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Devram S Ghorpade, Lale Ozcan, Ze Zheng, Sarah M Nicoloro, Yuefei Shen, Emily Chen, Matthias Blüher, Michael P Czech, Ira Tabas
Obesity-induced metabolic disease involves functional integration among several organs via circulating factors, but little is known about crosstalk between liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In obesity, VAT becomes populated with inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). In obese humans, there is a close correlation between adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, and in obese mice, blocking systemic or ATM inflammation improves insulin sensitivity. However, processes that promote pathological adipose tissue inflammation in obesity are incompletely understood...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Vanessa Benham, Debrup Chakraborty, Blair Bullard, Jamie J Bernard
Obesity is a leading risk factor for post-menopausal breast cancer, and this is concerning as 40% of cancer diagnoses in 2014 were associated with overweight/obesity. Despite this epidemiological link, the underlying mechanism responsible is unknown. We recently published that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) releases FGF2 and stimulates the transformation of skin epithelial cells. Furthermore, obesity is differentially associated with many epithelial cancers, and this mechanistic link could be translational. As FGF2 and FGFR1 are implicated in breast cancer progression, we hypothesize that VAT-derived FGF2 plays a translational role in promoting adiposity-associated mammary epithelial cell transformation...
March 21, 2018: Adipocyte
Ahmad Al-Attar, Steven R Presnell, Jody L Clasey, Douglas E Long, R Grace Walton, Morgan Sexton, Marlene E Starr, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson, Charles T Lutz
Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion control infections and cancers, but these crucial activities decline with age. NK cell development, homeostasis, and function require IL-15 and its chaperone, IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα). Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are major sources of these proteins. We had previously postulated that additional IL-15 and IL-15Rα is made by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These sources may be important in aging, when IL-15-producing immune cells decline...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Feifei Z Williams, Atul Vats, Thomas Cash, James D Fortenberry
Respiratory failure associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been considered a contraindication for use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at many centers. We describe a child with neuroblastoma and hypoxemic respiratory failure following HSCT who was successfully managed with veno-venous (VV) ECMO. The patient was an 18-month-old female with high-risk neuroblastoma status post tumor resection, chemotherapy, autologous HSCT, and primary site radiation. On day 113 posttransplant while receiving maintenance immunotherapy, she had an acute respiratory decompensation because of rhinovirus, aspiration pneumonia, and capillary leak syndrome...
March 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
X Cheng, Y Zhang, C Wang, W Deng, L Wang, Y Duanmu, K Li, D Yan, L Xu, C Wu, W Shen, W Tian
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the cross-sectional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas at different anatomic sites and the total VAT volume in a healthy Chinese population using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and to identify the optimal anatomic site for a single slice to estimate the total VAT volume. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 389 healthy Chinese subjects aged 19-63 years underwent lumbar spine QCT scans. The cross-sectional area of total adipose tissue and VAT were measured using the tissue composition module of the software (QCT Pro, Mindways) at each intervertebral disc level from T12 /L1 to L5 /S1 , as well as at the umbilical level...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Scott J Lee, Jianmin Liu, Jianhua Yao, Andrew Kanarek, Ronald M Summers, Perry J Pickhardt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a fully-automated CT-based adiposity tool, applying it to a longitudinal adult screening cohort. METHODS: A validated automated adipose tissue segmentation algorithm was applied to non-contrast abdominal CT scans in 8852 consecutive asymptomatic adults (mean age, 57.1 years; 3926M/4926F) undergoing colonography screening. The tool was also applied to follow-up CT scans in a subset of 1584 individuals undergoing longitudinal surveillance (mean interval, 5...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Tairon Pannunzio Dias E Silva, Carolina Rodriguez Jimenez, Egon Ion Ieda, Adibe Luiz Abdalla, Helder Louvandini
This study was conducted to evaluate the metabolism and phosphorus (P) kinetics in lambs experimentally infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis using the isotope dilution technique and modelling. Fifteen male lambs (21.1 ± 1.50 kg) of the Santa Inês hair breed of approximately six months old, distributed in the treatments infected (I, n = 8) and control (C, n = 7) were used. The infected lambs received serial infections with 5000 T. colubriformis larvae, three times per week, for 3 weeks (45 000 T...
March 16, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Marcin Zieliński, Tomasz Nabialek, Juliusz Pankowski
Background: The aim of the study is a description of surgical technique of uniportal transcervical video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for pulmonary lobectomy. Methods: We used a collar neck incision (transcervical) of an average length 5-8 centimeters. The manubrium of the sternum is elevated with a hook connected to the Zakopane II frame (Aesculap-Chifa, B. Braun, Nowy Tomyśl, Poland). The first step is a transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy (TEMLA), for improved staging and possible improved survival...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Federico Davini, Sara Ricciardi, Carmelina Cristina Zirafa, Ilenia Cavaliere, Gaetano Romano, Franca Melfi
Background: The incidental detection of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is currently increasing due to the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) during the follow up in oncological patients or in screening trials. A quick and definitive histological diagnosis of these nodes is mandatory as, in case of primitive lung cancer, an early detection could improve both surgical results and prognosis. The minimally invasive pulmonary resection (MIPR) is the gold standard procedure for diagnosis and treatment of small lung nodules, but it can be difficult to localize deep nonpalpable nodes that lie in the lung parenchyma...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Gustavo J Bondulich
This is a report of the first three days Uniportal VATS International Meeting. The conference included oral presentations at the Universidad Catolica Argentina (UCA), on the first day. Live Surgery from Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, China, and Clinica San Camilo. Bs As, Argentina on the second day and a Wet lab in Fundación Triada Mininvasiva, Fatima Pilar on the final day.
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Massimo Osvaldo Jaus, Annarita Forcione, Alessandro Gonfiotti, Francesco Carleo, Alessia Raffaella De Massimi, Luigi Carbone, Marco Di Martino, Giuseppe Cardillo
Nowadays the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that invades the chest wall is still questioned. The classic approach is a lobectomy that requires chest wall resection through thoracotomy, but thanks to the progress in the field of thoracoscopic surgery, this procedure can be performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Major advances have been made in recent years both in the surgical technique associated with thoracoscopy and in the instrumentation available today. This has allowed the use of thoracoscopic technique even in advanced disease...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Florian Augustin, Thomas Schmid
Uniportal VATS (U-VATS) is gaining more and more popularity. Herein, we discuss the current status of adoption of the technique and-from a "laggard's" point of view-some situations when the use of U-VATS should be reconsidered. As we all do lack scientific evidence for the superiority of one minimally invasive approach over the other, these situations reflect a gut feeling rather than solid arguments. The article should raise awareness of currently discussed issues with minimally invasive approaches...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Paolo Lucciarini, Florian Augustin, Herbert Thomas Maier, Francesco Zaraca, Thomas Schmid
The aim of this study was to explore intraoperative complications during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy. Vascular and bronchial injuries, after a robust learning curve, can be sometimes successfully managed by VATS. During a VATS lobectomy, it is necessary: to be prepared in potentially dangerous situations; to think about strategies to handle intraoperative complications and to share these strategies with your own staff. Herein we present some videos showing cases where vascular injuries led to conversion and others where a minimally-invasive trouble shooting of intraoperative complications was achieved...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
N W Badri, S W Flatt, H S Barkai, B Pakiz, D D Heath, C L Rock
Background: Fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) are important measures of the risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Weight loss interventions are considered part of the first line of therapy for those who develop disease states associated with insulin resistance, such as pre-diabetes, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. Sex differences in insulin resistance have been extensively reported, but sex differences in the ability to improve insulin sensitivity are not well-established...
2018: Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Tara R Semenkovich, Margaret A Olsen, Varun Puri, Bryan F Meyers, Benjamin D Kozower
BACKGROUND: Empyema affects up to 65,000 patients annually in the United States. Recent consensus guidelines demonstrate ambiguity about optimal treatment. We examined current treatment practices and outcomes for inpatient treatment of empyema using a comprehensive, longitudinal dataset that encompasses an entire state cohort of hospitalized patients. METHODS: We queried the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) New York State Inpatient Database (2009-2014) for patients with primary empyema and subsequent readmissions...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
K Verboven, K Wouters, K Gaens, D Hansen, M Bijnen, S Wetzels, C D Stehouwer, G H Goossens, C G Schalkwijk, E E Blaak, J W Jocken
Obesity is associated with a disturbed adipose tissue (AT) function characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy, an impaired lipolysis and pro-inflammatory phenotype, which contributes to insulin resistance (IR). We investigated whether AT phenotype in different AT depots of obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with whole-body IR. Subcutaneous (SC) and visceral (V) AT biopsies from 18 lean, 17 obese and 8 obese T2DM men were collected. AT phenotype was characterized by ex vivo measurement of basal and stimulated lipolysis (mature adipocytes), adipocyte size distribution (AT tissue sections) and AT immune cells (flow cytometry)...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luzia Jaeger Hintze, Virginie Messier, Marie-Ève Lavoie, Martin Brochu, Jean-Marc Lavoie, Denis Prud'homme, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Éric Doucet
Resistance training (RT) has been shown to decrease fat mass (FM), and increase fat-free mass (FFM), which can be a useful for weight loss maintenance. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a 1-year RT intervention on weight loss maintenance following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention. DESIGN: Following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention (-6% ± 5.8; 5.05 kg ± 4.45), 70 postmenopausal women living with overweight or obesity were randomized to a control group (n = 34) or a RT group (n = 36) (3×/week first 6 months, 2×/week last 6 months, 70-80% of 1-repetition maximum)...
March 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Long Jiang, Jun Liu, Diego Gonzalez-Rivas, Yaron Shargall, Martin Kolb, Wenlong Shao, Qinglong Dong, Lixia Liang, Jianxing He
OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess the techniques of spontaneous-ventilation video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (SV-VATS) for tracheal/carinal resections and compare the outcomes with the conventional thoracoscopic intubated method. METHODS: From May 2015 to November 2016, some 18 consecutive patients with malignant or benign diseases invading distal trachea and carina who met the criteria for SV were treated by SV-VATS resection. To evaluate the feasibility of this novel technique, they were compared with a control group consisting of 14 consecutive patients with the same diseases who underwent VATS resection using intubated general anesthesia from October 2014 to April 2015...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Robert Dziedzic, Tomasz Marjanski, Franciszek Binczyk, Joanna Polanska, Wioletta Sawicka, Witold Rzyman
OBJECTIVES: The video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) approach has become a standard for the treatment of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently published meta-analyses proved the benefit of VATS versus thoracotomy for overall survival (OS) and reduction of postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to compare early outcomes, long-term survival and rate of postoperative complications of the VATS approach versus thoracotomy. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we analysed 982 individuals who underwent surgical resection for Stage I-IIA NSCLC between 2007 and 2015...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Kai G Kahl, Michael Deuschle, Brendon Stubbs, Ulrich Schweiger
Background Severe mental illnesses (SMIs), i.e. major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are associated with an elevated risk for the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. Several factors have been associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality in SMI, including lifestyle factors (smoking, inactivity, unhealthy diet), endocrine and immunologic alterations; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) promotes the development of cardiometabolic disorders, at least in part by inflammatory and metabolic functions...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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