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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725428/highlights-of-the-31st-annual-meeting-of-the-society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer-sitc-2016
#1
REVIEW
James L Gulley, Elizabeth A Repasky, Laura S Wood, Lisa H Butterfield
Therapeutic efforts to engage the immune system against cancer have yielded exciting breakthroughs and a growing list of approved immune-based agents across a variety of disease states. Despite the early successes and durable responses associated with treatments such as immune checkpoint inhibition, there is still progress to be made in the field of cancer immunotherapy. The 31st annual meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016), which took place November 11-13, 2016 in National Harbor, Maryland, showcased the latest advancements in basic, translational, and clinical research focused on cancer immunology and immunotherapy...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721807/developing-the-transdisciplinary-aging-research-agenda-new-developments-in-big-data
#2
Christian William Callaghan
In light of dramatic advances in big data analytics and the application of these advances in certain scientific fields, new potentialities exist for breakthroughs in aging research. Translating these new potentialities to research outcomes for aging populations, however, remains a challenge, as underlying technologies which have enabled exponential increases in 'big data' have not yet enabled a commensurate era of 'big knowledge,' or similarly exponential increases in biomedical breakthroughs. Debates also reveal differences in the literature, with some arguing big data analytics heralds a new era associated with the 'end of theory' or which makes the scientific method obsolete, where correlation supercedes causation, whereby science can advance without theory and hypotheses testing...
July 19, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716893/which-dengue-vaccine-approach-is-the-most-promising-and-should-we-be-concerned-about-enhanced-disease-after-vaccination-there-is-only-one-true-winner
#3
Scott B Halstead
The scientific community now possesses information obtained directly from human beings that makes it possible to understand why breakthrough-enhanced dengue virus (DENV) infections occurred in children receiving Sanofi Pasteur's Dengvaxia tetravalent live attenuated vaccine and to predict the possibility of breakthrough-enhanced DENV infections following immunization with two other tetravalent live attenuated vaccines now in phase III testing. Based upon recent research, Dengvaxia, lacking DENV nonstructural protein antigens, did not protect seronegatives because it failed to raise a competent T-cell response and/or antibodies to NS1...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716068/highlights-of-the-31st-annual-meeting-of-the-society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer-sitc-2016
#4
REVIEW
James L Gulley, Elizabeth A Repasky, Laura S Wood, Lisa H Butterfield
Therapeutic efforts to engage the immune system against cancer have yielded exciting breakthroughs and a growing list of approved immune-based agents across a variety of disease states. Despite the early successes and durable responses associated with treatments such as immune checkpoint inhibition, there is still progress to be made in the field of cancer immunotherapy. The 31st annual meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016), which took place November 11-13, 2016 in National Harbor, Maryland, showcased the latest advancements in basic, translational, and clinical research focused on cancer immunology and immunotherapy...
July 18, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715990/single-subject-studies-in-translational-nutrition-research
#5
Nicholas J Schork, Laura H Goetz
There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709853/evaluation-of-current-trends-and-recent-development-in-insulin-therapy-for-management-of-diabetes-mellitus
#6
REVIEW
Muhammad Sarfraz Nawaz, Kifayat Ullah Shah, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Asim Ur Rehman, Haroon Ur Rashid, Sajid Mahmood, Shahzeb Khan, Muhammad Junaid Farrukh
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem in developing countries. There are various insulin therapies to manage diabetes mellitus. This systematic review evaluates various insulin therapies for management of diabetes mellitus worldwide. This review also focuses on recent developments being explored for better management of diabetes mellitus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: We reviewed a number of published articles from 2002 to 2016 to find out the appropriate management of diabetes mellitus...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704794/genetic-engineering-as-a-tool-for-the-generation-of-mouse-models-to-understand-disease-phenotypes-and-gene-function
#7
REVIEW
Ann-Kathrin Baumgart, Marc Beyer
The usage of mouse models has been vital for biomedical research over the last decades, yet the generation of these models has been extremely difficult and labor-intensive. The identification and generation of nucleases able to introduce site-specific DNA double-strand breaks, particularly the CRIPSR/Cas system, is a major breakthrough for this field as the endogenous DNA repair machinery can be hijacked to specifically introduce genome modifications at these sites. This allows for the time-efficient and cost-efficient generation of mouse models by delivery of designer nucleases together with donor DNA into fertilized oocytes...
July 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704771/predicting-the-propagation-of-concentration-and-saturation-fronts-in-fixed-bed-filters
#8
O Callery, M G Healy
The phenomenon of adsorption is widely exploited across a range of industries to remove contaminants from gases and liquids. Much recent research has focused on identifying low-cost adsorbents which have the potential to be used as alternatives to expensive industry standards like activated carbons. Evaluating these emerging adsorbents entails a considerable amount of labor intensive and costly testing and analysis. This study proposes a simple, low-cost method to rapidly assess the potential of novel media for potential use in large-scale adsorption filters...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699533/class-a-gpcrs-structure-function-modeling-and-structure-based-ligand-design
#9
Xiaojing Cong, Jérémie Topin, Jérôme Golebiowski
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), especially the class A, are the most heavily investigated drug targets in the pharmaceutical industry. Tremendous efforts have been made by both industry and academia to understand the molecular structure and function of this large family of transmembrane proteins. Our understanding in GPCR activation has evolved from the classical inactive-active two-state model to a complex view of GPCR conformational ensemble associated with multiple interacting partners such as ligands, allosteric modulators, ions and downstream signaling proteins...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699110/immune-selection-during-tumor-checkpoint-inhibition-therapy-paves-way-for-nk-cell-missing-self-recognition
#10
REVIEW
Karl-Johan Malmberg, Ebba Sohlberg, Jodie P Goodridge, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren
The ability of NK cells to specifically recognize cells lacking expression of self-MHC class I molecules was discovered over 30 years ago. It provided the foundation for the "missing self" hypothesis. Research in the two past decades has contributed to a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine the specificity and strength of NK cell-mediated "missing self" responses to tumor cells. However, in light of the recent remarkable breakthroughs in clinical cancer immunotherapy, the cytolytic potential of NK cells still remains largely untapped in clinical settings...
July 11, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696328/of-mice-dirty-mice-and-men-using-mice-to-understand-human-immunology
#11
REVIEW
David Masopust, Christine P Sivula, Stephen C Jameson
Mouse models have enabled breakthroughs in our understanding of the immune system, but it has become increasingly popular to emphasize their shortcomings when translating observations to humans. This review provides a brief summary of mouse natural history, husbandry, and the pros and cons of pursuing basic research in mice versus humans. Opportunities are discussed for extending the predictive translational value of mouse research, with an emphasis on exploitation of a "dirty" mouse model that better mimics the diverse infectious history that is typical of most humans...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695744/genome-editing-the-breakthrough-technology-for-inherited-retinal-disease
#12
Andrew J Smith, Stephen P Carter, Breandán N Kennedy
Genetic alterations resulting in a dysfunctional retinal pigment epithelium and/or degenerating photoreceptors cause impaired vision. These juxtaposed cells in the retina of the posterior eye are crucial for the visual cycle or phototransduction. Deficits in these biochemical processes perturb neural processing of images capturing the external environment. Notably, there is a distinct lack of clinically approved pharmacological, cell- or gene-based therapies for inherited retinal disease. Gene editing technologies are rapidly advancing as a realistic therapeutic option...
July 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694003/pd-l1-and-immune-escape-insights-from-melanoma-and-other-lineage-unrelated-malignancies
#13
Noah Frydenlund, Meera Mahalingam
One of the major breakthroughs in oncology in the past decade has been the research and development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Since the discovery of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a key mediator in peripheral self-tolerance and the subsequent discovery of its role promoting immune escape in cancers, the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has produced considerable excitement from both a scientific and therapeutic stand point. The past decade has seen an explosion in the number of clinical trials utilizing antI-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy...
July 7, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688844/performance-of-granular-activated-carbon-to-remove-micropollutants-from-municipal-wastewater-a-meta-analysis-of-pilot-and-large-scale-studies
#14
REVIEW
Frank Benstoem, Andreas Nahrstedt, Marc Boehler, Gregor Knopp, David Montag, Hansruedi Siegrist, Johannes Pinnekamp
For reducing organic micropollutants (MP) in municipal wastewater effluents, granular activated carbon (GAC) has been tested in various studies. We did systematic literature research and found 44 studies dealing with the adsorption of MPs (carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole) from municipal wastewater on GAC in pilot- and large-scale plants. Within our meta-analysis we plot the bed volumes (BV [m(3)water/m(3)GAC]) until the breakthrough criterion of MP-BV20% was reached, dependent on potential relevant parameters (empty bed contact time EBCT, influent DOC DOC0 and manufacturing method)...
June 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683982/research-priorities-to-achieve-universal-access-to-hepatitis-c-prevention-management-and-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#15
Jason Grebely, Julie Bruneau, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Olav Dalgard, Philip Bruggmann, Carla Treloar, Matthew Hickman, Margaret Hellard, Teri Roberts, Levinia Crooks, Håvard Midgard, Sarah Larney, Louisa Degenhardt, Hannu Alho, Jude Byrne, John F Dillon, Jordan J Feld, Graham Foster, David Goldberg, Andrew R Lloyd, Jens Reimer, Geert Robaeys, Marta Torrens, Nat Wright, Icro Maremmani, Brianna L Norton, Alain H Litwin, Gregory J Dore
Globally, it is estimated that 71.1 million people have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including an estimated 7.5 million people who have recently injected drugs (PWID). There is an additional large, but unquantified, burden among those PWID who have ceased injecting. The incidence of HCV infection among current PWID also remains high in many settings. Morbidity and mortality due to liver disease among PWID with HCV infection continues to increase, despite the advent of well-tolerated, simple interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV regimens with cure rates >95%...
July 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682055/epitaxial-growth-of-two-dimensional-layered-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-growth-mechanism-controllability-and-scalability
#16
Henan Li, Ying Li, Areej Aljarb, Yumeng Shi, Lain-Jong Li
Recently there have been many research breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphors (BPs), and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties in 2D materials are associated with their strictly defined low dimensionalities. These materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks for next-generation electronics. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences...
July 6, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677148/newspaper-coverage-of-human-pig-chimera-research-a-qualitative-study-on-select-media-coverage-of-scientific-breakthrough
#17
Abena Hagan-Brown, Maddalena Favaretto, Pascal Borry
BACKGROUND: A recently published article in the journal Cell by scientists from the Salk Institute highlighted the successful integration of stem cells from humans in pig embryos. This marks the first step toward the goal of growing human organs in animals for transplantation. There has, to date, been no research performed on the presentation of this breakthrough in the media. We thus assessed early newspaper coverage of the chimera study, looking into the descriptions as well as the benefits and concerns raised by the study mentioned by newspaper sources...
July 5, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673652/innovation-best-practices-in-the-medical-device-industry
#18
Partha P Ray, Joseph F Amaral, Piet Hinoul
Advances in patient care often germinate from keen clinical insights and a needs-based approach to innovation. Although there is an important role for incremental improvements to existing solutions, transformational innovation is what truly drives real shifts in clinical outcomes and subsequently patient satisfaction, market access, and economic value. A good example of this is the evolution of the coronary stent market. The best innovation programs are focused on unmet needs rather than solutions, call for a careful articulation of the specific problems to be solved, involve a deep dive within a clinical area, and seek to prioritize research and development investments into areas where the greatest impact can be expected...
June 2017: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666453/beginning-of-a-journey-unraveling-the-mystery-of-chronic-kidney-disease-of-unknown-aetiology-ckdu-in-sri-lanka
#19
Jacob Kumaresan, Ruwanika Seneviratne
BACKGROUND: Globally, chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) is observed in several areas and among specific ethnic or occupational groups. Given the widespread environmental pollution and the proportions of agriculture workers world-wide, CKDu may be the next global public health issue demanding attention. Recent escalation of CKDu in Sri Lanka has caused a serious public health crisis in the country, made worse by lack of national data. MAIN TEXT: The specific geographic distribution, preponderance among farming population, similar histology findings and absence of usual risk factors for kidney disease indicate undetected nephrotoxic agents playing a role in causation...
June 30, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664582/the-macrolide-antibiotic-renaissance
#20
REVIEW
Dinos P George
Macrolides represent a large family of protein synthesis inhibitors with high clinical interest due to their applicability for human medicine. Macrolides are composed of a macrocyclic lactone of different ring sizes, to which one or more deoxy-sugar or amino-sugar residues are attached. Macrolides act as antibiotics by binding to bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit and interfering with protein synthesis. The high affinity of macrolides for bacterial ribosomes, together with the highly conserved structure of ribosomes across virtually all of the bacterial species, is consistent with their broad-spectrum activity...
June 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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