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Breakthrough, research

Xiao-Yang Yang, Meng-Jie Wan, Fang-Ping Chen
Since the American Medical Association published the 2011 guidelines for immune thrombocytopenia, China has been the first to update the guidelines for immune thrombocytopenia based on evidence-based medicine. Recently, there have been many breakthroughs in clinical research published, especially the Chinese medical workers have made a prominent contribution to the treatment of the immune thrombocytopenia. However, the references of systematic drug introduction for children, adults, aged and pregnant women are still insufficient, and the first or second line treatment for some patients were ineffective...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Tom Kamperman, Marcel Karperien, Séverine Le Gac, Jeroen Leijten
Single-cell-laden microgels effectively act as the engineered counterpart of the smallest living building block of life: a cell within its pericellular matrix. Recent breakthroughs have enabled the encapsulation of single cells in sub-100-μm microgels to provide physiologically relevant microniches with minimal mass transport limitations and favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Single-cell-laden microgels offer additional unprecedented advantages, including facile manipulation, culture, and analysis of individual cell within 3D microenvironments...
April 12, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Parichehr Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Atyabi, Rassoul Dinarvand
Tissue engineering (TE) has provided promising perspectives to overcome the limited efficiency of the conventional treatment options or organ transplantation. Considerable advances in stem cell therapies and biomaterials science and development of delivery systems capable to mimic the production of growth factors may offer treatment breakthroughs in a variety of diseases. Meanwhile, proper vascularization, creation of the complex tissues, tissue quality, functional integration between the graft and host tissues, and the potential risks of chromosomal instability, mutations, tumorigenesis, or unexpected events have remained challenging...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
An Tang, Roger Tam, Alexandre Cadrin-Chênevert, Will Guest, Jaron Chong, Joseph Barfett, Leonid Chepelev, Robyn Cairns, J Ross Mitchell, Mark D Cicero, Manuel Gaudreau Poudrette, Jacob L Jaremko, Caroline Reinhold, Benoit Gallix, Bruce Gray, Raym Geis
Artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly moving from an experimental phase to an implementation phase in many fields, including medicine. The combination of improved availability of large datasets, increasing computing power, and advances in learning algorithms has created major performance breakthroughs in the development of AI applications. In the last 5 years, AI techniques known as deep learning have delivered rapidly improving performance in image recognition, caption generation, and speech recognition...
April 11, 2018: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
Nagendra S Ningaraj, Polluru L Reddy, Divya Khaitan
This review elucidates ongoing research, which show improved delivery of anticancer drugs alone and/ or enclosed in carriers collectively called nanomedicines to cross the Blood brain barrier (BBB) / blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) to kill tumor cells and impact patient survival. We highlighted various advances in understanding the mechanism of BTB function that impact on anticancer therapeutics delivery. We discussed latest breakthroughs in developing pharmaceutical strategies, including nanomedicines and delivering them across BTB for brain tumor management and treatment...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Taehun Kim, Hyungseok Yong, Banseok Kim, Dongseob Kim, Dukhyun Choi, Yong Tae Park, Sangmin Lee
There has been much research on renewable energy-harvesting techniques. However, owing to increasing energy demands, significant energy-related issues remain to be solved. Efforts aimed at reducing the amount of energy loss in electric/electronic systems are essential for reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment. Here, we design an energy-loss return gate system that reduces energy loss from electric/electronic systems by utilizing the polarization of liquid dielectrics. The use of a liquid dielectric material in the energy-loss return gate generates electrostatic potential energy while reducing the dielectric loss of the electric/electronic system...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
I S Pretorius, J D Boeke
Historians of the future may well describe 2018 as the year that the world's first functional synthetic eukaryotic genome became a reality. Without the benefit of hindsight, it might be hard to completely grasp the long-term significance of a breakthrough moment in the history of science like this. The role of synthetic biology in the imminent birth of a budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell carrying 16 man-made chromosomes causes the world of science to teeter on the threshold of a future-defining scientific frontier...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Yeongchang Goh, Yo Han Song, Gibok Lee, Hyeongyu Bae, Manoj Kumar Mahata, Kang Taek Lee
Understanding the interaction of nanoparticles with living cells on the basis of cellular uptake efficiency is a fundamental requisite in biomedical research. Cellular internalization of nanoparticles takes place by mechanisms like ATP hydrolysis-driven endocytosis that deliver nanoparticles to the cytoplasm, organelles and nuclei. Despite its importance in nanomedicine, this uptake procedure is not understood in-depth because of the complexity of the biochemical mechanisms and the lack of available experimental methods for quantitative analysis...
April 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Renaud Gaujoux, Elina Starosvetsky, Naama Maimon, Francesco Vallania, Haggai Bar-Yoseph, Sigal Pressman, Roni Weisshof, Idan Goren, Keren Rabinowitz, Matti Waterman, Henit Yanai, Iris Dotan, Edmond Sabo, Yehuda Chowers, Purvesh Khatri, Shai S Shen-Orr
OBJECTIVE: Although anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) therapies represent a major breakthrough in IBD therapy, their cost-benefit ratio is hampered by an overall 30% non-response rate, adverse side effects and high costs. Thus, finding predictive biomarkers of non-response prior to commencing anti-TNFα therapy is of high value. DESIGN: We analysed publicly available whole-genome expression profiles of colon biopsies obtained from multiple cohorts of patients with IBD using a combined computational deconvolution-meta-analysis paradigm which allows to estimate immune cell contribution to the measured expression and capture differential regulatory programmes otherwise masked due to variation in cellular composition...
April 4, 2018: Gut
Sanaz Naghizadeh, Behzad Mansoori, Ali Mohammadi, Sakhinia Ebrahim, Behzad Baradaran
RNAi, post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, could be considered as one of the most important breakthroughs and rapidly growing fields in science. Researchers are trying to use this discovery in the treatment of various diseases and cancer is one of them. Multiple treatment procedures for treatments-resistance cancers remain as unsolvable problem yet. The current review summarizes both transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms, and highlights mechanisms leading to drug-resistance such as, drug efflux, drug inactivation, drug target alteration, DNA damages repair, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as well as the role of tumor cell heterogeneity and tumor microenvironment, involved genes in these processes...
April 3, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Pankaj Kumar Singh, Om Silakari
O-heterocycles have been explored since long in the field of medicinal chemistry but they have not yet been given their due significance and are usually shunned out in comparison to N-heterocycles. Designing of bioactive molecules for almost every pathophysiological condition is primarily focused on designing novel N-heterocycles. The basic reasons for this bias are the ease of synthesis and possible mimicking of physiological molecules by N-heterocycles. But considering only this criteria never provides any breakthrough molecule for any disease condition, rather risk of toxicity/side effects are increased with such molecules...
March 30, 2018: ChemMedChem
Jing-Jing Liu, Jin-Ping Si
To clarify the change and development of the original plants, medicinal organs, traditional functions, resource distribution of "Huangjing"(Polygonati Rhizome), a traditional Chinese medicine, we investigated Polygonatum species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts. The name of "Nüwei" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic. Its effects included two aspects: one was similar to "Weirui"(Polygonati Odorati Rhizome, "Yuzhu"), that was tonifying, nourishing one's vitality, removing wind and dampness, settling five organs, making body lightness, keeping longevity and not being hungry; the second was alike to "Huangjing" recorded in the book of Ming Yi Bie Lu(Appendant Records of Famous Physicians)...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Liang Chen, Ji Zhang, Yifeng He, Xiao-Yi Ding
Giant cell tumor stromal cell (GCTSC) is the tumor cell of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). The biomarkers characterization of GCTSC is critical for the selection of GCTB targeting drugs. We believe the main functions of GCTSC in different part of tumor should be different for different environment. Then the biological behavior and molecular biomarkers of GCTSC should be different as well. Based on this idea, we focused on GCTSC which located in central tissue, peripheral tissue and took MMP-9 as the breakthrough point to carry out research...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Bryon A Tompkins, Wayne Balkan, Johannes Winkler, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Georg Goliasch, Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Joshua M Hare
As part of the TACTICS (Transnational Alliance for Regenerative Therapies in Cardiovascular Syndromes) series to enhance regenerative medicine, here, we discuss the role of preclinical studies designed to advance stem cell therapies for cardiovascular disease. The quality of this research has improved over the past 10 to 15 years and overall indicates that cell therapy promotes cardiac repair. However, many issues remain, including inability to provide complete cardiac recovery. Recent studies question the need for intact cells suggesting that harnessing what the cells release is the solution...
March 30, 2018: Circulation Research
Todor K Krastev, Jip Beugels, Juliette Hommes, Andrzej Piatkowski, Irene Mathijssen, Rene van der Hulst
Importance: The use of autologous fat transfer (AFT) or lipofilling for correcting contour deformities is seen as one of the major breakthroughs in reconstructive plastic surgery. Its applications in facial reconstructive surgery have been of particular interest owing to the prospect of achieving autologous reconstruction by a minimally invasive approach. However, its unpredictability and variable degree of resorption have limited its utility and much skepticism still exists regarding its efficacy...
March 29, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Gregoire Guillon, Pascal Honvault, Roman Kochanov, Vladimir G Tyuterev
We show, by performing exact time independent quantum molecular scattering calculations, that the quality of the ground electronic state global potential energy surface appears to be of utmost importance in accurately obtaining even as strongly averaged quantities as kinetic rate constants. The oxygen isotope exchange reaction, 18O + 32O2, motivated by the understanding of a complex long-standing problem of isotopic ozone anomalies in the stratosphere and laboratory experiments, is explored in this context...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Charles R Greenwood, Alana G Schnitz, Dwight Irvin, Shu Fe Tsai, Judith J Carta
Purpose: The Language Environment Analysis (LENA®) represents a breakthrough in automatic speech detection because it makes one's language environment, what adults and children actually hear and say, efficiently measurable. The purpose of this article was to examine (a) current dimensions of LENA research, (b) LENA's sensitivity to differences in populations and language environments, and (c) what has been achieved in closing the Word Gap. Method: From electronic and human searches, 83 peer-reviewed articles using LENA were identified, and 53 met inclusionary criteria and were included in a systematic literature review...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
James J Foster, Shelby E Temple, Martin J How, Ilse M Daly, Camilla R Sharkey, David Wilby, Nicholas W Roberts
In recent years, the study of polarisation vision in animals has seen numerous breakthroughs, not just in terms of what is known about the function of this sensory ability, but also in the experimental methods by which polarisation can be controlled, presented and measured. Once thought to be limited to only a few animal species, polarisation sensitivity is now known to be widespread across many taxonomic groups, and advances in experimental techniques are, in part, responsible for these discoveries. Nevertheless, its study remains challenging, perhaps because of our own poor sensitivity to the polarisation of light, but equally as a result of the slow spread of new practices and methodological innovations within the field...
March 27, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Solomon Habtemariam, Giovanni Lentini
For centuries, plants have been exploited by mankind as sources of numerous cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Good examples of anticancer compounds of clinical significance today include the taxanes (e.g., taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and the podophyllotoxin analogues that all trace their origin to higher plants. While all these drugs, along with the various other available therapeutic options, brought some relief in cancer management, a real breakthrough or cure has not yet been achieved. This critical review is a reflection on the lessons learnt from decades of research on the iridoid glycoside geniposide and its aglycone, genipin, which are currently used as gold standard reference compounds in cancer studies...
March 26, 2018: Biomedicines
Chad G Uzdevenes, Chi Gao, Amandeep K Sandhu, Yavuz Yagiz, Liwei Gu
BACKGROUND: Muscadine grape pomace, a by-product of juicing and wine-making, contains significant amounts of anthocyanin 3,5-diglucosides, known to be beneficial to human health. RESULTS: The objective of this research was to use mathematical modeling to investigate the adsorption/desorption characteristics of these anthocyanins from muscadine grape pomace on Amberlite FPX66 resin in a fixed bed column. Anthocyanins were extracted using hot water and ultrasound, and the extracts were loaded onto a resin column at five bed depths (5, 6, 8, 10, or 12 cm) using three flow rates (4, 6, or 8 mL/min)...
March 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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