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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434396/immunotherapy-in-hematologic-malignancies-past-present-and-future
#1
REVIEW
Annie Im, Steven Z Pavletic
The field of immunotherapy in cancer treatments has been accelerating over recent years and has entered the forefront as a leading area of ongoing research and promising therapies that have changed the treatment landscape for a variety of solid malignancies. Prior to its designation as the Science Breakthrough of the Year in 2013, cancer immunotherapy was active in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. This review provides a broad overview of the past, present, and potential future of immunotherapy in hematologic malignancies...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434270/what-is-stable-pain-control-a-prospective-longitudinal-study-to-assess-the-clinical-value-of-a-personalized-pain-goal
#2
Robin Fainsinger, Cheryl Nekolaichuk, Lara Fainsinger, Viki Muller, Lisa Fainsinger, Pablo Amigo, Amanda Brisebois, Sarah Burton-Macleod, Sunita Ghosh, Rebekah Gilbert, Yoko Tarumi, Vincent Thai, Gary Wolch
BACKGROUND: A universal consensus regarding standardized pain outcomes does not exist. The personalized pain goal has been suggested as a clinically relevant outcome measure. AIM: To assess the feasibility of obtaining a personalized pain goal and to compare a clinically based personalized pain goal definition versus a research-based study definition for stable pain. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal descriptive study. MEASURES: The attending physician completed routine assessments, including a personalized pain goal and the Edmonton Classification System for Cancer Pain, and followed patients daily until stable pain control, death, or discharge...
April 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434104/mullerian-dysgenesis-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#3
REVIEW
Souzana Choussein, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Dimitrios Schizas, Konstantinos P Economopoulos
PURPOSE: To present an update of the genetic, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. METHODS: Studies were considered eligible if they have evaluated patients with MRKH syndrome. Eligible articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE bibliographical database from 1950 to August 2016. A purely descriptive approach was adopted concerning all outcomes examined by the individual studies. RESULTS: MRKH syndrome is defined as congenital aplasia of the upper vagina and impairment of uterine development in normal 46XX females...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430547/enhancing-insights-into-pulmonary-vascular-disease-pvd-through-a-precision-medicine-approach-a-joint-nhlbi-cmref-workshop-report
#4
John H Newman, Stuart Rich, Steven H Abman, John H Alexander, John Barnard, Gerald J Beck, Raymond L Benza, Todd M Bull, Stephen Y Chan, Hyung J Chun, Declan Doogan, Jocelyn Dupuis, Serpil C Erzurum, Robert P Frantz, Mark Geraci, Hunter Gillies, Mark Gladwin, Michael P Gray, Anna R Hemnes, Roy S Herbst, Adrian F Hernandez, Nicholas S Hill, Evelyn M Horn, Kendall Hunter, Zhi-Cheng Jing, Roger Johns, Sanjay Kaul, Steven M Kawut, Tim Lahm, Jane A Leopold, Greg D Lewis, Stephen C Mathai, Vallerie V McLaughlin, Evangelos D Michelakis, Steven D Nathan, William Nichols, Grier Page, Marlene Rabinovitch, Jonathan Rich, Franz Rischard, Sharon Rounds, Sanjiv J Shah, Victor F Tapson, Naomi Lowy, Norman Stockbridge, Gail Weinmann, Lei Xiao
The Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, (NHLBI) and the Cardiovascular Medical Education and Research Fund (CMREF), held a workshop to discuss to leverage of the anticipated scientific output from the recently launched "Redefining Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) through Pulmonary Vascular Disease Phenomics" (PVDOMICS) program. PVDOMICS is a protocol driven network to analyze PH patient populations to define novel pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) phenotypes. Basic, translational and clinical investigators, patient advocacy organizations, regulatory agencies, and pharmaceutical industry experts discussed the application of precision medicine to PVD clinical trials...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#5
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream which crosses the placenta and enters the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418855/a-review-and-outlook-in-the-treatment-of-osteosarcoma-and-other-deep-tumors-with-photodynamic-therapy-from-basic-to-deep
#6
REVIEW
Wei Yu, Jian Zhu, Yitian Wang, Junjie Wang, Weijing Fang, Kaishun Xia, Jianlin Shao, Minzu Wu, Bing Liu, Chengzhen Liang, Chengyi Ye, Huimin Tao
Photodynamic therapy, one of the most promising minimally invasive treatments, has received increasing focus in tumor therapy research, which has been widely applied in treating superficial tumors. Three basic factors - photosensitizer, the light source, and oxidative stress - are responsible for tumor cell cytotoxicity. However, due to insufficient luminous flux and peripheral tissue damage, the utilization of photodynamic therapy is facing a huge limitation in deep tumor therapy. Osteosarcoma is the typical deep tumor, which is the most commonly occurring malignancy in children and adolescents...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414326/mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-obesity-insights-for-translational-applications
#7
Kenichi Matsushita, Victor J Dzau
Obesity is now a major public health problem worldwide. Lifestyle modification to reduce the characteristic excess body adiposity is important in the treatment of obesity, but effective therapeutic intervention is still needed to control what has become an obesity epidemic. Unfortunately, many anti-obesity drugs have been withdrawn from market due to adverse side effects. Bariatric surgery therefore remains the most effective therapy for severe cases, although such surgery is invasive and researchers continue to seek new control strategies for obesity...
April 17, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413358/the-soft-computing-based-approach-to-investigate-allergic-diseases-a-systematic-review
#8
Gennaro Tartarisco, Alessandro Tonacci, Paola Lucia Minciullo, Lucia Billeci, Giovanni Pioggia, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: Early recognition of inflammatory markers and their relation to asthma, adverse drug reactions, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases is an important goal in allergy. The vast majority of studies in the literature are based on classic statistical methods; however, developments in computational techniques such as soft computing-based approaches hold new promise in this field. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to systematically review the main soft computing-based techniques such as artificial neural networks, support vector machines, bayesian networks and fuzzy logic to investigate their performances in the field of allergic diseases...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411883/horning-cell-self-digestion-autophagy-wins-the%C3%A2-2016-nobel-prize-in-physiology-or-medicine
#9
EDITORIAL
Po-Yuan Ke
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which eukaryotic cells eliminate intracellular components via the lysosomal degradation process. This cell self-digestion process was first discovered and morphologically characterized in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genetic screen studies in baker's yeast in the 1990s further identified the essential genes functioning in the autophagic process. In the past two decades, the detailed molecular process involved in the completion of autophagy was delineated...
February 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410252/molecular-modifiers-of-kidney-stones
#10
Bryan G Alamani, Jeffrey D Rimer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the role of molecular modifiers as inhibitors of kidney stone formation, drawing largely from in-vitro evidence while also citing relevant in-vivo studies. An emphasis is placed on physical observations of crystal growth inhibition, including mechanisms of action that focus predominantly on the literature of calcium oxalate and L-cystine. RECENT FINDINGS: The last decade has witnessed several breakthroughs in the identification of molecules with promise to curb kidney stone formation, as well as discoveries of the mechanisms by which these molecules (or combinations thereof) function as inhibitors of pathological crystal growth...
April 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409576/-radar-as-imaging-tool-in-ecology-and-conservation-biology
#11
Piotr Matyjasiak
Migrations and dispersal are among the most important ecological processes that shape ecosystems and influence our economy, health and safety. Movements of birds, bats and insects occur in a large spatial scale - regional, continental, or intercontinental. However, studies of these phenomena using classic methods are usually local. Breakthrough came with the development of radar technology, which enabled researchers to study animal movements in the atmosphere in a large spatial and temporal scale. The aim of this article was to present the radar imaging methods used in the research of aerial movements of birds, bats and insects...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408724/from-protection-to-entitlement-selecting-research-subjects-for-early-phase-clinical-trials-involving-breakthrough-therapies
#12
Nancy S Jecker, Aaron G Wightman, Abby R Rosenberg, Douglas S Diekema
Our goals are to (1) set forth and defend a multiprinciple system for selecting individuals who meet trial eligibility criteria to participate in early phase clinical trials testing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T-cell) for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia when demand for participation exceeds spaces available in a trial; (2) show the relevance of these selection criteria to other breakthrough experimental therapies; (3) argue that distinct distributive justice criteria apply to breakthrough experimental therapies, standard research and healthcare and (4) argue that as evidence of benefit increases, the emphasis of justice in research shifts from protecting subjects from harm to ensuring fair access to benefits...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404616/progress-of-pharmacological-sciences-in-china
#13
Jian-Cheng Wang, Yungui Zhu, Lei Wu, Erdan Dong
Pharmacology is the science that investigates the interactions between organisms and drugs and their mechanisms. Pharmacology plays a translational role in modern medicine, bridging basic research to the clinic. With its booming economy, China has invested an enormous amount of financial and human resources on pharmacological research in the recent decade. As a result, major breakthroughs have been achieved in both basic and clinical research in this area with the discoveries of many potential drug targets and biomarkers, making a sizable contribution to the overall advancement of pharmacological sciences...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403909/clinical-pathophysiology-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-after-cardiac-arrest-a-two-hit-model
#14
REVIEW
Mypinder S Sekhon, Philip N Ainslie, Donald E Griesdale
Hypoxic ischemic brain injury (HIBI) after cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of mortality and long-term neurologic disability in survivors. The pathophysiology of HIBI encompasses a heterogeneous cascade that culminates in secondary brain injury and neuronal cell death. This begins with primary injury to the brain caused by the immediate cessation of cerebral blood flow following CA. Thereafter, the secondary injury of HIBI takes place in the hours and days following the initial CA and reperfusion. Among factors that may be implicated in this secondary injury include reperfusion injury, microcirculatory dysfunction, impaired cerebral autoregulation, hypoxemia, hyperoxia, hyperthermia, fluctuations in arterial carbon dioxide, and concomitant anemia...
April 13, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402332/deep-learning-for-flow-sculpting-insights-into-efficient-learning-using-scientific-simulation-data
#15
Daniel Stoecklein, Kin Gwn Lore, Michael Davies, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian
A new technique for shaping microfluid flow, known as flow sculpting, offers an unprecedented level of passive fluid flow control, with potential breakthrough applications in advancing manufacturing, biology, and chemistry research at the microscale. However, efficiently solving the inverse problem of designing a flow sculpting device for a desired fluid flow shape remains a challenge. Current approaches struggle with the many-to-one design space, requiring substantial user interaction and the necessity of building intuition, all of which are time and resource intensive...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398524/networking-for-ovarian-rare-tumors-a-significant-breakthrough-improving-disease-management
#16
N Chiannilkulchai, P Pautier, C Genestie, A S Bats, M C Vacher-Lavenu, M Devouassoux-Shisheboran, I Treilleux, A Floquet, S Croce, G Ferron, E Mery, C Pomel, F Penault-Llorca, C Lefeuvre-Plesse, S Henno, E Leblanc, A S Lemaire, G Averous, J E Kurtz, I Ray-Coquard
Background: Rare ovarian tumors represent >20% of all ovarian cancers. Given the rarity of these tumors, natural history, prognostic factors are not clearly identified. The extreme variability of patients (age, histological subtypes, stage) induces multiple and complex therapeutic strategies. Methods: Since 2011, a national network with a dedicated system for referral, up to 22 regional and three national reference centers (RC) has been supported by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa)...
April 7, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395969/ultrasmall-polymeric-nanocarriers-for-drug-delivery-to-podocytes-in-kidney-glomerulus
#17
Riccardo Bruni, Paolo Possenti, Carlotta Bordignon, Min Li, Stefania Ordanini, Piergiorgio Messa, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Francesco Cellesi
We explored the use of new drug-loaded nanocarriers and their targeted delivery to the kidney glomerulus and in particular to podocytes, in order to overcome the failure of current therapeutic regimens in patients with proteinuric (i.e. abnormal amount of proteins in the urine) diseases. Podocytes are glomerular cells which are mainly responsible for glomerular filtration and are primarily or secondarily involved in chronic kidney diseases. Therefore, the possibility to utilise a podocyte-targeted drug delivery could represent a major breakthrough in kidney disease research, particularly in terms of dosage reduction and elimination of systemic side effects of current therapies...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391865/a-novel-classification-of-prostate-specific-antigen-psa-biosensors-based-on-transducing-elements
#18
REVIEW
Mansoor Ani Najeeb, Zubair Ahmad, R A Shakoor, A M A Mohamed, Ramazan Kahraman
During the last few decades, there has been a tremendous rise in the number of research studies dedicated towards the development of diagnostic tools based on bio-sensing technology for the early detection of various diseases like cardiovascular diseases (CVD), many types of cancer, diabetes mellitus (DM) and many infectious diseases. Many breakthroughs have been developed in the areas of improving specificity, selectivity and repeatability of the biosensor devices. Innovations in the interdisciplinary areas like biotechnology, genetics, organic electronics and nanotechnology also had a great positive impact on the growth of bio-sensing technology...
June 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382858/new-japanese-regulatory-frameworks-for-clinical-research-and-marketing-authorization-of-gene-therapy-and-cellular-therapy-products
#19
Sumimasa Nagai, Keiya Ozawa
In Japan, the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Law was passed in 2014. In this new law, regenerative medical products were defined, and a conditional and term-limited approval system only for regenerative medical products was instituted. Gene therapy and adoptive cellular therapy are categorized as regenerative medical products. This law is intended for registration trials for marketing authorization. The Act on the Safety of Regenerative Medicine was also implemented in 2014. This act is intended for clinical research and medical practice involving processed cells other than registration trials...
April 6, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381597/waging-war-against-pancreatic-cancer-an-interview-with-david-tuveson
#20
David Tuveson
David Tuveson, Director of the Cancer Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, is a clinician-scientist with a longstanding interest in understanding and treating pancreatic cancer. Since developing the first mouse model of pancreatic cancer in 2002, the Tuveson lab has made a series of discoveries that shed light on the molecular drivers of this disease and provide promising therapeutic avenues for a malignancy that is notoriously challenging to treat. In collaboration with Hans Clevers, David developed the first pancreatic cancer organoids, which revolutionized the field by providing a powerful model system for basic discoveries and advancement of personalized medicine...
April 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
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