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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770034/stochasticity-in-the-genotype-phenotype-map-implications-for-the-robustness-and-persistence-of-bet-hedging
#1
Daniel Nichol, Mark Robertson-Tessi, Peter Jeavons, Alexander R A Anderson
Non-genetic variation in phenotypes, or bet-hedging, has been observed as a driver of drug resistance in both bacterial infections and cancers. Here, we study how bet-hedging emerges in the genotype-phenotype mapping through a simple interaction model: a molecular switch. We use simple Chemical Reaction Networks to implement stochastic switches that map gene products to phenotypes and investigate the impact of structurally distinct mappings on the evolution of phenotypic heterogeneity. Bet-hedging naturally emerges within this model and is robust to evolutionary loss through mutations to both the expression of individual genes and to the network itself...
October 21, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652289/efficacy-and-biodistribution-analysis-of-intracerebroventricular-administration-of-an-optimized-scaav9-smn1-vector-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#2
Nicole Armbruster, Annalisa Lattanzi, Matthieu Jeavons, Laetitia Van Wittenberghe, Bernard Gjata, Thibaut Marais, Samia Martin, Alban Vignaud, Thomas Voit, Fulvio Mavilio, Martine Barkats, Ana Buj-Bello
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease of variable severity caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene. Deficiency of the ubiquitous SMN function results in spinal cord α-motor neuron degeneration and proximal muscle weakness. Gene replacement therapy with recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors showed therapeutic efficacy in several animal models of SMA. Here, we report a study aimed at analyzing the efficacy and biodistribution of a serotype-9, self-complementary AAV vector expressing a codon-optimized human SMN1 coding sequence (coSMN1) under the control of the constitutive phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter in neonatal SMNΔ7 mice, a severe animal model of the disease...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26674507/protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-longitudinal-study-to-identify-factors-influencing-return-to-work-in-the-over-50s-participating-in-the-uk-work-programme-supporting-older-people-into-employment-sopie
#3
Judith Brown, Joanne Neary, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Hilary Thomson, Ronald W McQuaid, Alastair H Leyland, John Frank, Luke Jeavons, Paul de Pellette, Sibel Kiran, Ewan B Macdonald
INTRODUCTION: Increasing employment among older workers is a policy priority given the increase in life expectancy and the drop in labour force participation after the age of 50. Reasons for this drop are complex but include poor health, age discrimination, inadequate skills/qualifications and caring roles; however, limited evidence exists on how best to support this group back to work. The Work Programme is the UK Government's flagship policy to facilitate return to work (RTW) among those at risk of long-term unemployment...
December 16, 2015: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655063/activation-of-multiple-chemotherapeutic-prodrugs-by-the-natural-enzymolome-of-tumour-localised-probiotic-bacteria
#4
Panos Lehouritis, Michael Stanton, Florence O McCarthy, Matthieu Jeavons, Mark Tangney
Some chemotherapeutic drugs (prodrugs) require activation by an enzyme for efficacy. We and others have demonstrated the ability of probiotic bacteria to grow specifically within solid tumours following systemic administration, and we hypothesised that the natural enzymatic activity of these tumour-localised bacteria may be suitable for activation of certain such chemotherapeutic drugs. Several wild-type probiotic bacteria; Escherichia coli Nissle, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus species, were screened against a panel of popular prodrugs...
January 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26588588/a-prospective-study-of-the-modified-atkins-diet-for-adults-with-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy
#5
Magnhild Kverneland, Kaja K Selmer, Karl O Nakken, Per O Iversen, Erik Taubøll
For children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, the ketogenic diet is an established treatment option worldwide. However, for adults, this treatment is less frequently offered, and its efficacy less well-documented. The aim of this study was to examine efficacy and tolerability of such a diet as an adjuvant therapy to antiepileptic drugs for adult patients with pharmacoresistant generalized epilepsy. Thirteen patients (12 women) aged 16-57 years were included prospectively. They were treated with a modified Atkins diet for 12 weeks...
December 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26552567/jeavons-syndrome-as-an-occipital-cortex-initiated-generalized-epilepsy-further-evidence-from-a-patient-with-a-photic-induced-occipital-seizure
#6
LETTER
Beatriz G Giráldez, Jose M Serratosa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26492104/preliminary-neurocognitive-outcomes-in-jeavons-syndrome
#7
Ashley S Fournier-Goodnight, Marsha Gabriel, M Scott Perry
Jeavons syndrome (JS, eyelid myoclonia with absences [EMA]) consists of a triad of symptoms including eyelid myoclonia that may be accompanied by absence seizures, eye closure-induced EEG paroxysms or seizures, and photosensitivity. The age of onset ranges between 2 and 14 years with symptoms peaking between 6 and 8 years of age. Though investigation of the clinical, EEG, and neurological features of JS has occurred, neurocognitive functioning has not been well-delineated despite suggestion that a subtype of the syndrome is characterized in part by cognitive impairment...
November 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26360300/steering-evolution-with-sequential-therapy-to-prevent-the-emergence-of-bacterial-antibiotic-resistance
#8
Daniel Nichol, Peter Jeavons, Alexander G Fletcher, Robert A Bonomo, Philip K Maini, Jerome L Paul, Robert A Gatenby, Alexander R A Anderson, Jacob G Scott
The increasing rate of antibiotic resistance and slowing discovery of novel antibiotic treatments presents a growing threat to public health. Here, we consider a simple model of evolution in asexually reproducing populations which considers adaptation as a biased random walk on a fitness landscape. This model associates the global properties of the fitness landscape with the algebraic properties of a Markov chain transition matrix and allows us to derive general results on the non-commutativity and irreversibility of natural selection as well as antibiotic cycling strategies...
September 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26262932/chd2-mutations-are-a-rare-cause-of-generalized-epilepsy-with-myoclonic-atonic-seizures
#9
Marina Trivisano, Pasquale Striano, Jacopo Sartorelli, Lucio Giordano, Monica Traverso, Patrizia Accorsi, Simona Cappelletti, Dianela Judith Claps, Federico Vigevano, Federico Zara, Nicola Specchio
Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 2 (CHD2) gene mutations have been reported in patients with myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (MAE), as well as in patients with Lennox-Gastaut, Dravet, and Jeavons syndromes and other epileptic encephalopathies featuring generalized epilepsy and intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of CHD2 mutations in a series of patients with MAE. Twenty patients affected by MAE were included in the study. We analyzed antecedents, age at onset, seizure semiology and frequency, EEG, treatment, and neuropsychological outcome...
October 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26173905/simple-algorithms-for-distributed-leader-election-in-anonymous-synchronous-rings-and-complete-networks-inspired-by-neural-development-in-fruit-flies
#10
Lei Xu, Peter Jeavons
Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly...
November 2015: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26054310/the-concealment-of-significant-pelvic-injuries-on-computed-tomography-evaluation-by-pelvic-compression-devices
#11
Jenny Clements, Richard Jeavons, Craig White, Ian McMurtry
BACKGROUND: Fractures of the pelvis and acetabulum are relatively rare, with a reported incidence of 3% to 8% of all adult fractures, but occur in approximately 20% of all polytrauma cases. They have high associated morbidity (40% to 50%) and mortality (5% to 30%). It is recommended that an external compression splint be applied in the presence of a suspected pelvic fracture before transfer and definitive investigation and management. CASE REPORT: Two cases are presented in which these recommendations were met and the patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning upon arrival to the emergency department at a major trauma center with the pelvic binder in situ...
November 2015: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25713773/unexplained-perioperative-vertebrobasilar-stroke-in-a-patient-undergoing-anterior-cervical-decompression-and-disc-arthroplasty
#12
Andrew James Berg, Cyrus Dokhanian Jensen, Richard Paul Jeavons, Guru Raj Reddy, Tai Freisem
BACKGROUND: Vertebrobasilar stroke associated with the anterior approach to the cervical spine is rare and has not been reported in cervical disc arthroplasty surgery. We report the case of a 60-year-old patient who underwent cervical disc arthroplasty at C4-5, C5-6 and C6-7. Postoperatively, due to symptoms and signs of a cerebellar stroke, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was obtained confirming this diagnosis. Despite thorough investigation no specific identifiable cause for the stroke has been identified...
2015: International Journal of Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25413316/infrared-thermography-in-the-detection-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-humans
#13
Christina Jang, Sandya Jalapu, Moe Thuzar, Phillip W Law, Susanne Jeavons, Johanna L Barclay, Ken K Y Ho
PET-CT using (18)F-FDG is employed for detecting brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans. Alternative methods are needed because of the radiation and cost of PET-CT imaging. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of infrared thermography (IRT) in detecting human BAT benchmarked to PET-CT imaging. Seventeen individuals underwent a total of 29 PET-CT scans, 12 of whom were studied twice, after 2 h of cold stimulation at 19°C, in parallel with measurement of skin temperatures overlying the supraclavicular (SCV) fossa and the lateral upper chest (control), before and after cold stimulation...
November 1, 2014: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25130932/the-visual-system-in-eyelid-myoclonia-with-absences
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Andrea Ruggieri, Manuela Tondelli, Pietro Avanzini, Francesca Benuzzi, Giuliana Gessaroli, Gaetano Cantalupo, Massimo Mastrangelo, Aglaia Vignoli, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Maria Paola Canevini, Bernardo Dalla Bernardina, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Stefano Meletti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional and structural brain correlates of eyelid myoclonus and absence seizures triggered by eye closure (eye closure sensitivity [ECS]). METHODS: Fifteen patients with eyelid myoclonus with absences (EMA, Jeavons syndrome), 14 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE) without ECS, and 16 healthy controls (HC) underwent an electroencephalography (EEG)-correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel brain morphometry (VBM) protocol...
September 2014: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25004186/the-efficacy-of-adjunctive-n-acetylcysteine-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Michael Berk, Olivia M Dean, Sue M Cotton, Susan Jeavons, Michelle Tanious, Kristy Kohlmann, Karen Hewitt, Kirsteen Moss, Christine Allwang, Ian Schapkaitz, Jenny Robbins, Heidi Cobb, Felicity Ng, Seetal Dodd, Ashley I Bush, Gin S Malhi
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, conferring considerable individual, family, and community burden. To date, treatments for MDD have been derived from the monoamine hypothesis, and there is a paucity of emerging antidepressants, especially with novel mechanisms of action and treatment targets. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a redox-active glutathione precursor that decreases inflammatory cytokines, modulates glutamate, promotes neurogenesis, and decreases apoptosis, all of which contribute to the neurobiology of depression...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24712019/assessing-pain-intensity-in-children-with-chronic-pain-convergent-and-discriminant-validity-of-the-0-to-10-numerical-rating-scale-in-clinical-practice
#16
Danielle Ruskin, Chitra Lalloo, Khushnuma Amaria, Jennifer N Stinson, Erika Kewley, Fiona Campbell, Stephen C Brown, Michael Jeavons, Patricia A McGrath
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, children are often asked to rate their pain intensity on a simple 0 to 10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Although the NRS is a well-established measure for adults, no study has yet evaluated its validity for children with chronic pain. OBJECTIVES: To examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the NRS as it is used within regular clinical practice to document pain intensity for children with chronic pain. Interchangeability between the NRS and an analogue pain measure was also assessed...
May 2014: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24495864/jeavons-syndrome-in-china
#17
Xiao-Li Wang, Jun-Xiang Bao, Liang-Shi, Tie-Ma, Yan-Chun Deng, Gang Zhao, Bengwei Swa, Yong-Hong Liu
OBJECTIVES: Jeavons syndrome (JS) is one of the underreported epileptic syndromes and is characterized by eyelid myoclonia (EM), eye closure-induced seizures or electroencephalography (EEG) paroxysms, and photosensitivity. In the Western populations, it has been reported to be characterized by focal posterior, occipital predominant epileptiform discharges (OPEDs) or frontal predominant epileptiform discharges (FPEDs) followed by generalized EDs in both interictal and ictal EEG recordings...
March 2014: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24366793/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-hip-fracture-surgery-three-dose-cefuroxime-versus-single-dose-gentamicin-and-amoxicillin
#18
Prithee Jettoo, Richard Jeavons, Bobby Siddiqui, Shaun O'Brien
PURPOSE: To compare a 3-dose cefuroxime regimen with a single-dose gentamicin and amoxicillin regimen as antibiotic prophylaxis for hip hemiarthroplasty in terms of microbiological outcome. METHODS: Records of 2 matched groups of patients who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures were reviewed. 29 men and 84 women (mean age, 82 years) who received a 3-dose cefuroxime regimen in 2006 were compared with 23 men and 84 women (mean age, 83 years) who received a single-dose gentamicin and amoxicillin regimen in 2008...
December 2013: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24188603/management-of-significant-and-widespread-acute-subcutaneous-emphysema-should-we-manage-surgically-or-conservatively
#19
Richard P Jeavons, Daniel Dowen, Paul R P Rushton, Simon Chambers, Shaun O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous emphysema of a limb after acute injury is classically associated with gas gangrene. Delayed management can result in amputation and death. Typically caused by a clostridial infection, patients are unwell, with rapidly spreading clinical signs, abnormal laboratory results, and cultures positive. There are reports of widespread subcutaneous emphysema of a limb in well-appearing patients, with blood parameters within normal limits; however, the optimum management of this type of case is unclear...
January 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23955975/high-bmi-at-diagnosis-is-associated-with-inferior-survival-in-patients-with-osteosarcoma-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#20
Sadaf Altaf, Felicity Enders, Elysia Jeavons, Mark Krailo, Donald A Barkauskas, Paul Meyers, Carola Arndt
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI), at diagnosis has been associated with lower survival and increased toxicity in cancer patients. We analyzed the effect of BMI at diagnosis on therapy related toxicities and outcome in pediatric osteosarcoma patients treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) trial INT0133. PROCEDURES: All patients enrolled on COG-INT0133 with height, weight and toxicity information were eligible. BMI was expressed as age and gender specific percentiles using height and weight at diagnosis...
December 2013: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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