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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938777/role-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-during-the-transition-from-incubation-behavior-to-rearing-behavior-in-the-female-native-thai-chicken
#1
S Namken, P Sinpru, B Kamkrathok, N Sartsoongnoen, Y Chaiseha
It is well documented that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an avian prolactin-releasing factor, regulating the reproductive cycle, that initiates and maintains incubation behavior in avian species. Native Thai chicken has strong maternal behaviors. Thus, it is an excellent animal model to study this phenomenon. Changes in the numbers of VIP neurons within the nucleus inferioris hypothalami (IH) and nucleus infundibuli hypothalami (IN) are associated with maternal behaviors in the native Thai chicken...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938768/dual-functioning-ovaries-and-atresia-in-chickens-is-it-a-coincidence
#2
D A T Sutherland, C F Honaker, P B Siegel
During the course of a QTL study involving an intercross between White Plymouth Rock chickens and Red Jungle Fowl, certain reproductive anomalies such as atresia and double ovary-oviduct became evident. Observed in reciprocal pedigreed F1 crosses were 2 full-sib pullets with dual functioning ovaries. One also had complete functioning left and right oviducts. The other had asymmetrical reproductive tracts with a typical left oviduct and a rudimentary right oviduct. In addition, there were 3 females with atresia...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938751/new-permeable-cryoprotectant-free-vitrification-method-for-native-human-sperm
#3
J Aizpurua, L Medrano, M Enciso, J Sarasa, A Romero, M A Fernández, M J Gómez-Torres
STUDY QUESTION: Is permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification of native sperm samples a good alternative to conventional slow freezing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol tested in this study renders considerably better recovery rates of good quality sperm compared to slow freezing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Slow freezing is currently the most commonly used technique for sperm cryopreservation, though this method has been repeatedly shown to have negative effects on both structural and functional sperm features...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#4
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938748/random-start-ovarian-stimulation-for-fertility-preservation-appears-unlikely-to-delay-initiation-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#5
Joseph M Letourneau, Nikita Sinha, Kaitlyn Wald, Eve Harris, Molly Quinn, Tal Imbar, Evelyn Mok-Lin, A Jo Chien, Mitchell Rosen
STUDY QUESTION: Is random start ovarian stimulation associated with delays in initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among women who complete fertility preservation (FP) consultation, random start ovarian stimulation is unlikely to delay time to initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy start. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is now a widely accepted treatment modality for operable breast cancer and random start ovarian stimulation is an increasingly-utilized modality for FP...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938746/women-s-career-priority-is-associated-with-attitudes-towards-family-planning-and-ethical-acceptance-of-reproductive-technologies
#6
Michael K Simoni, Lin Mu, Stephen C Collins
STUDY QUESTION: Do women who place high importance on career success have different perceptions of pregnancy planning, delayed reproduction, and the ethical acceptability of ART than women with less emphasis on their career? SUMMARY ANSWER: Career-focused women place more importance on pregnancy planning, have greater confidence in delayed childbearing, and are more ethically accepting of donor gamete ART than women who do not place as much importance on career success...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938745/a-closer-look-at-expanded-carrier-screening-from-a-pgd-perspective
#7
Carolina Vaz-de-Macedo, Joyce Harper
Conventionally, the search for carrier status was based on ethnicity and/or family history and targeted to a restricted number of genetic conditions and mutations. This is now being replaced by extended panels testing for hundreds of genetic disorders with a broad range of phenotypes, in what is called 'expanded carrier screening'. While the ultimate aim of these panels is to increase the reproductive autonomy of the individuals and couples by providing preconception knowledge that could lead to the broadest range of available options, including PGD, we argue that: (i) Given the number and heterogeneity of the conditions included in panels, it cannot be guaranteed that a couple who tests positive for one of those conditions will be eligible for PGD; patients should be informed of this potential limitation before undertaking screening...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938736/deep-sequencing-shows-that-oocytes-are-not-prone-to-accumulate-mtdna-heteroplasmic-mutations-during-ovarian-ageing
#8
L Boucret, C Bris, V Seegers, D Goudenège, V Desquiret-Dumas, M Domin-Bernhard, V Ferré-L'Hotellier, P E Bouet, P Descamps, P Reynier, V Procaccio, P May-Panloup
STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian ageing increase the number of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations in oocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our results suggest that oocytes are not subject to the accumulation of mtDNA point mutations during ovarian ageing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ageing is associated with the alteration of mtDNA integrity in various tissues. Primary oocytes, present in the ovary since embryonic life, may accumulate mtDNA mutations during the process of ovarian ageing...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938734/hyperspectral-microscopy-can-detect-metabolic-heterogeneity-within-bovine-post-compaction-embryos-incubated-under-two-oxygen-concentrations-7-versus-20
#9
Melanie L Sutton-McDowall, Martin Gosnell, Ayad G Anwer, Melissa White, Malcolm Purdey, Andrew D Abell, Ewa M Goldys, Jeremy G Thompson
STUDY QUESTION: Can we separate embryos cultured under either 7% or 20% oxygen atmospheres by measuring their metabolic heterogeneity? SUMMARY ANSWER: Metabolic heterogeneity and changes in metabolic profiles in morula exposed to two different oxygen concentrations were not detectable using traditional fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence but were detectable using hyperspectral microscopy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Increased genetic and morphological blastomere heterogeneity is associated with compromised developmental competence of embryos and currently forms the basis for embryo scoring within the clinic...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938732/prevalence-of-occult-leiomyosarcomas-and-atypical-leiomyomas-after-laparoscopic-morcellation-of-leiomyomas-in-reproductive-age-women
#10
G Pados, D Tsolakidis, V Theodoulidis, A Makedos, T Zaramboukas, B Tarlatzis
STUDY QUESTION: What is the prevalence of leiomyosarcomas and atypical leiomyomas after laparoscopic morcellation of fibroids in reproductive age women? SUMMARY ANSWER: No case of leiomyosarcomas but seven atypical leiomyomas were found in 1216 subjects. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although uterine sarcoma is a rare entity affecting usually older peri- or post-menopausal women, the Food and Drug Administration discourages use of laparoscopic power morcellation of uterine fibroids...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938591/genistein-up-regulates-mir-20a-to-disrupt-spermatogenesis-via-targeting-limk1
#11
Hao Gu, Wei Wu, Beilei Yuan, Qiuqin Tang, Dan Guo, Yiqiu Chen, Yankai Xia, Lingqing Hu, Daozhen Chen, Jiahao Sha, Xinru Wang
Genistein (GEN) is one of the isoflavones that has effect on male reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. miRNAs are a type of small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in spermatogenesis. We measured the GEN levels and miR-17-92 cluster expression in infertile subjects and found that miR-17-92 might be involved in GEN induced abnormal spermatogenesis. To clarify, we fed adult ICR mice with different doses of GEN (0, 0.5, 5, 50 and 250 mg/kg/day) for 35 days to study the underlying mechanism...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938525/toxic-effects-of-tripterygium-wilfordii-hook-f-on-the-reproductive-system-of-adolescent-male-rats
#12
Xiaoping Jing, Weiwei Cheng, Sheng Guo, Ya Zou, Ting Zhang, Li He
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. (TWHF) is a compound extracted from Lei Gong Teng (Thunder God Vine) that has been used to treat a variety of immune-related diseases in clinical practice, particularly in pediatrics. Nevertheless, clinical data indicated that glycosides from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (GTW) are toxic to the male reproductive system, but the mechanism is unknown. Here, the administration of a high dose of GTW for 4 weeks and a low dose for 12 weeks can reduce the body weights and testes weights in adolescent male rats...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938519/gilaburu-viburnum-opulus-l-fruit-extract-alleviates-testis-and-sperm-damages-induced-by-taxane-based-chemotherapeutics
#13
Serpil Sarıözkan, Gaffari Türk, Ayşe Eken, Latife Çakır Bayram, Ayşe Baldemir, Gülden Doğan
In this study, it was aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L., Glb) fruit extract on testis and sperm damages induced by docetaxel (DTX) and paclitaxel (PTX) chemotherapeutics in rats. Sixty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into 6 equal groups, 10 animals each. The groups were created as control (weekly i.p. saline injection), Glb (weekly i.p. saline injection and daily oral 100mg/kg Glb), DTX (weekly i.p. injection of 5mg/kg DTX), PTX (weekly i.p. injection of 4mg/kg PTX), DTX+Glb (weekly i...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938492/a-long-noncoding-rna-lncrna-amhr2-plays-a-role-in-amhr2-gene-activation-in-mouse-ovarian-granulosa-cells
#14
Atsushi P Kimura, Ryoma Yoneda, Misuzu Kurihara, Shota Mayama, Shin Matsubara
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is critical to the regression of Müllerian ducts during mammalian male differentiation and targets ovarian granulosa cells and testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells of adults. Specific effects of AMH are exerted via its receptor, AMH type II receptor (Amhr2), but the mechanism by which the Amhr2 gene is specifically activated is not fully understood. To see whether a proximal promoter was sufficient to Amhr2 gene activation, we generated transgenic mice that bore the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene driven by a 500-bp mouse Amhr2 gene promoter...
September 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938484/long-noncoding-rnas-potential-regulators-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
Yu-Dong Liu, Ying Li, Shu-Xian Feng, De-Sheng Ye, Xin Chen, Xing-Yu Zhou, Shi-Ling Chen
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age, and its etiology remains poorly understood. Altered activities of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with human diseases and development. However, the roles of lncRNAs are unknown in reproductive medicine. We investigated the potential role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of PCOS, using human granulosa cells (GCs) and the KGN cell line. We used microarrays to compare lncRNA expression profiles in GCs from 7 PCOS patients and 7 matched women...
August 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938463/role-of-cyp51-in-the-regulation-of-t3-and-fsh-induced-steroidogenesis-in-female-mice
#16
Juan Liu, Ye Tian, Yu Ding, Dai Heng, Kaili Xu, Wenbo Liu, Cheng Zhang
Cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) is a key enzyme in sterols and steroids biosynthesis that involved in folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation, which is regulated by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), as a key reproductive hormone during follicular development. Thyroid hormone (TH) is also important for normal reproductive function. Although T3 enhances FSH-induced preantral follicle growth, whether and how TH combines with FSH to regulate CYP51 expression during preantral to early antral transition stage is unclear...
August 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938445/mini-review-discovery-of-gnih-and-its-role-in-hypothyroidism-induced-delayed-puberty
#17
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, You Lee Son, Mika Kiyohara, Ichiro Miyata
It is known that hypothyroidism delays puberty in mammals. Interaction between the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes may be important processes in delayed puberty. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a newly discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release in quail. It now apperas that GnIH is conserved across various mammals and primates including humans and inhibits reproduction. We have further demonstrated that GnIH is involved in pubertal delay induced by thyroid dysfunction in female mice...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938440/sex-differences-in-the-hormonal-and-metabolic-response-to-dietary-protein-dilution
#18
Karlton R Larson, Kimberly A Russo, Yanbin Fang, Niloufar Mohajerani, Michael L Goodson, Karen K Ryan
Consumption of a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet induces a striking increase in circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), which is associated with improved cardiometabolic health and increased longevity. Increased lifespan during this dietary protein 'dilution' has been explained by resource-mediated trade-offs between reproduction and survival, such that fecundity is optimized at a greater relative intake of proteins:carbohydrates. The magnitude of this trade-off is thought to be sex-dependent. Here, we tested the hypothesis that metabolic responses to dietary protein dilution are likewise dependent on sex...
August 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938425/linking-stress-and-infertility-a-novel-role-for-ghrelin
#19
Luba Sominsky, Deborah M Hodgson, Eileen A McLaughlin, Roger Smith, Hannah M Wall, Sarah J Spencer
Infertility affects a remarkable one in four couples in developing countries. Psychological stress is a ubiquitous facet of life, and while stress affects us all at some point, prolonged or unmanageable stress may become harmful for some individuals, negatively impacting on their health, including fertility. For instance, women who struggle to conceive are twice as likely to suffer from emotional distress than fertile women. Assisted reproductive technology treatments place an additional physical, emotional and financial burden of stress, particularly on women, who are often exposed to invasive techniques associated with treatment...
July 27, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938422/prepubertal-development-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neuron-activity-is-altered-by-sex-age-and-prenatal-androgen-exposure
#20
Eden A Dulka, Suzanne M Moenter
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate reproduction though pulsatile hormone release. Disruption of GnRH release as measured via LH pulses occurs in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in young hyperandrogenemic girls. In adult prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice, which exhibit many aspects of PCOS, increased LH is associated with increased GnRH neuron action potential firing. How GnRH neuron activity develops over the prepubertal period and whether or not this is altered by sex or prenatal androgen treatment are unknown...
September 15, 2017: Endocrinology
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