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Soo Chan Lee, Jae Kwan Jeong, In Soo Choi, Hyun Gu Kang, Young Hun Jung, Soo Bong Park, Ill Hwa Kim
We determined the threshold proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) for the diagnosis of cytological endometritis (CEM), the risk factors for this condition, and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. Uterine cytology was performed on 407 Holstein cows 4 weeks postpartum to determine the proportions of endometrial cells and PMNs. A receiver operator characteristics curve was used to determine the threshold above which the PMN proportion affected the likelihood of cows conceiving by 200 days postpartum...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
Amrinder Singh, Abhinav Dubey, Satish K Adiga, Hanudatta S Atreya
We present a new method that allows one to unambiguously resolve overlapping spin systems often encountered in biomolecular systems such as peptides and proteins or in samples containing a mixture of different molecules such as in metabolomics. We address this problem using the recently proposed phase modulation approach. By evolving the (1)H chemical shifts in a conventional two dimensional (2D) HSQC-TOCSY experiment for a fixed delay period, the phase/intensity of set of cross peaks belonging to one spin system are modulated differentially relative to those of its overlapping counterpart, resulting in their discrimination and recognition...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Heather Moody, Sue C Grady
Objective: The purpose of this research is to geographically model airborne lead emission concentrations and total lead deposition in the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA) from 2006 to 2013. Further, this study characterizes the racial and socioeconomic composition of recipient neighborhoods and estimates the potential for IQ (Intelligence Quotient) loss of children residing there. Methods: Lead emissions were modeled from emitting facilities in the DMA using AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model)...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Wei Wang, Hongyang Yu, Tinghai Li, Lexing Li, Guoqiang Zhang, Zhongjian Liu, Tengbo Huang, Yongxia Zhang
Pollination is a crucial stage in plant reproductive process. The self-compatibility (SC) and self-incompatibility (SI) mechanisms determined the plant genetic diversity and species survival. D. chrysanthum is a highly valued ornamental and traditional herbal orchid in Asia but has been declared endangered. The sexual reproduction in D. chrysanthum relies on the compatibility of pollination. To provide a better understanding of the mechanism of pollination, the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) between the self-pollination (SP) and cross-pollination (CP) pistil of D...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michal Segoli, Shucun Sun, Dori E Nava, Jay A Rosenheim
What shapes the relative investment in reproduction vs. survival of organisms is one of the key questions in life history. Proovigenic insects mature all their eggs prior to emergence and are short lived, providing a unique opportunity to quantify their lifetime investments in the different functions. We investigated the initial eggloads and longevity of two proovigenic parasitoid wasps (Anagrus erythroneurae and Anagrus daanei, (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) that develop within leafhopper eggs in both agricultural vineyards and natural riparian habitats in Northern California...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Tara Canelo, Álvaro Gaytán, Guillermo González-Bornay, Raul Bonal
Insect herbivory decreases plant fitness by constraining plant growth, survival and reproductive output. Most studies on the effects of herbivory in trees rely on correlational inter-individual comparisons and could thus be affected by confounding factors linked to both herbivory and plant performance. Using the Mediterranean Holm oak (Quercus ilex) as study model, we followed an experimental approach in which leaf-feeding insects (mainly Lepidoptera caterpillars) were excluded from some shoots in all study trees...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Mominah Bhatti, Ashradha Ketheeswaran, Amy Arnold, Erin Nesbitt-Hawes, Rebecca Deans, HaRyun Won, Jason Abbott
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pelvic examination may be meaningfully taught to novice medical students and its accuracy in predicting operating times for laparoscopic excision of endometriosis at a single surgical procedure. METHODS: Women with suspected endometriosis scheduled for laparoscopy underwent pelvic examination to estimate operative time by medical students (novices), trainees, senior clinicians with <10 years surgical experience (experts) and ≥10 years (masters)...
November 23, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Tian Wu, Gurpreet K Dhami, Graham J Thompson
In a termite colony, reproduction is typically monopolized by a small number of sexuals that are supported by reproductively altruistic soldiers and workers. We expect caste differentiation to be associated with clear-cut differences in gene expression, and for these differences to reflect caste function and development. Here, we use RNA-Sequencing to compare the gene expression profiles of sexual nymphs and two non-reproductive helper castes (i.e., workers and soldiers) of the Eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes...
November 23, 2017: Evolution & Development
Aditi Roy, Mehmet Kocak, Terryl J Hartman, Shanda Vereen, Margaret Adgent, Chandrika Piyathilake, Frances A Tylavsky, Kecia N Carroll
BACKGROUND: Prenatal folic acid supplementation is recommended to prevent birth defects. Some foods are fortified in the ensure sufficient intake among reproductive-aged women. However, high prenatal folate exposure may be a risk factor for childhood atopic diseases. We investigated associations between prenatal folate and early childhood wheeze and atopic dermatitis in a U.S. cohort. METHODS: We studied 858 mother-child dyads, enrolled prenatally. Folate was measured in 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimester maternal plasma...
November 23, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Tuul Sepp, Kevin J McGraw, Ants Kaasik, Mathieu Giraudeau
The concept of a pace-of-life syndrome describes inter- and intraspecific variation in several life-history traits along a slow-to-fast pace-of-life continuum, with long lifespans, low reproductive and metabolic rates, and elevated somatic defences at the slow end of the continuum and the opposite traits at the fast end. Pace-of-life can vary in relation to local environmental conditions (e.g. latitude, altitude), and here we propose that this variation may also occur along an anthropogenically modified environmental gradient...
November 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
Hamed Haghi-Aminjan, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Bagher Farhood, Mahban Rahimifard, Nasser Hashemi Goradel, Mohammad Abdollahi
OBJECTIVES: Reproductive malfunctions after chemotherapy still are a reason of reducing fertility and need specialized intensive care. The aim of this review was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the reproductive system under threatening with chemotherapeutic drugs. METHODS: To find the role of melatonin in the reproductive system during chemotherapy, a full systematic literature search was carried out based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines in the electronic databases up to 17 April 2017 using search terms in the titles and abstracts...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Paolo Emanuele Levi-Setti, Federico Cirillo, Antonella Smeraldi, Emanuela Morenghi, Giulia E G Mulazzani, Elena Albani
PURPOSE: Is there a difference in implantation and pregnancy rates between embryos transferred electively at cleavage or blastocyst stage in infertile women ≤ 38 years with at least four zygotes on day 1 post retrieval? METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a single tertiary care hospital with a sample size of 194 patients in each arm for a total population of 388 women. Patients less than 39 years of age with more than three fertilized oocytes and less than four previous assisted reproductive technology (ART) attempts were inclusion criteria...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Annabel L Smith
Models based on functional traits have limited power in predicting how animal populations respond to disturbance because they do not capture the range of demographic and biological factors that drive population dynamics, including variation in trophic interactions. I tested the hypothesis that successional changes in vegetation structure, which affected invertebrate abundance, would influence growth rates and body condition in the early-successional, insectivorous gecko Nephrurus stellatus. I captured geckos at 17 woodland sites spanning a succession gradient from 2 to 48 years post-fire...
November 22, 2017: Oecologia
Anna E Kågesten, Linnea Zimmerman, Courtland Robinson, Catherine Lee, Tenaw Bawoke, Shahd Osman, Jennifer Schlecht
Background: Very young adolescents (VYA) in humanitarian settings are largely neglected in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH). This study describes the characteristics of VYA aged 10-14 years in two humanitarian settings, focusing on transitions into puberty and access to SRH information. Methods: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey with Somali VYA residing in the Kobe refugee camp in Ethiopia (N = 406) and VYA from Myanmar residing in the Mae Sot and Phop Phra migrant communities in Thailand (N = 399)...
2017: Conflict and Health
Yoshihiro Matsuoka, Shigeo Takumi
The ability to cause reproductive isolation often varies among individuals within a plant species. We addressed whether such polymorphism influenced speciation of the allopolyploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome) by evaluating the expression of pre-pollination (outcrossing potential) and post-pollination (crossability) barriers in Aegilops tauschii Coss. (the D genome progenitor). In total, 201 Ae. tauschii accessions representing the entire natural habitat range of the species were used for anther length measurement and artificial crosses with a Triticum turgidum L...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
James Siho Lee, Pei-Yin Shih, Oren N Schaedel, Porfirio Quintero-Cadena, Alicia K Rogers, Paul W Sternberg
Animals, including humans, can adapt to environmental stress through phenotypic plasticity. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can adapt to harsh environments by undergoing a whole-animal change, involving exiting reproductive development and entering the stress-resistant dauer larval stage. The dauer is a dispersal stage with dauer-specific behaviors for finding and stowing onto carrier animals, but how dauers acquire these behaviors, despite having a physically limited nervous system of 302 neurons, is poorly understood...
November 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lucyna Halupka, Konrad Halupka
Many bird species are advancing the timing of their egg-laying in response to a warming climate. Little is known, however, of whether this advancement affects the respective length of the breeding seasons. A meta-analysis of 65 long-term studies of 54 species from the Northern Hemisphere has revealed that within the last 45 years an average population has lengthened the season by 1.4 days per decade, which was independent from changes in mean laying dates. Multi-brooded birds have prolonged their seasons by 4 days per decade, while single-brooded have shortened by 2 days...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Louise Riotte-Lambert, Simon Benhamou, Christophe Bonenfant, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes
Most population dynamics studies assume that individuals use space uniformly, and thus mix well spatially. In numerous species, however, individuals do not move randomly, but use spatial memory to visit renewable resource patches repeatedly. To understand the extent to which memory-based foraging movement may affect density-dependent population dynamics through its impact on competition, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based movement model where reproduction and death are functions of foraging efficiency...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
J Mitchell, M A Cant, H J Nichols
Among mammals, scent has long been known to encode oestrus; however, in many species, detecting pregnancy may also be important in terms of both competition and mate-choice. Here, we show, through odour presentation experiments, that pregnancy is discernible via scent by both sexes in the cooperatively breeding banded mongoose, Mungos mungo Males spent more time investigating and were more likely to scent mark the odours of non-pregnant females, compared to pregnant females. Females showed increased levels of scent marking when odours were of the same reproductive state as themselves...
November 2017: Biology Letters
Danielle A Hamstra, E Ronald de Kloet, Mischa de Rover, Willem Van der Does
OBJECTIVE: Menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives (OC) use influence mood and cognition and these effects may be moderated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) genotype. The effect of menstrual cycle phase on mood may be increased if participants know that this is the focus of study. We assessed aspects associated with reproductive depression such as mood, interpersonal sensitivity, affect lability and depressive cognitions in MR-genotyped OC-users and naturally cycling (NC) women in a carefully masked design...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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