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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545994/the-impact-of-atypical-sensory-processing-on-social-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Melissa D Thye, Haley M Bednarz, Abbey J Herringshaw, Emma B Sartin, Rajesh K Kana
Altered sensory processing has been an important feature of the clinical descriptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is evidence that sensory dysregulation arises early in the progression of ASD and impacts social functioning. This paper reviews behavioral and neurobiological evidence that describes how sensory deficits across multiple modalities (vision, hearing, touch, olfaction, gustation, and multisensory integration) could impact social functions in ASD. Theoretical models of ASD and their implications for the relationship between sensory and social functioning are discussed...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536959/multisensory-integration-of-low-level-information-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-measuring-susceptibility-to-the-flash-beep-illusion
#2
Vanessa A Bao, Victoria Doobay, Laurent Mottron, Olivier Collignon, Armando Bertone
Previous studies have suggested audiovisual multisensory integration (MSI) may be atypical in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, much of the research having found an alteration in MSI in ASD involved socio-communicative stimuli. The goal of the current study was to investigate MSI abilities in ASD using lower-level stimuli that are not socio-communicative in nature by testing susceptibility to auditory-guided visual illusions. Adolescents and adults with ASD and typically-developing (TD) individuals were shown to have similar susceptibility to a fission illusion...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528227/treatment-non-response-associations-with-smoking-expectancies-among-treatment-seeking-smokers
#3
Lorra Garey, Samar A Taha, Brooke Y Kauffman, Kara F Manning, Clayton Neighbors, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
Despite the high rate of smoking cessation treatment non-response, relatively little empirical work has examined predictors of treatment non-response. The present study sought to explore the effect of smoking outcome expectancies on treatment response in a sample of treatment-seeking adult daily smokers (N=182; 53.3% female; Mage=40.67; SD=13.63). Results indicated that expectancies for smoking to reduce negative affect were related to an increased likelihood of treatment non-response (OR=0.73, CI: 0.54, 0...
May 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525601/too-fast-or-too-slow-time-and-neuronal-variability-in-bipolar-disorder-a-combined-theoretical-and-empirical-investigation
#4
Georg Northoff, Paola Magioncalda, Matteo Martino, Hsin-Chien Lee, Ying-Chi Tseng, Timothy Lane
Time is an essential feature in bipolar disorder (BP). Manic and depressed BP patients perceive the speed of time as either too fast or too slow. The present article combines theoretical and empirical approaches to integrate phenomenological, psychological, and neuroscientific accounts of abnormal time perception in BP. Phenomenology distinguishes between perception of inner time, ie, self-time, and outer time, ie, world-time, that desynchronize or dissociate from each other in BP: inner time speed is abnormally slow (as in depression) or fast (as in mania) and, by taking on the role as default-mode function, impacts and modulates the perception of outer time speed in an opposite way, ie, as too fast in depression and too slow in mania...
May 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516967/body-worn-triaxial-accelerometer-coherence-and-reliability-related-to-static-posturography-in-unilateral-vestibular-failure
#5
M Alessandrini, A Micarelli, A Viziano, I Pavone, G Costantini, D Casali, F Paolizzo, G Saggio
Since changes in vestibular function may be one cause of disequilibrium, major advances in measuring postural control and sensory integration in vestibular impairments have been achieved by using posturography. However, in order to overcome problems related to this type of technology, body-worn accelerometers (ACC) have been proposed as a portable, low-cost alternative to posturography for measurements of postural sway in a friendly and ecologic environment. Due to the fact that no study to date has shown the experimental validity of ACC-based measures of body sway with respect to posturography for subjects with vestibular deficits, the aim of the present study was: i) to develop and validate a practical tool that can allow clinicians to measure postural sway derangements in an otoneurological setting by ACC, and ii) to provide reliable, sensitive and accurate automatic analysis of sway that could help in discriminating unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) patients...
June 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511484/efficacy-of-structured-yoga-intervention-for-sleep-gastrointestinal-and-behaviour-problems-of-asd-children-an-exploratory-study
#6
Kumar Narasingharao, Balaram Pradhan, Janardhana Navaneetham
INTRODUCTION: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro developmental disorder which appears at early childhood age between 18 and 36 months. Apart from behaviour problems ASD children also suffer from sleep and Gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Major behaviour problems of ASD children are lack of social communication and interaction, less attention span, repetitive and restrictive behaviour, lack of eye to eye contact, aggressive and self-injurious behaviours, sensory integration problems, motor problems, deficiency in academic activities, anxiety and depression etc...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505985/upper-limb-robotics-applied-to%C3%A2-neurorehabilitation-an-overview-of%C3%A2-clinical-practice
#7
Christophe Duret, Stefano Mazzoleni
BACKGROUND: During the last two decades, extensive interaction between clinicians and engineers has led to the development of systems that stimulate neural plasticity to optimize motor recovery after neurological lesions. This has resulted in the expansion of the field of robotics for rehabilitation. Studies in patients with stroke-related upper-limb paresis have shown that robotic rehabilitation can improve motor capacity. However, few other applications have been evaluated (e.g. tremor, peripheral nerve injuries or other neurological diseases)...
May 10, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502070/sleep-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Margaret C Souders, Stefanie Zavodny, Whitney Eriksen, Rebecca Sinko, James Connell, Connor Kerns, Roseann Schaaf, Jennifer Pinto-Martin
The purposes of this paper are to provide an overview of the state of the science of sleep in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), present hypotheses for the high prevalence of insomnia in children with ASD, and present a practice pathway for promoting optimal sleep. Approximately two thirds of children with ASD have chronic insomnia, and to date, the strongest evidence on promoting sleep is for sleep education, environmental changes, behavioral interventions, and exogenous melatonin. The Sleep Committee of the Autism Treatment Network (ATN) developed a practice pathway, based on expert consensus, to capture best practices for screening, identification, and treatment for sleep problems in ASD in 2012...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499299/-current-diagnostic-procedures-for-diagnosing-vertigo-and-dizziness
#9
Leif Erik Walther
Modern diagnostic methods such as video head impulse test and cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials allow to measure canal and otolith function quantitatively and objectively. These methods contribute to a complex assessment of the functional integrity of all 5 sensory elements of the vestibular organ for the first time. Moreover, in combination with additional vestibular tests frequency specific and time depended changes of impairments of vestibular sensors and their pathways can be assessed...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485725/sensory-integration-deficits-support-a-dimensional-view-of-psychosis-and-are-not-limited-to-schizophrenia
#10
O Carter, D Bennett, T Nash, S Arnold, L Brown, R Y Cai, Z Allan, A Dluzniak, K McAnally, D Burr, S Sundram
Visual dysfunction is commonplace in schizophrenia and occurs alongside cognitive, psychotic and affective symptoms of the disorder. Psychophysical evidence suggests that this dysfunction results from impairments in the integration of low-level neural signals into complex cortical representations, which may also be associated with symptom formation. Despite the symptoms of schizophrenia occurring in a range of disorders, the integration deficit has not been tested in broader patient populations. Moreover, it remains unclear whether such deficits generalize across other sensory modalities...
May 9, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456569/neural-correlates-of-cognitive-control-in-gambling-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-fmri-studies
#11
REVIEW
Lorenzo Moccia, Mauro Pettorruso, Franco De Crescenzo, Luisa De Risio, Luigi di Nuzzo, Giovanni Martinotti, Angelo Bifone, Luigi Janiri, Marco Di Nicola
Decreased cognitive control over the urge to be involved in gambling activities is a core feature of Gambling Disorder (GD). Cognitive control can be differentiated into several cognitive sub-processes pivotal in GD clinical phenomenology, such as response inhibition, conflict monitoring, decision-making, and cognitive flexibility. This article aims to systematically review fMRI studies, which investigated the neural mechanisms underlying diminished cognitive control in GD. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and collected neuropsychological and neuroimaging data investigating cognitive control in GD...
April 26, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452405/modulations-of-cognitive-flexibility-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-reflect-dysfunctions-of-perceptual-categorization
#12
Nicole Wolff, Judith Buse, Jadwiga Tost, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
BACKGROUND: Despite cognitive inflexibility is trait like in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and underlies clinical symptomatology, it is elusive at what stage of information processing deficits, leading to cognitive inflexibility, emerges. We hypothesize that inhibitory control mechanisms during early stimulus categorization and integration into a knowledge system underlie these deficits. METHODS: We examined N = 25 adolescent OCD patients and matched healthy controls (HC) in a paradigm manipulating the importance of the knowledge system to perform task switching...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446119/neurobionics-and-the-brain-computer-interface-current-applications-and-future-horizons
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Yan Tat Wong
The brain-computer interface (BCI) is an exciting advance in neuroscience and engineering. In a motor BCI, electrical recordings from the motor cortex of paralysed humans are decoded by a computer and used to drive robotic arms or to restore movement in a paralysed hand by stimulating the muscles in the forearm. Simultaneously integrating a BCI with the sensory cortex will further enhance dexterity and fine control. BCIs are also being developed to: provide ambulation for paraplegic patients through controlling robotic exoskeletons; restore vision in people with acquired blindness; detect and control epileptic seizures; and improve control of movement disorders and memory enhancement...
May 1, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444556/thalamo-cortical-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#14
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Christine L Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Siren Tønnesen, Guido Biele, Anja Vaskinn, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
The thalamus is a highly connected subcortical structure that relays and integrates sensory and cortical information, which is critical for coherent and accurate perceptual awareness and cognition. Thalamic dysfunction is a classical finding in schizophrenia (SZ), and resting-state functional MRI has implicated somatomotor and frontal lobe thalamic dysconnectivity. However, it remains unclear whether these findings generalize to different psychotic disorders, are confined to specific thalamic sub-regions, and how they relate to structural thalamic alterations...
April 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441420/mapping-of-the-brain-hemodynamic-responses-to-sensorimotor-stimulation-in-a-rodent-model-a-bold-fmri-study
#15
Salem Boussida, Amidou S Traoré, Franck Durif
Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI) during electrical paw stimulation has been widely used in studies aimed at the understanding of the somatosensory network in rats. However, despite the well-established anatomical connections between cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor system, most of these functional studies have been concentrated on the cortical effects of sensory electrical stimulation. BOLD fMRI study of the integration of a sensorimotor input across the sensorimotor network requires an appropriate methodology to elicit functional activation in cortical and subcortical areas owing to the regional differences in both neuronal and vascular architectures between these brain regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439230/from-anxious-to-reckless-a-control-systems-approach-unifies-prefrontal-limbic-regulation-across-the-spectrum-of-threat-detection
#16
REVIEW
Lilianne R Mujica-Parodi, Jiook Cha, Jonathan Gao
Here we provide an integrative review of basic control circuits, and introduce techniques by which their regulation can be quantitatively measured using human neuroimaging. We illustrate the utility of the control systems approach using four human neuroimaging threat detection studies (N = 226), to which we applied circuit-wide analyses in order to identify the key mechanism underlying individual variation. In so doing, we build upon the canonical prefrontal-limbic control system to integrate circuit-wide influence from the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400089/neural-noise-hypothesis-of-developmental-dyslexia
#17
REVIEW
Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft
Developmental dyslexia (decoding-based reading disorder; RD) is a complex trait with multifactorial origins at the genetic, neural, and cognitive levels. There is evidence that low-level sensory-processing deficits precede and underlie phonological problems, which are one of the best-documented aspects of RD. RD is also associated with impairments in integrating visual symbols with their corresponding speech sounds. Although causal relationships between sensory processing, print-speech integration, and fluent reading, and their neural bases are debated, these processes all require precise timing mechanisms across distributed brain networks...
April 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371523/latent-constructs-underlying-sensory-subtypes-in-children-with-autism-a-preliminary-study
#18
Brittany N Hand, Simon Dennis, Alison E Lane
Recent reports identify sensory subtypes in ASD based on shared patterns of responses to daily sensory stimuli [Ausderau et al., 2014; Lane, Molloy, & Bishop, 2014]. Lane et al. propose that two broad sensory dimensions, sensory reactivity and multisensory integration, best explain the differences between subtypes, however this has yet to be tested. The present study tests this hypothesis by examining the latent constructs underlying Lane's sensory subtypes. Participants for this study were caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 2-12 years...
April 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364279/trpv1-and-trpa1-in-cutaneous-neurogenic-and-chronic-inflammation-pro-inflammatory-response-induced-by-their-activation-and-their-sensitization
#19
REVIEW
Olivier Gouin, Killian L'Herondelle, Nicolas Lebonvallet, Christelle Le Gall-Ianotto, Mehdi Sakka, Virginie Buhé, Emmanuelle Plée-Gautier, Jean-Luc Carré, Luc Lefeuvre, Laurent Misery, Raphaele Le Garrec
Cutaneous neurogenic inflammation (CNI) is inflammation that is induced (or enhanced) in the skin by the release of neuropeptides from sensory nerve endings. Clinical manifestations are mainly sensory and vascular disorders such as pruritus and erythema. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and ankyrin 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively) are non-selective cation channels known to specifically participate in pain and CNI. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are co-expressed in a large subset of sensory nerves, where they integrate numerous noxious stimuli...
March 31, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339177/multisensory-speech-perception-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-from-phoneme-to-whole-word-perception
#20
Ryan A Stevenson, Sarah H Baum, Magali Segers, Susanne Ferber, Morgan D Barense, Mark T Wallace
Speech perception in noisy environments is boosted when a listener can see the speaker's mouth and integrate the auditory and visual speech information. Autistic children have a diminished capacity to integrate sensory information across modalities, which contributes to core symptoms of autism, such as impairments in social communication. We investigated the abilities of autistic and typically-developing (TD) children to integrate auditory and visual speech stimuli in various signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Measurements of both whole-word and phoneme recognition were recorded...
March 24, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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