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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222813/reln-signaling-modulates-glioblastoma-growth-and-substrate-dependent-migration
#1
Markus Schulze, Christ Violonchi, Stefan Swoboda, Tobias Welz, Eugen Kerkhoff, Sabine Hoja, Susanne Brüggemann, Johann Simbürger, Jörg Reinders, Markus J Riemenschneider
Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and most malignant type of primary brain tumor and significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. Invasion into the healthy brain parenchyma is a major feature of glioblastoma aggressiveness. Reelin (RELN) is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain and sustains functionality in the adult brain. We here show that both RELN and its main downstream effector DAB1 are silenced in glioblastoma as compared to non-neoplastic tissue and mRNA expression is inversely correlated with malignancy grade...
December 8, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222794/active-induction-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#2
Gabriella Contarini, Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper
The protocol in this chapter presents a method to actively induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), one of the most widely used animal models to study efficacy of potential drugs for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of chronic neurological impairment in young people. In this model EAE is induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with an emulsion of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (fragment 35-55) in complete Freund's adjuvant, followed by administration of pertussis toxin in phosphate-buffered saline...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222397/indoxyl-sulfate-upregulates-liver-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-activity-through-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling
#3
Tacy Santana Machado, Stéphane Poitevin, Pascale Paul, Nathalie McKay, Noémie Jourde-Chiche, Tristan Legris, Annick Mouly-Bandini, Françoise Dignat-George, Philippe Brunet, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Stéphane Burtey, Claire Cerini
In patients with CKD, not only renal but also, nonrenal clearance of drugs is altered. Uremic toxins could modify the expression and/or activity of drug transporters in the liver. We tested whether the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS), an endogenous ligand of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor, could change the expression of the following liver transporters involved in drug clearance: SLC10A1, SLC22A1, SLC22A7, SLC47A1, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SLCO2B1, ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCC6, and ABCG2 We showed that IS increases the expression and activity of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by ABCB1 in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) without modifying the expression of the other transporters...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222332/stabilization-of-the-gp120-v3-loop-through-hydrophobic-interactions-reduces-the-immunodominant-v3-directed-non-neutralizing-response-to-hiv-1-envelope-trimers
#4
Steven W de Taeye, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Andrea Vecchione, Enzo Scutigliani, Kwinten Sliepen, Judith A Burger, Patricia van der Woude, Anna Schorcht, Edith E Schermer, Marit J van Gils, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Ian A Wilson, John P Moore, Andrew B Ward, Rogier W Sanders
To provide protective immunity against circulating primary HIV-1 strains, a vaccine most likely has to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein spike. Recombinant Env trimers such as the prototype BG505 SOSIP.664 that closely mimic the native Env spike can induce autologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against relatively resistant (tier-2) primary viruses. Ideally, Env immunogens should present bNAb epitopes, but limit the presentation of immunodominant non-NAb epitopes that might induce off-target and potentially interfering responses...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221866/a-capillary-zone-electrophoresis-method-for-detection-of-apolipoprotein-c-iii-glycoforms-and-other-related-artifactually-modified-species
#5
Coralie Ruel, Marco Morani, Arnaud Bruneel, Christophe Junot, Myriam Taverna, François Fenaille, Thuy Tran
ApolipoproteinC-III (ApoC-III) is a human plasma glycoprotein whose O-glycosylation can be altered as a result of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). ApoC-III exhibits three major glycoforms whose relative quantification is of utmost importance for the diagnosis of CDG patients. Considering the very close structures of these glycoforms and their tendency to adsorb on the capillary, a thorough optimization of capillary electrophoresis (CE) parameters including preconditioning and in-between rinsing procedures was required to efficiently separate all the ApoC-III glycoforms...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221804/the-impact-of-the-cd9-tetraspanin-on-lentivirus-infectivity-and-exosome-secretion
#6
Kai O Böker, Nicolas Lemus-Diaz, Rafael Rinaldi Ferreira, Lara Schiller, Stefan Schneider, Jens Gruber
Efficient transduction tools are a hallmark for both research and therapy development. Here, we introduce new insights into the generation of lentiviral vectors with improved performance by utilizing producer cells with increased production rates of extracellular vesicles through CD9 overexpression. Most human cells secrete small vesicles from their surface (microvesicles) or intraluminal endosome-derived membranes (exosomes). In particular, enhanced levels of the tetraspanin CD9 result in significantly increased numbers of extracellular vesicles with exosome-like features that were secreted from four different human cell lines...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221467/urothelial-cells-may-indicate-underlying-bacteriuria-in-pregnancy-at-term-a-comparative-study
#7
N Liou, J Currie, C James, J Malone-Lee, A L David
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection is common in pregnancy. Urine is sampled from by mid-stream collection (MSU). If epithelial cells are detected, contamination by vulvo-vagial skin and skin bacteria is assumed. Outside pregnancy, catheter specimen urine (CSU) is considered less susceptible to contamination. We compared MSU and CSU methods in term pregnancy to test these assumptions. METHODS: Healthy pregnant women at term gestation (n = 32, median gestation 38 + 6 weeks, IQR 37 + 6-39 + 2) undergoing elective caesarean section provided a MSU and CSU for paired comparison that were each analysed for bacterial growth and bladder distress by fresh microscopy, sediment culture and immunofluorescent staining...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218606/pi3k-is-a-linker-between-l-selectin-and-psgl-1-signaling-to-il-18-transcriptional-activation-at-the-promoter-level
#8
Jixian Luo
L-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) are adhesion molecules which induce similar physiological events. Our previous paper showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) played a crucial role in L-selectin- and PSGL-1-mediated F-actin redistribution and assembly during neutrophil rolling on E-selectin. However, it is not clear whether L-selectin and PSGL-1 induce other similar physiology events by PI3K. Here, we investigated the possibility of PI3K linking the signaling pathways of L-selectin and PSGL-1 to IL-18 transcription...
December 7, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218397/can-we-better-predict-the-biologic-behavior-of-incidental-ipmn-a-comprehensive-analysis-of-molecular-diagnostics-and-biomarkers-in-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasms-of-the-pancreas
#9
Kiara A Tulla, Ajay V Maker
PURPOSE: Predicting the biologic behavior of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) remains challenging. Current guidelines utilize patient symptoms and imaging characteristics to determine appropriate surgical candidates. However, the majority of resected cysts remain low-risk lesions, many of which may be feasible to have under surveillance. We herein characterize the most promising and up-to-date molecular diagnostics in order to identify optimal components of a molecular signature to distinguish levels of IPMN dysplasia...
December 7, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217817/acetazolamide-suppresses-multi-drug-resistance-related-protein-1-and-p-glycoprotein-expression-by-inhibiting-aquaporins-expression-in-a-mesial-temporal-epilepsy-rat-model
#10
Lei Duan, Qing Di
BACKGROUND Mesial temporal epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in adults, and is often drug-resistant. This study investigated the effects of aquaporins (AQP) inhibitor on multi-drug-resistant protein expression in an MTLE rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS The MTLE rat model was established by injecting pilocarpine into rats. The MTLE rats were divided into an MTLE-6 h group, an MTLE-12 h group, and an MTLE-24 h group, together with a normal saline group (NS), to examine the AQP4 expression by using Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry assay...
December 8, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217674/pollen-pistil-interaction-in-pawpaw-asimina-triloba-the-northernmost-species-of-the-mainly-tropical-family-annonaceae
#11
Juan M Losada, Jose I Hormaza, Jorge Lora
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The pawpaw, Asimina triloba, is an underutilized fruit crop native to North America that belongs to the mainly tropical, early-divergent family Annonaceae. Asimina is the only genus within the Annonaceae with species adapted to cold climates. A thorough analysis of its reproductive biology, specifically pollen-pistil interaction during the progamic phase, is essential to understand both its adaptation to cold climates and how to optimize its fertilization and fruit set...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217660/chimeric-pneumoviridae-fusion-proteins-as-immunogens-to-induce-cross-neutralizing-antibody-responses
#12
Eduardo Olmedillas, Olga Cano, Isidoro Martínez, Daniel Luque, María C Terrón, Jason S McLellan, José A Melero, Vicente Más
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV), two members of the Pneumoviridae family, account for the majority of severe lower respiratory tract infections worldwide in very young children. They are also a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and immunocompromised adults. High levels of neutralizing antibodies, mostly directed against the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein, correlate with protection against either hRSV or hMPV However, no cross-neutralization is observed in polyclonal antibody responses raised after virus infection or immunization with purified F proteins...
December 7, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217383/detection-of-latino-virus-arenaviridae-mammarenavirus-naturally-infecting-calomys-callidus
#13
Jorlan Fernandes, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Alexandro Guterres, Débora Ferreira Barreto-Vieira, Ana Claudia Pereira Terças, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Marcos Alexandre Nunes da Silva, Gabriela Cardoso Caldas, Janice Mery Chicarino de Oliveira Coelho, Ortrud Monika Barth, Sergio Paulo D'Andrea, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Mammarenavirus species are associated with a specific rodent host species, although an increasing number of virus has been associated to more than one host, suggesting that co-evolution is less robust than initially thought. There are few eco-epidemiological studies of South America mammarenaviruses in non-endemic areas of Arenavirus Hemorrhagic Fever, affecting specially our current knowledge about animal reservoirs and virus range and host-virus relations. In Brazil, seven arenavirus species were described in seven different rodent species...
December 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217182/mass-spectrometry-characterization-for-n-glycosylation-of-immunoglobulin-y-from-hen-egg-yolk
#14
Long Sheng, Zhenjiao He, Yaping Liu, Meihu Ma, Zhaoxia Cai
Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody that exists in hen egg yolk. It is a glycoprotein, not much is known about its N-glycan structures, site occupancy and site-specific N-glycosylation. In this study, purified protein from hen egg yolk was identified as IgY based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. N-glycan was released from IgY using peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase treatment, and the molecular weight of IgY was calculated using the difference between the molecular weight of IgY and deglycosylated IgY...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216381/de-novo-gene-evolution-of-antifreeze-glycoproteins-in-codfishes-revealed-by-whole-genome-sequence-data
#15
Helle Tessand Baalsrud, Ole Kristian Tørresen, Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Walter Salzburger, Reinhold Hanel, Kjetill S Jakobsen, Sissel Jentoft
New genes can arise through duplication of a pre-existing gene or de novo from non-coding DNA, providing raw material for evolution of new functions in response to a changing environment. A prime example is the independent evolution of antifreeze glycoprotein genes (afgps) in the Arctic codfishes and Antarctic notothenioids to prevent freezing. However, the highly repetitive nature of these genes complicates studies of their organization. In notothenioids, afgps evolved from an extant gene, yet the evolutionary origin of afgps in codfishes is unknown...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216362/an-hsv-2-single-cycle-candidate-vaccine-deleted-in-glycoprotein-d-%C3%AE-gd-2-protects-male-mice-from-lethal-skin-challenge-with-clinical-isolates-of-hsv-1-and-hsv-2
#16
Clare Burn, Natalie Ramsey, Scott J Garforth, Steven Almo, William R Jacobs, Betsy C Herold
HSV infections manifest as recurrent oral or genital mucosal lesions, meningoencephalitis, corneal blindness and perinatal disease. Subunit vaccines have advanced into the clinic without success. None were tested preclinically in male mice. We compared a single-cycle candidate vaccine deleted in HSV-2 glycoprotein D (ΔgD-2) and subunit gD-2 or gD-1 protein vaccines in a male murine skin model. ΔgD-2 provided complete protection against 10-times the lethal dose of HSV-1 or HSV-2 clinical isolates and no latent virus was detected, whereas gD-1 and gD-2 adjuvanted proteins provided little or no protection...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216247/the-glycoprotein-of-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-promotes-release-of-virus-like-particles-from-tetherin-positive-cells
#17
Constantin Brinkmann, Markus Hoffmann, Anastasia Lübke, Inga Nehlmeier, Annika Krämer-Kühl, Michael Winkler, Stefan Pöhlmann
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) release from infected cells is inhibited by the interferon (IFN)-inducible antiviral host cell factor tetherin (BST-2, CD317). However, several viruses encode tetherin antagonists and it is at present unknown whether residual VSV spread in tetherin-positive cells is also promoted by a virus-encoded tetherin antagonist. Here, we show that the viral glycoprotein (VSV-G) antagonizes tetherin in transfected cells, although with reduced efficiency as compared to the HIV-1 Vpu protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216187/a-thermostable-messenger-rna-based-vaccine-against-rabies
#18
Lothar Stitz, Annette Vogel, Margit Schnee, Daniel Voss, Susanne Rauch, Thorsten Mutzke, Thomas Ketterer, Thomas Kramps, Benjamin Petsch
Although effective rabies virus vaccines have been existing for decades, each year, rabies virus infections still cause around 50.000 fatalities worldwide. Most of these cases occur in developing countries, where these vaccines are not available. The reasons for this are the prohibitive high costs of cell culture or egg grown rabies virus vaccines and the lack of a functional cold chain in many regions in which rabies virus is endemic. Here, we describe the excellent temperature resistance of a non-replicating mRNA based rabies virus vaccine encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G)...
December 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216185/a-cyber-linked-undergraduate-research-experience-in-computational-biomolecular-structure-prediction-and-design
#19
Rebecca F Alford, Andrew Leaver-Fay, Lynda Gonzales, Erin L Dolan, Jeffrey J Gray
Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field, and many computational biology research projects involve distributed teams of scientists. To accomplish their work, these teams must overcome both disciplinary and geographic barriers. Introducing new training paradigms is one way to facilitate research progress in computational biology. Here, we describe a new undergraduate program in biomolecular structure prediction and design in which students conduct research at labs located at geographically-distributed institutions while remaining connected through an online community...
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215066/pharmacological-inhibition-of-rev-erb-stimulates-differentiation-inhibits-turnover-and-reduces-fibrosis-in-dystrophic-muscle
#20
Ryan D Welch, Cyrielle Billon, Aurore-Cecile Valfort, Thomas P Burris, Colin A Flaveny
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating X-linked disorder that is fatal. DMD patients lack the expression of the structural protein dystrophin caused by mutations within the DMD gene. The absence of functional dystrophin protein results in excessive damage from normal muscle use due to the compromised structural integrity of the dystrophin associated glycoprotein complex. As a result, DMD patients exhibit ongoing cycles of muscle destruction and regeneration that promote inflammation, fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell (SC) exhaustion and loss of skeletal and cardiac muscle function...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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