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Breakthrough, research

Lucia Paolini, Andrea Zendrini, Annalisa Radeghieri
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived nanoparticles, involved in cell-to-cell communication, in both normal and pathological processes. Originating by the outward budding of the plasma membrane or released by exocytosis, they are natural cargoes for lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. EV-based diagnostics promises unique advantages compared with conventional strategies involving whole body fluid analysis, including the reduction of biofluids complexity and more specific and sensitive detection of low abundance biomacromolecules...
February 14, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
T H Hu, L Wan, T A Liu, M W Wang, T Chen, Y H Wang
Deep learning and neural network models have been new research directions and hot issues in the fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence in recent years. Deep learning has made a breakthrough in the applications of image and speech recognitions, and also has been extensively used in the fields of face recognition and information retrieval because of its special superiority. Bone X-ray images express different variations in black-white-gray gradations, which have image features of black and white contrasts and level differences...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Zhiwu Han, Xiaoming Feng, Zhiguang Guo, Shichao Niu, Luquan Ren
Antifogging (AF) structure materials found in nature have great potential for enabling novel and emerging products and technologies to facilitate the daily life of human societies, attracting enormous research interests owing to their potential applications in display devices, traffics, agricultural greenhouse, food packaging, solar products, and other fields. The outstanding performance of biological AF surfaces encourages the rapid development and wide application of new AF materials. In fact, AF properties are inextricably associated with their surface superwettability...
February 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yazan M Abbas, Ashley M Toye, John L Rubinstein, Reinhart A F Reithmeier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current research on the human band 3 glycoprotein, the red cell chloride/bicarbonate anion exchanger (AE1), is highlighted and placed within a structural context. RECENT FINDINGS: The determination of the crystal structure of the membrane domain of human band 3, the founding member of the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family of bicarbonate transporters, is a major breakthrough toward understanding the mechanism of action of this membrane transport protein, its interaction with partner proteins, and how mutations linked to disease affect its ability to fold and function...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Maria T Britto, Sandra C Fuller, Heather C Kaplan, Uma Kotagal, Carole Lannon, Peter A Margolis, Stephen E Muething, Pamela J Schoettker, Michael Seid
The US National Academy of Sciences has called for the development of a Learning Healthcare System in which patients and clinicians work together to choose care, based on best evidence, and to drive discovery as a natural outgrowth of every clinical encounter to ensure innovation, quality and value at the point of care. However, the vision of a Learning Healthcare System has remained largely aspirational. Over the last 13 years, researchers, clinicians and families, with support from our paediatric medical centre, have designed, developed and implemented a network organisational model to achieve the Learning Healthcare System vision...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Shi-Lung Lin
Pluripotent stem cells are a resourceful treasure box for regenerative medicine. They contain a large variety of novel materials useful for designing and developing new medicines and therapies directed against many aging-associated degenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, diabetes, osteoporosis, and cancers. Currently, identification of these novel stem cell-specific materials is one of major breakthroughs in the field of stem cell research. Particularly, since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in year 2006, the methods of iPSC derivation further provide an unlimited resource for screening, isolating, and even producing theses novel stem cell-specific materials in vitro...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yasuyuki Shimizu, Hiroaki Akasaka, Daisuke Miyawaki, Naritoshi Mukumoto, Masao Nakayama, Tianyuan Wang, Saki Osuga, Sachiko Inubushi, Ryuichi Yada, Yasuo Ejima, Kenji Yoshida, Takeaki Ishihara, Ryohei Sasaki
In cancer research, small animal models, for example, mice, rats, or rabbits, facilitate the in-depth study of biological processes and the effects of radiation treatment that can lead to breakthrough discoveries. However, the physical quality of small animal irradiation systems has not been previously evaluated. In this study, we evaluate the quality of a small animal irradiation system using GAFCHROMIC™ film and a Tough Water Phantom. The profiles and percentage depth dose curves for several irradiation conditions were measured to evaluate the quality of the irradiation system...
January 17, 2018: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi
The identification of hormones and their receptors in multicellular organisms is one of the most exciting research areas and has lead to breakthroughs in understanding how their growth and development are regulated. In particular, peptide hormones offer advantages as cell-to-cell signals in that they can be synthesized rapidly and have the greatest diversity in their structure and function. Peptides often undergo post-translational modifications and proteolytic processing to generate small oligopeptide hormones...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Yae Kanai, Hiroshi Nishihara, Yohei Miyagi, Tatsuhiro Tsuruyama, Kenichi Taguchi, Hiroto Katoh, Tomoyo Takeuchi, Masahiro Gotoh, Junko Kuramoto, Eri Arai, Hidenori Ojima, Ayako Shibuya, Teruhiko Yoshida, Toshiaki Akahane, Rika Kasajima, Kei-Ichi Morita, Johji Inazawa, Takeshi Sasaki, Masashi Fukayama, Yoshinao Oda
Genome research using appropriately collected pathological tissue samples is expected to yield breakthroughs in the development of biomarkers and identification of therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancers. In this connection, the Japanese Society of Pathology (JSP) has developed "The JSP Guidelines on the Handling of Pathological Tissue Samples for Genomic Research" based on an abundance of data from empirical analyses of tissue samples collected and stored under various conditions. Tissue samples should be collected from appropriate sites within surgically resected specimens, without disturbing the features on which pathological diagnosis is based, while avoiding bleeding or necrotic foci...
February 2018: Pathology International
Robert Berger
In the current decade, perovskite solar cell research has emerged as a remarkably active, promising, and rapidly developing field. Alongside breakthroughs in synthesis and device engineering, halide perovskite photovoltaic materials have been the subject of predictive and explanatory computational work. In this Minireview, we focus on a subset of this computation: density functional theory (DFT)-based work highlighting the ways in which the electronic structure and band gap of this class of materials can be tuned via changes in atomic structure...
February 9, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chin Siang Ong, Xun Zhou, Jingnan Han, Chen Yu Huang, Andrew Nashed, Shipra Khatri, Gunnar Mattson, Takuma Fukunishi, Huaitao Zhang, Narutoshi Hibino
Spheroids are increasingly being employed to answer a wide range of clinical and biomedical inquiries ranging from pharmacology to disease pathophysiology, with the ultimate goal of using spheroids for tissue engineering and regeneration. When compared to traditional two-dimensional cell culture, spheroids have the advantage of better replicating the 3D extracellular microenvironment and its associated growth factors and signaling cascades. As knowledge about the preparation and maintenance of spheroids has improved, there has been a plethora of translational experiments investigating in vivo implantation of spheroids into various animal models studying tissue regeneration...
February 3, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Wu Liu, Cheng Zhang, Huadong Ma, Shuangqun Li
The integration of the latest breakthroughs in bioinformatics technology from one side and artificial intelligence from another side, enables remarkable advances in the fields of intelligent security guard computational biology, healthcare, and so on. Among them, biometrics based automatic human identification is one of the most fundamental and significant research topic. Human gait, which is a biometric features with the unique capability, has gained significant attentions as the remarkable characteristics of remote accessed, robust and security in the biometrics based human identification...
February 6, 2018: Neuroinformatics
Deepak P Dubal, Nilesh R Chodankar, Do-Heyoung Kim, Pedro Gomez-Romero
Flexible solid-state supercapacitors (FSSCs) are frontrunners in energy storage device technology and have attracted extensive attention owing to recent significant breakthroughs in modern wearable electronics. In this study, we review the state-of-the-art advancements in FSSCs to provide new insights on mechanisms, emerging electrode materials, flexible gel electrolytes and novel cell designs. The review begins with a brief introduction on the fundamental understanding of charge storage mechanisms based on the structural properties of electrode materials...
February 5, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Reshmi Thomas, Jatish Kumar, Jino George, Madhavan Shanthil, G Narmada Naidu, Rotti Srinivasamurthy Swathi, K George Thomas
Recent advances in understanding the theoretical and experimental properties of excitons and plasmons have led to several technological breakthroughs. Though emerging from different schools of research, the parallels they possess both in their isolated and assembled forms are indeed interesting. Employing the larger framework of the dipolar coupling model, these aspects are discussed based on the excitonic transitions in chromophores and plasmonic resonances in noble metal nanostructures. The emergence of novel optical properties in linear, parallel and helical assemblies of chromophores and nanostructures with varying separation distances, orientations and interaction strengths of interacting dipolar components is discussed...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Chenxi Lu, Wei Hu, Ting Ji, Mengzhen Han, Yang Yang, Zhenxiao Jin
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle present in most eukaryotic cells and plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. ER dysfunction, specifically ER stress (ERS), is a pathophysiological response involved in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular lesions. Therefore, suppression of ERS may improve lipid metabolic disorders and reduce cardiovascular risk. Herein, we focus on novel breakthroughs regarding the roles of ERS in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as the internal mechanisms of ERS and its status as a potential therapeutic target...
February 1, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Pollen K Yeung
Metabolomics and biomarkers are increasingly used in drug discovery and development, and are applied to personalized medicine. Progress in these research areas has increased our understanding of disease pathology and improved therapeutic strategies for many diseases with unmet challenges. Further advances will ultimately result in the development of better drugs and breakthrough therapies, which will benefit millions of patients suffering from chronic and life-threatening diseases worldwide.
January 31, 2018: Metabolites
Mengqi Zeng, Yao Xiao, Jinxin Liu, Kena Yang, Lei Fu
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous research interest since the breakthrough of graphene. Their unique optical, electronic, and mechanical properties hold great potential for harnessing them as key components in novel applications for electronics and optoelectronics. Their atomic thickness and exposed huge surface even make them highly designable and manipulable, leading to the extensive application potentials. What's more, after acquiring the qualification for being the candidate for next-generation devices, the assembly of 2D materials monomers into mass or ordered structure is also of great importance, which will determine their ultimate industrialization...
January 30, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Venkateshwaran Krishnaswami, Ruckmani Kandasamy, Shanmugarathinam Alagarsamy, Rajaguru Palanisamy, Subramanian Natesan
Development of newer drug carrier systems by the researchers has resulted in numerous breakthroughs in the development and manufacturing of ocular products. The ocular bioavailability of drugs at the posterior segment of the eye is a challenging task in the present scenario. Naturally derived macromolecular carriers are widely used to increase the efficacy of ocular drugs. They provide enhanced corneal permeability and retention effect at the surface of cornea for a prolonged period of time. In this regimen the present review focuses towards the major ocular diseases and their prevalence and development of efficient drug carrier systems utilizing various naturally derived macromolecules for improved delivery of drugs to treat ocular diseases...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kun Ma, Min Li
Kidney deficiency and blood stasis is the main cause of ovulatory dysfunctional infertility. Kidney deficiency is the main pathological mechanism. Blood stasis is the main pathological manifestation, and it is an important factor throughout. Bushen Culuan Chongji is under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) theory, previous years of clinical experience, combined with the etiology and pathogenesis of anovulatory infertility and modern pharmacological research results, selected, not only maintains the TCM syndrome differentiation and different diseases features, but also reflects the superiority of the combination of disease...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Karl-Josef Dietz, G Heinrich Krause, Katharina Siebke, Anja Krieger-Liszkay
The dynamic and efficient coordination of primary photosynthetic reactions with leaf energization and metabolism under a wide range of environmental conditions is a fundamental property of plants involving processes at all functional levels. The present historical perspective covers 60 years of research aiming to understand the underlying mechanisms, linking major breakthroughs to current progress. It centers on the contributions of Ulrich Heber who had pioneered novel concepts, fundamental methods, and mechanistic understanding of photosynthesis...
January 24, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
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