended ADHD treatment. This study investigated whether SI intervention for children with ADHD was associated with a reduced risk of subsequent mental disorders. From children < 8-years-old newly diagnosed with ADHD in a nationwide population-based dataset, we established a SI cohort and a non-SI cohort (N =  1945) matched by propensity score...
June 5, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851515/chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-cenc-multicentre-study-interim-analysis-differences-between-participants-with-positive-versus-negative-mild-tbi-histories
#10
William C Walker, Shawn Hirsch, William Carne, Tracy Nolen, David X Cifu, Elisabeth A Wilde, Harvey S Levin, Timothy W Brearly, Blessen C Eapen, Rick Williams
OBJECTIVES: Compare characteristics and outcomes of combat-exposed military personnel with positive versus negative mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) histories. SETTING: Recruitment was from registration lists and ambulatory clinics at four veterans administration hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Consented veterans and service members completing initial evaluation by September 2016 (n = 492). DESIGN: Observational with cross-sectional analyses...
May 31, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789957/thalamic-lesions-and-aphasia-or-neglect
#11
REVIEW
Shinichiro Maeshima, Aiko Osawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: When the thalamus is damaged, not only are there neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment, hemianopia, or motor control disorders, but there are also various neuropsychological symptoms. We discuss the basic anatomy and function of the thalamus followed by a discussion of thalamic aphasia and hemineglect. RECENT FINDINGS: Subcortical lesions in patients with hemineglect involved the anatomical network directly linked to the superior temporal gyrus...
May 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758189/audiovisual-perception-in-amblyopia-a-review-and-synthesis
#12
REVIEW
Michael D Richards, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Amblyopia is a common developmental sensory disorder that has been extensively and systematically investigated as a unisensory visual impairment. However, its effects are increasingly recognized to extend beyond vision to the multisensory domain. Indeed, amblyopia is associated with altered cross-modal interactions in audiovisual temporal perception, audiovisual spatial perception, and audiovisual speech perception. Furthermore, although the visual impairment in amblyopia is typically unilateral, the multisensory abnormalities tend to persist even when viewing with both eyes...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757142/autistic-traits-but-not-schizotypy-predict-increased-weighting-of-sensory-information-in-bayesian-visual-integration
#13
Povilas Karvelis, Aaron R Seitz, Stephen M Lawrie, Peggy Seriès
Recent theories propose that schizophrenia/schizotypy and autistic spectrum disorder are related to impairments in Bayesian inference i.e. how the brain integrates sensory information (likelihoods) with prior knowledge. However existing accounts fail to clarify: i) how proposed theories differ in accounts of ASD vs. schizophrenia and ii) whether the impairments result from weaker priors or enhanced likelihoods. Here, we directly address these issues by characterizing how 91 healthy participants, scored for autistic and schizotypal traits, implicitly learned and combined priors with sensory information...
May 14, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754115/delusional-misidentifications-in-a-procrustean-bed
#14
EDITORIAL
G N Christodoulou, M Margariti, N Christodoulou
The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally fused functions of perception and recognition. The classical sub-types are: the syndromes of Capgras, Fregoli,Intermetamorphosis (mentioned in 3) and Subjective doubles. These syndromes occur in a clear sensorium and shouldbe differentiated from the banal transient misidentifications occurring in confusional states and in mania and from thenon-delusional misidentifications (e...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751242/local-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#15
Yange Wei, Miao Chang, Fay Y Womer, Qian Zhou, Zhiyang Yin, Shengnan Wei, Yifang Zhou, Xiaowei Jiang, Xudong Yao, Jia Duan, Ke Xu, Xi-Nian Zuo, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Local functional connectivity (FC) indicates local or short-distance functional interactions and may serve as a neuroimaging marker to investigate the human brain connectome. Local FC alterations suggest a disrupted balance in the local functionality of the whole brain network and are increasingly implicated in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We aim to examine the similarities and differences in the local FC across SZ, BD, and MDD...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744703/a-comparison-of-a-behavioral-feeding-intervention-with-and-without-pre-meal-sensory-integration-therapy
#16
Laura Seiverling, Kisha Anderson, Christine Rogan, Christina Alaimo, Paul Argott, Julio Panora
This study compared a behavioral feeding intervention with and without pre-meal sensory integration therapy (SIT) in two boys with autism spectrum disorder and severe food selectivity. For both participants, child bite and drink consumption and total intake increased to similar levels with corresponding decreases in inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB) in both conditions. The SIT condition was then discontinued and both participants continued to exhibit high levels of bite and drink consumption with corresponding low levels of IMB during a non-SIT phase...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733663/concepts-control-and-context-a-connectionist-account-of-normal-and-disordered-semantic-cognition
#17
Paul Hoffman, James L McClelland, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Semantic cognition requires conceptual representations shaped by verbal and nonverbal experience and executive control processes that regulate activation of knowledge to meet current situational demands. A complete model must also account for the representation of concrete and abstract words, of taxonomic and associative relationships, and for the role of context in shaping meaning. We present the first major attempt to assimilate all of these elements within a unified, implemented computational framework. Our model combines a hub-and-spoke architecture with a buffer that allows its state to be influenced by prior context...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721646/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-computerized-cognitive-training-on-executive-functions-a-cross-disciplinary-taxonomy-for-classifying-outcome-cognitive-factors
#18
REVIEW
Shannon L Webb, Vanessa Loh, Amit Lampit, Joel E Bateman, Damian P Birney
The growing prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging and cognitive decline has generated increasing cross-disciplinary interest in non-pharmacological interventions, such as computerized cognitive training (CCT), which may prevent or slow cognitive decline. However, inconsistent findings across meta-analytic reviews in the field suggest a lack of cross-disciplinary consensus and on-going debate regarding the benefits of CCT. We posit that a contributing factor is the lack of a theoretically-based taxonomy of constructs and representative tasks typically used...
June 2018: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698734/metacognition-of-visuomotor-decisions-in-conversion-disorder
#19
Indrit Bègue, Rebekah Blakemore, Julian Klug, Yann Cojan, Silvio Galli, Alexandre Berney, Selma Aybek, Patrik Vuilleumier
Motor conversion disorder (CD) entails genuine disturbances in the subjective experience of patients who maintain they are unable to perform a motor function, despite lack of apparent neurological damage. Abilities by which individuals assess their own capacities during performance in a task are called metacognitive, and distinctive impairment of such abilities is observed in several disorders of self-awareness such as blindsight and anosognosia. In CD, previous research has focused on the recruitment of motor and emotional brain systems, generally linking symptoms to altered limbic-motor interactions; however, metacognitive function has not been studied to our knowledge...
June 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677034/functional-somatic-symptoms-across-cultures-perceptual-and-health-care-issues
#20
Bernd Löwe, Christian Gerloff
Functional neurological disorders are conceptualized as patterns of neurological symptoms that cannot be attributed to a clear organic etiology. The study by Wilkins et al. in this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine reveals that 8.2% of patients who were initially presented with suspected stroke were later diagnosed with functional disorders, i.e., "functional stroke mimics." However, the percentage of functional stroke mimics varied substantially with patients' nationality, age, and sex. In this editorial comment, we discuss potential reasons for the intercultural variation of the frequency of functional stroke mimics...
June 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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