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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550453/exchange-of-genetic-sequences-between-viruses-and-hosts
#1
Robin A Weiss
Although genetic transfer between viruses and vertebrate hosts occurs less frequently than gene flow between bacteriophages and prokaryotes, it is extensive and has affected the evolution of both parties. With retroviruses, the integration of proviral DNA into chromosomal DNA can result in the activation of adjacent host gene expression and in the transduction of host transcripts into retroviral genomes as oncogenes. Yet in contrast to lysogenic phage, there is little evidence that viral oncogenes persist in a chain of natural transmission or that retroviral transduction is a significant driver of the horizontal spread of host genes...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550434/flagellin-fljb-as-an-adjuvant-to-the-recombinant-adenovirus-rabies-glycoprotein-vaccine-increases-immune-responses-against-rabies-in-mice
#2
Xingxing Xiao, Yun Zhang, Qiaolin Wei, Xiangping Yin
Rabies virus (RABV) causes an acute progressive viral encephalitis. Although currently licensed vaccines have an excellent safety and efficacy record, the development of a safer and more cost-effective vaccine is still being sought. An E1-deleted, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (HAd5) vector expressing RABV glycoprotein (HAd5-G) is thought to be a promising candidate vaccine for immune prophylaxis against rabies. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) flagellin is a well-known immune adjuvant...
May 26, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550248/cd44-splice-variants-as-potential-players-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#3
Elhanan Pinner, Yaron Gruper, Micha Ben Zimra, Don Kristt, Moshe Laudon, David Naor, Nava Zisapel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal cell death. Neuroinflammation is commonly believed to participate in AD pathogenesis. CD44 is an inflammation-related gene encoding a widely-distributed family of alternatively spliced cell surface glycoproteins that have been implicated in inflammation, metastases, and inflammation-linked neuronal injuries. Here we investigated the expression patterns of CD44S (which does not contain any alternative exon) and CD44 splice variants in postmortem hippocampal samples from AD patients and matched non-AD controls...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550190/patient-derived-anti-%C3%AE-2gp1-antibodies-recognize-a-peptide-motif-pattern-and-not-a-specific-sequence-of-residues
#4
Philippe de Moerloose, Céline Fickentscher, Françoise Boehlen, Jean-Marie Tiercy, Egbert K O Kruithof, Karim J Brandt
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of so-called antiphospholipid antibodies and clinical manifestations such as recurrent thromboembolic or pregnancy complications. Although the main antigenic determinant for antiphospholipid antibodies has been identified as the beta-2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GP1), the precise epitope recognized by antiphospholipid antibodies still remains largely unknown. In the present study, we wanted to identify a sequence in the domain I of β2GP1 able to induce the proliferation of CD4+ T cells isolated from antiphospholipid antibody syndrome patients but not from healthy donors and to interact with antiphospholipid antibodies...
May 26, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550176/mechanical-behavior-and-matrisome-gene-expression-in-aneurysm-prone-thoracic-aorta-of-newborn-lysyl-oxidase-knockout-mice
#5
Marius Catalin Staiculescu, Jungsil Kim, Robert P Mecham, Jessica Wagenseil
Mutations in lysyl oxidase (LOX) are associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). Mice that do not express Lox (Lox(-/-)) die soon after birth and have 60% and 40% reductions in elastin- and collagen-specific crosslinks, respectively. LOX inactivation could also change the expression of secreted factors, structural matrix, and matrix-associated proteins that constitute the aortic matrisome. We hypothesize that the absence of Lox will change the mechanical behavior of the aortic wall due to reduced elastin and collagen crosslinking and alter the expression levels of matrisome and smooth muscle cell (SMC) genes in a vascular location-specific manner...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550062/engineering-of-a-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-thermococcus-kodakarensis-that-displays-chitin-dependent-hydrogen-production
#6
Mehwish Aslam, Ayumi Horiuchi, Jan-Robert Simons, Savyasachee Jha, Masahiro Yamada, Toru Odani, Rikako Fujimoto, Yasuyuki Yamamoto, Ryoma Gunji, Tadayuki Imanaka, Tamotsu Kanai, Haruyuki Atomi
Thermococcus kodakarensis is a hyperthermophilic archaeon that harbors a complete set of genes for chitin degradation to fructose 6-phosphate. However, wild-type T. kodakarensis KOD1 does not display growth on chitin. In this study, we developed a T. kodakarensis strain that can grow on chitin via genetic and adaptive engineering. First, a chitinase overproduction strain (KC01) was constructed by replacing the chitinase gene promoter with a strong promoter from the cell-surface glycoprotein gene, resulting in increased degradation of swollen chitin and accumulation of N-, N'-diacetylchitobiose in the medium...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549670/cilastatin-attenuates-vancomycin-induced-nephrotoxicity-via-p-glycoprotein
#7
Dai Sig Im, Hye Jin Shin, Keum Jin Yang, So Young Jung, Ho Yeon Song, Hyeon Seok Hwang, Hyo-Wook Gil
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is one of the main pathogenic mechanisms in vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity (VIN). Some studies suggest proximal renal tubular cell necrosis by vancomycin accumulation as a mechanism of nephrotoxicity, and other studies demonstrate that cilastatin has protective effects against drug-induced nephrotoxicity. We investigated whether cilastatin regulates P-gp expression and whether cilastation prevents VIN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an in vitro study using an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from a normal adult human kidney (HK-2) and an in vivo study using male C57BL/6J mice...
May 23, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549651/enriched-environment-alters-the-behavioral-profile-of-tenascin-c-deficient-mice
#8
V Stamenkovic, I Milenkovic, N Galjak, V Todorovic, P Andjus
Tenascin-C (TnC) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein implicated in a variety of processes ranging from brain development to synaptic plasticity in the adult vertebrates. Although the role of the TnC gene in regulation of behavior has been investigated, it remained elusive how TnC deficiency interacts with the environment in shaping the behavioral phenotype. To address this, 3-week-old TnC+/+ and TnC-/- male mice were housed over an 8-week period in standard conditions (SC), or enriched environment (EE)...
May 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549218/exosite-2-directed-ligands-attenuate-protein-c-activation-by-the-thrombin-thrombomodulin-complex
#9
Kai Chen, Alan R Stafford, Chengliang Wu, Calvin Yeh, Paul Y Kim, James C Fredenburgh, Jeffrey I Weitz
Thrombin activity, inhibition, and localization are regulated by two exosites that flank the active site. Substrates, cofactors and inhibitors bind to exosite 1 to promote active site access, whereas exosite 2 interactions retain thrombin on cells, platelets, and proteins. The exosites also serve allosteric roles, whereby ligand binding alters thrombin activity. Previously, we showed that ligands that bind exosite 2 attenuate the exosite 1-mediated interaction of thrombin with fibrin, demonstrating allosteric connection between the exosites...
May 26, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549145/six-month-safety-data-of-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-zaire-ebola-virus-envelope-glycoprotein-vaccine-in-a-phase-3-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-study-in-healthy-adults
#10
Scott A Halperin, Jose R Arribas, Richard Rupp, Charles P Andrews, Laurence Chu, Rituparna Das, Jakub K Simon, Matthew T Onorato, Kenneth Liu, Jason Martin, Frans A Helmond
Background.: This study (NCT02503202) evaluated the safety of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP). Methods.: Overall, 1197 subjects were randomized 2:2:2:2:1; 1194 were vaccinated with 1 dose of 1 of 3 lots of rVSVΔG- ZEBOV-GP (2 × 107 plaque-forming units [pfu], n = 797; combined-lots group), a single high-dose lot of rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP (1 × 108 pfu, n = 264; high-dose group), or placebo (n = 133)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548923/tubb3-overexpression-has-a-negligible-effect-on-the-sensitivity-to-taxol-in-cultured-cell-lines
#11
Mihoko A Tame, Anna G Manjón, Daria Belokhvostova, Jonne A Raaijmakers, René H Medema
Microtubules are cellular targets for a variety of anticancer therapies because of their critical function in mitosis. Taxol belongs to a class of microtubule targeting agents that suppresses microtubule dynamics and interferes with the functioning of the mitotic spindle, thereby effectively blocking cell cycle progression of rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Despite its antitumor activity, drug resistance remains a common obstacle in improving its overall clinical efficacy. Previous studies have shown that the expression of a specific β-tubulin isotype, βIII-tubulin/TUBB3, is dysregulated in drug-refractory tumors...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548638/asymmetric-recognition-of-hiv-1-envelope-trimer-by-v1v2-loop-targeting-antibodies
#12
Haoqing Wang, Harry B Gristick, Louise Scharf, Anthony P West, Rachel P Galimidi, Michael S Seaman, Natalia T Freund, Michel C Nussenzweig, Pamela J Bjorkman
The HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein binds to host cell receptors to mediate membrane fusion. The prefusion Env trimer is stabilized by V1V2 loops that interact at the trimer apex. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against V1V2 loops, exemplified by PG9, bind asymmetrically as a single Fab to the apex of the symmetric Env trimer using a protruding CDRH3 to penetrate the Env glycan shield. Here we characterized a distinct mode of V1V2 epitope recognition by the new bNAb BG1 in which two Fabs bind asymmetrically per Env trimer using a compact CDRH3...
May 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548037/moonlighting-glycolytic-enzyme-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gapdh-is-required-for-efficient-hepatitis-c-virus-and-dengue-virus-infections-in-human-huh-7-5-1-cells
#13
Meera Raj, Mary Langley, Steven J McArthur, François Jean
Hijacking of cellular biosynthetic pathways by human enveloped viruses is a shared molecular event essential for the viral lifecycle. In this study, the accumulating evidence of the importance of human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the host secretory pathway led us to hypothesize that this moonlighting enzyme could play a key role in the lifecycle steps of two important Flaviviridae members, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and dengue virus (DENV). We used short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of human GAPDH in Huh-7...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547342/trichosporon-asteroides-isolated-from-cutaneous-lesions-of-a-suspected-case-of-paracoccidioidomycosis-ceti-in-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#14
Keiichi Ueda, Ichiro Nakamura, Eiko Nakagawa Itano, Kazunori Takemura, Yasutomo Nakazato, Ayako Sano
"Paracoccidioidomycosis ceti" is a rare zoonotic fungal infection affecting dolphins and is endemic worldwide. The causative agents are Paracoccidioides species; however, it is impossible to isolate the fungal species. We isolated Trichosporon asteroides from multifocal, irregularly raised skin lesions on a female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) captured off coast of Japan, which was suspected to have "paracoccidioidomycosis ceti." An abundance of round, yeast-like cells was detected in a potassium hydroxide direct-mount specimen of the skin samples; however, nested PCR targeting the partial sequence of 43-kDa glycoprotein-coding gene correspondent to Paracoccidioides sp...
May 25, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546458/proteoglycans-ion-channels-and-cell-matrix-adhesion
#15
REVIEW
Ioli Mitsou, Hinke A B Multhaupt, John R Couchman
Cell surface proteoglycans comprise a transmembrane or membrane-associated core protein to which one or more glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently attached. They are ubiquitous receptors on nearly all animal cell surfaces. In mammals, the cell surface proteoglycans include the six glypicans, CD44, NG2 (CSPG4), neuropilin-1 and four syndecans. A single syndecan is present in invertebrates such as nematodes and insects. Uniquely, syndecans are receptors for many classes of proteins that can bind to the heparan sulphate chains present on syndecan core proteins...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546425/the-first-crystal-structure-of-a-family-129-glycoside-hydrolase-from-a-probiotic-bacterium-reveals-critical-residues-and-metal-co-factors
#16
Mayo Sato, Dorothee Liebschner, Yusuke Yamada, Naohiro Matsugaki, Takatoshi Arakawa, Siobhan S Wills, Mitchell Hattie, Keith A Stubbs, Tasuku Ito, Toshiya Senda, Hisashi Ashida, Shinya Fushinobu
The α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium bifidum (NagBb) belongs to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 129 and hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond of Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr). NagBb is involved in assimilation of O-glycans on mucin glycoproteins by B. bifidum in the human gastrointestinal tract, but its catalytic mechanism has remained elusive because of a lack of sequence homology around putative catalytic residues and of other structural information. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of NagBb, representing the first GH129 family structure, solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion method based on sulfur atoms of the native protein...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546087/region-specific-oligodendrocyte-transcription-factor-expression-in-a-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-injury
#17
Bethann M Affeldt, Andre Obenaus, Jonathan Chan, Andrea C Pardo
White matter injury (WMI) of prematurity is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders ranging from mild cognitive and behavioral deficits to cerebral palsy. Translational studies have implicated impaired oligodendrocyte development after hypoxia as the primary cause of WMI, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify alterations in the expression of oligodendrocyte precursor cell transcription factors in a mouse model of transient mild global hypoxia...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545768/elastin-microfibril-interface-located-protein-1-transforming-growth-factor-beta-and-implications-on-cardiovascular-complications
#18
REVIEW
Amy Randell, Noriko Daneshtalab
Elastin microfibril interface-located protein 1 (EMILIN1), a glycoprotein, is associated with elastin in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of arteries, lymph vasculature, and other tissues. EMILIN1 particularly has a niche role in elastin fiber biogenesis (elastogenesis) by aiding with the fusion of elastin fibers, rendering them more ordered. In addition to elastogenesis, EMILIN1 has been shown to have roles in maintenance of vascular cell morphology, smooth muscle cell adhesion to elastic fibers, and transforming growth factor (TGFβ) regulation, by inhibiting TGFβ activation via blocking the proteolytic production of the latency-associated peptide/active TGFβ complex...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545059/uggt1-enhances-enterovirus-71-pathogenicity-by-promoting-viral-rna-synthesis-and-viral-replication
#19
Peng-Nien Huang, Jia-Rong Jheng, Jamie J Arnold, Jen-Ren Wang, Craig E Cameron, Shin-Ru Shih
Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71) utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1), a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER) involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs) on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545028/stc1-promotes-cell-apoptosis-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-phospho-p65-ser536-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#20
Xi Pan, Binyuan Jiang, Jianhao Liu, Juan Ding, Yuehui Li, Ruili Sun, Li Peng, Changfei Qin, Shujuan Fang, Guancheng Li
Stanniocalin-1 (STC1) is a secreted glycoprotein hormone and involved in various types of human malignancies. Our previous studies revealed that STC1 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells through NF-κB P65 activation, but the mechanism is poorly understood. In our studies, we found overexpression of STC1 promoted cell apoptosis while silencing of STC1 promoted cell growth of cervical cancer. Phospho-protein profiling and Western blotting results showed the expression of NF-κB related phosphorylation sites including NF-κB P65 (Ser536), IκBα, IKKβ, PI3K, and AKT was altered in STC1-overexpressed cervical cancer cells...
May 5, 2017: Oncotarget
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