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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212797/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-generated-from-urine-derived-cells-into-cardiomyocytes
#1
Yu-Feng Jiang, Min Chen, Nan-Nan Zhang, Hua-Jia Yang, Qing Rui, Ya-Feng Zhou
Breakthrough advances in stem cell research made it possible for generation of human cardiomyocytes from cells derived from various sources, including skin biopsy. However, it is attractive to build up a negligibly invasive way to create induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In this study, we created iPS cells from human urine-derived epithelial cells by gene transduction using lentiviral vectors in a totally noninvasive manner. After that, we induced the differentiation of iPS cells into functional cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo Action potentials were recorded in putative cardiomyocytes and spontaneous beating cells were observed...
December 6, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212614/clinical-trials-in-gynecologic-oncology-past-present-and-future
#2
REVIEW
Christina M Annunziata, Elise C Kohn
The Gynecologic Oncology Group has historically performed ground-breaking, practice-changing clinical trials in women's cancers. The current standard of care for initial treatment of ovarian, endometrial, cervical, and trophoblastic cancers was determined by clinical trials completed within this cooperative group structure. For example, trial GOG-0111 set the standard for combining platinum and taxane chemotherapy in ovarian cancer, and more recently GOG-0240 provided evidence for adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy for women with advanced cervical cancer...
December 3, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202036/free-radicals-and-advanced-chemistries-involved-in-cell-membrane-organization-influence-oxygen-diffusion-and-pathology-treatment
#3
Richard C Petersen
A breakthrough has been discovered in pathology chemistry related to increasing molecular structure that can interfere with oxygen diffusion through cell membranes. Free radicals can crosslink unsaturated low-viscosity fatty acid oils by chain-growth polymerization into more viscous liquids and even solids. Free radicals are released by mitochondria in response to intermittent hypoxia that can increase membrane molecular organization to reduce fluidity and oxygen diffusion in a possible continuing vicious cycle toward pathological disease...
2017: AIMS Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193879/organ-bioprinting-are-we-there-yet
#4
REVIEW
Guifang Gao, Ying Huang, Arndt F Schilling, Karen Hubbell, Xiaofeng Cui
About 15 years ago, bioprinting was coined as one of the ultimate solutions to engineer vascularized tissues, which was impossible to accomplish using the conventional tissue fabrication approaches. With the advances of 3D-printing technology during the past decades, one may expect 3D bioprinting being developed as much as 3D printing. Unfortunately, this is not the case. The printing principles of bioprinting are dramatically different from those applied in industrialized 3D printing, as they have to take the living components into account...
November 29, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189152/the-progress-of-gene-therapy-for-leber-s-optic-hereditary-neuropathy
#5
Yong Zhang, Zhen Tian, Jiajia Yuan, Chang Liu, Hong Li Liu, Si Qi Ma, Bin Li
Leber's Optic Hereditary Neuropathy (LHON) is a common cause of teenaged blindness in both eyes for which there is currently no effective treatment. In 1871, the German ophthalmologist Theodor Leber was the first to describe the clinical characteristics of his namesake disease, and through unremitting efforts over the past 100 years, researchers have continued to increase their understanding of LHON. In recent years, using gene therapy, several groups have obtained breakthroughs in the treatment of the disease...
November 29, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188386/the-shifting-paradigm-of-a-cure-for-type-1-diabetes-is-technology-replacing-immune-based-therapies
#6
Jeremy Pettus, Matthias Von Herrath
Nearly 50 years after the autoimmune nature of type 1 diabetes was discovered, no therapy has been approved to alter the course of the disease at any stage. However, during that same period, technology has been delivering tools to help patients achieve better glycemic control and reduce the burden of the disease. With the imminent arrival of fully automated artificial pancreas systems that will continue to improve control and quality of life, it appears that we are on the verge of a major technological breakthrough that will significantly impact diabetes care...
November 29, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186302/translational-bioinformatics-in-mental-health-open-access-data-sources-and-computational-biomarker-discovery
#7
Jessica D Tenenbaum, Krithika Bhuvaneshwar, Jane P Gagliardi, Kate Fultz Hollis, Peilin Jia, Liang Ma, Radhakrishnan Nagarajan, Gopalkumar Rakesh, Vignesh Subbian, Shyam Visweswaran, Zhongming Zhao, Leon Rozenblit
Mental illness is increasingly recognized as both a significant cost to society and a significant area of opportunity for biological breakthrough. As -omics and imaging technologies enable researchers to probe molecular and physiological underpinnings of multiple diseases, opportunities arise to explore the biological basis for behavioral health and disease. From individual investigators to large international consortia, researchers have generated rich data sets in the area of mental health, including genomic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, proteomic, clinical and imaging resources...
November 27, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182185/wearable-sensors-modalities-challenges-and-prospects
#8
REVIEW
J Heikenfeld, A Jajack, J Rogers, P Gutruf, L Tian, T Pan, R Li, M Khine, J Kim, J Wang, J Kim
Wearable sensors have recently seen a large increase in both research and commercialization. However, success in wearable sensors has been a mix of both progress and setbacks. Most of commercial progress has been in smart adaptation of existing mechanical, electrical and optical methods of measuring the body. This adaptation has involved innovations in how to miniaturize sensing technologies, how to make them conformal and flexible, and in the development of companion software that increases the value of the measured data...
November 28, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179022/re-engineering-of-protein-motors-to-understand-mechanisms-biasing-random-motion-and-generating-collective-dynamics
#9
REVIEW
Ken'ya Furuta, Akane Furuta
A considerable amount of insight into the mechanisms of protein-based biomolecular motors has been accumulated over decades of research. However, our knowledge about the design principles of these motors is still limited. Even less is known about the design of multi-motor systems that perform various functions within the cell. Here we focus on constructive (or synthetic) approaches to biomolecular motors that could make a breakthrough in our understanding. Recent achievements include studies at different hierarchical levels of complexity: re-engineering of individual motors, construction of multi-motor systems, and generation of large-scale complex behaviour...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170059/the-clinical-potential-of-adipogenesis-and-obesity-related-micrornas
#10
REVIEW
M Zaiou, H El Amri, A Bakillah
Obesity is a growing health problem commonly associated with numerous metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. The burden of obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases are believed to arise through complex interplay between genetics and epigenetics predisposition, nutrition, environment, and lifestyle. However, the molecular basis and the repertoire of obesity-affecting factors are still unknown. Emerging evidence is connecting microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation with adipogenesis and obesity...
November 20, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168707/properties-of-vanadium-loaded-iron-sorbent-after-alkali-regeneration
#11
Muhammad Kamran Khalid, Tiina Leiviskä, Juha Tanskanen
The aim of this research was to investigate the regeneration and reuse of a commercial granular iron sorbent (mainly goethite) when used in vanadium removal. A regeneration rate of 3 M NaOH was the highest (85%) achieved, followed by 2 M NaOH (79%) and 1 M NaOH (68%). The breakthrough curves show that the regenerated material can be reused. The BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) surface area increased by 35-38% and the total pore volume increased by 123-130% as a consequence of NaOH treatment. The results indicated that sodium hydroxide could be used for the regeneration of iron sorbent although the regeneration was incomplete...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155552/reliably-modeling-the-mechanical-stability-of-rigid-and-flexible-metal-organic-frameworks
#12
Sven M J Rogge, Michel Waroquier, Veronique Van Speybroeck
Over the past two decades, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have matured from interesting academic peculiarities toward a continuously expanding class of hybrid, nanoporous materials tuned for targeted technological applications such as gas storage and heterogeneous catalysis. These oft-times crystalline materials, composed of inorganic moieties interconnected by organic ligands, can be endowed with desired structural and chemical features by judiciously functionalizing or substituting these building blocks...
November 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153162/a-100-year-review-a-century-of-change-in-temperate-grazing-dairy-systems
#13
J R Roche, D P Berry, A M Bryant, C R Burke, S T Butler, P G Dillon, D J Donaghy, B Horan, K A Macdonald, K L Macmillan
From 1917 to 2017, dairy grazing systems have evolved from uncontrolled grazing of unimproved pastures by dual-purpose dairy-beef breeds to an intensive system with a high output per unit of land from a fit-for-purpose cow. The end of World War I signaled significant government investments in agricultural research institutes around the world, which coincided with technological breakthroughs in milk harvesting and a recognition that important traits in both plants and animals could be improved upon relatively rapidly through genetic selection...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152230/rare-fungal-infectious-agents-a-lurking-enemy
#14
REVIEW
Anna Skiada, Ioannis Pavleas, Maria Drogari-Apiranthitou
In the expanding population of immunocompromised patients and those treated in intensive care units, rare fungal infectious agents have emerged as important pathogens, causing invasive infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. These infections may present either as de novo or as breakthrough invasive infections in high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies receiving prophylactic or empirical antifungal therapy or in patients with central venous catheters. Diagnosis and treatment are challenging...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150004/dynamics-of-indel-profiles-induced-by-various-crispr-cas9-delivery-methods
#15
Michael Kosicki, Sandeep S Rajan, Flaminia C Lorenzetti, Hans H Wandall, Yoshiki Narimatsu, Emmanouil Metzakopian, Eric P Bennett
The introduction of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in mammalian cells is a scientific breakthrough, which has greatly affected basic research and gene therapy. The simplicity and general access to CRISPR/Cas9 reagents has in an unprecedented manner "democratized" gene targeting in biomedical research, enabling genetic engineering of any gene in any cell, tissue, organ, and organism. The ability for fast, precise, and efficient profiling of the double-stranded break induced insertions and deletions (indels), mediated by any of the available programmable nucleases, is paramount to any given gene targeting approach...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148966/exploring-the-health-care-environment-and-associations-with-clinical-outcomes-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#16
Mary Hawk, Robert W S Coulter, James E Egan, Mackey Reuel Friedman, Steven Meanley, Stuart Fisk, Courtney Watson, Suzanne Kinsky
Despite three decades of dramatic treatment breakthroughs in antiretroviral regimens, clinical outcomes for people living with HIV vary greatly. The HIV treatment cascade models the stages of care that people living with HIV go through toward the goal of viral suppression and demonstrates that <30% of those living with HIV/AIDS in the United States have met this goal. Although some research has focused on the ways that patient characteristics and patient-provider relationships contribute to clinical adherence and treatment success, few studies to date have examined the ways that contextual factors of care and the healthcare environment contribute to patient outcomes...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143176/the-treatment-landscape-and-new-opportunities-of-molecular-targeted-therapies-in-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#17
REVIEW
Fabiola Amair-Pinedo, Ignacio Matos, Tamara Saurí, Jorge Hernando, Jaume Capdevila
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that originate from neuroendocrine stem cells and express both neural and endocrine markers. They are found in almost every organ, and while NENs are mostly associated with slow growth, complications due to the uncontrolled secretion of active peptides, and metastatic disease, may significantly impair the quality of life and can ultimately lead to the death of affected individuals. Expanding knowledge of the genetic, epigenetic, and proteomic landscapes of NENs has led to a better understanding of their molecular pathology and consequently increased treatment options for patients...
November 15, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139377/laboratory-colonization-and-mass-rearing-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae
#18
Jérôme Depaquit, Bernard Pesson, Denis Augot, James Gordon Campbell Hamilton, Phillip Lawyer, Nicole Léger, Phillip Lawyer, Mireille Killick-Kendrick, Tobin Rowland, Edgar Rowton, Petr Volf
Laboratory colonies of phlebotomine sand flies are necessary for experimental study of their biology, behaviour and mutual relations with disease agents and for testing new methods of vector control. They are indispensable in genetic studies and controlled observations on the physiology and behaviour of sand flies, neglected subjects of high priority. Colonies are of particular value for screening insecticides. Colonized sand flies are used as live vector models in a diverse array of research projects, including xenodiagnosis, that are directed toward control of leishmaniasis and other sand fly-associated diseases...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127683/gene-and-cell-therapy-for-%C3%AE-thalassemia-and-sickle-cell-disease-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipscs-the-next-frontier
#19
Eirini P Papapetrou
In recent years, breakthroughs in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) research, namely cellular reprogramming and the emergence of sophisticated genetic engineering technologies, have opened new frontiers for cell and gene therapy. The prospect of using hPSCs, either autologous or histocompatible, as targets of genetic modification and their differentiated progeny as cell products for transplantation, presents a new paradigm of regenerative medicine of potential tremendous value for the treatment of blood disorders, including beta-thalassemia (BT) and sickle cell disease (SCD)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125651/an-ideal-molecular-sieve-for-acetylene-removal-from-ethylene-with-record-selectivity-and-productivity
#20
Bin Li, Xili Cui, Daniel O'Nolan, Hui-Min Wen, Mengdie Jiang, Rajamani Krishna, Hui Wu, Rui-Biao Lin, Yu-Sheng Chen, Daqiang Yuan, Huabin Xing, Wei Zhou, Qilong Ren, Guodong Qian, Michael J Zaworotko, Banglin Chen
Realization of ideal molecular sieves, in which the larger gas molecules are completely blocked without sacrificing high adsorption capacities of the preferred smaller gas molecules, can significantly reduce energy costs for gas separation and purification and thus facilitate a possible technological transformation from the traditional energy-intensive cryogenic distillation to the energy-efficient, adsorbent-based separation and purification in the future. Although extensive research endeavors are pursued to target ideal molecular sieves among diverse porous materials, over the past several decades, ideal molecular sieves for the separation and purification of light hydrocarbons are rarely realized...
November 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
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