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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540598/parp-inhibitors-in-prostate-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Praveen Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Matthew J Schiewer, Karen E Knudsen, Wm Kevin Kelly
The genomic landscape of metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) reveals that up to 90% of patients harbor actionable mutations and >20% have somatic DNA repair gene defects (DRD). This provides the therapeutic rationale of PARP inhibition (PARPi) to achieve "synthetic lethality" in treating this fatal disease. Clinical trials with PARP inhibitors have shown significant response rates up to 88% for PCa patients having DRD like BRCA1/2 or ATM mutations. The FDA has awarded "breakthrough designation" to develop the PARPi olaparib in treating this subset of metastatic PCa patients...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534003/new-pharmacological-approaches-to-treating-non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Michael A Kelberman, Elena M Vazey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) are better predictors of quality of life changes, caregiver burden, and mortality than motor symptoms. Levodopa has limited, and sometimes detrimental, effects on these symptoms. In this review we discuss recent evidence on pharmacological treatments for non-motor symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Breakthroughs have been made in the treatment of psychosis and sleep dysfunction. Pimavanserin has become the first FDA approved drug for PD psychosis...
December 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533451/animal-coloration-research-why-it-matters
#3
Tim Caro, Mary Caswell Stoddard, Devi Stuart-Fox
While basic research on animal coloration is the theme of this special edition, here we highlight its applied significance for industry, innovation and society. Both the nanophotonic structures producing stunning optical effects and the colour perception mechanisms in animals are extremely diverse, having been honed over millions of years of evolution for many different purposes. Consequently, there is a wealth of opportunity for biomimetic and bioinspired applications of animal coloration research, spanning colour production, perception and function...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514059/-11-c-fluoroform-a-breakthrough-for-versatile-labeling-of-pet-radiotracer-trifluoromethyl-groups-in-high-molar-activity
#4
Mohammad B Haskali, Victor W Pike
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is an immensely important imaging modality in biomedical research and drug development but must use selective radiotracers to achieve biochemical specificity. Such radiotracers are usually labeled with carbon-11 (t1/2 =20 min) or fluorine-18 (t1/2 =110 min), but these are only available from cyclotrons in a few simple chemical forms. [(18) F]Fluoroform has emerged for labeling tracers in trifluoromethyl groups but is severely limited in utility by low radioactivity per mass (low molar activity)...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510054/design-and-development-of-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-sensors-to-monitor-intracellular-chemical-and-physical-parameters
#5
REVIEW
Arno Germond, Hideaki Fujita, Taro Ichimura, Tomonobu M Watanabe
Over the past decades many researchers have made major contributions towards the development of genetically encoded (GE) fluorescent sensors derived from fluorescent proteins. GE sensors are now used to study biological phenomena by facilitating the measurement of biochemical behaviors at various scales, ranging from single molecules to single cells or even whole animals. Here, we review the historical development of GE fluorescent sensors and report on their current status. We specifically focus on the development strategies of the GE sensors used for measuring pH, ion concentrations (e...
June 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504658/cure-sma-and-our-patient-community-celebrate-the-first-approved-drug-for-sma
#6
REVIEW
J Glascock, M Lenz, K Hobby, J Jarecki
Cure SMA is dedicated to the treatment and cure of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the number one genetic cause of death for infants. We fund groundbreaking research and provide families the support they need for today. Today, we have more than 115 000 members and supporters, with 35 volunteer chapters throughout the United States. In the last year, Cure SMA provided direct services to several thousand families. Since 1984, we've led and invested in the research that has made today's breakthroughs possible. With deep connections and expertise in both the patient and research communities, we have been uniquely positioned to direct funds to where they can make the greatest difference as quickly as possible...
May 15, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503545/relationship-of-allergy-with-asthma-there-are-more-than-the-allergy-eggs-in-the-asthma-basket
#7
REVIEW
George V Guibas, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Marina Tsoumani, Sophia Tsabouri
Asthma and allergy share a similar and very close course, especially through childhood. Considerable research effort has been put in untangling these associations; however, it is now becoming obvious that this is an exceedingly difficult task. In fact, each research breakthrough further perplexes this picture, as we are steadily moving toward the era of personalized medicine and we begin to appreciate that what we thought to be a single disease, asthma, is in fact an accumulation of distinct entities. In the context of this "syndrome," which is characterized by several, as of yet poorly defined endotypes and phenotypes, the question of the link of "asthma" with allergy probably becomes non-relevant...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502706/reprogramming-of-central-carbon-metabolism-in-cancer-stem-cells
#8
REVIEW
Tin Lok Wong, Noélia Che, Stephanie Ma
Cancer metabolism has been studied for years and adopted in the clinic for monitoring disease progression and therapy response. Despite our growing knowledge of a distinctly altered metabolic behavior in cancer, drugs targeting cancer metabolism have remained less than promising. Recent efforts in cancer stem cell (CSC) biology suggest that a subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells within the tumor bulk represents the root of tumor recurrence and therapy resistance. In recent years, metabolic phenotype of CSCs of various tumor types has been identified...
May 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498119/modeling-of-chromium-vi-adsorption-from-aqueous-solutions-using-jordanian-zeolitic-tuff
#9
Reyad Al Dwairi
The probable use of Jordanian natural zeolitic tuff in wastewater treatment as natural adsorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solution in continuous fixed bed columns was tested experimentally and theoretically. The tested zeolitic tuff was obtained from Al Hala volcano (HZ) located in southern part of Jordan and subjected to crushing and sieving only without any further treatment. Experimentally the HZ grains were packed in a fixed bed column. The used grain sizes are HZ1 (1.0-0.60 mm) and HZ2 (0...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497639/functionalization-of-p4-through-direct-p-c-bond-formation
#10
Jaap Borger, Andreas W Ehlers, J C Slootweg, Koop Lammertsma
Research on chlorine-free conversions of P4 into organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) has a long track record, but methods that allow desirable, direct P-C bond formations have only recently emerged. These include the use of metal organyls, carbenes, carboradicals and photochemical approaches. The versatile product scope enables the preparation of both industrially relevant organophosphorus compounds, as well as a broad range of intriguing new compound classes. Herein we provide a concise overview of recent breakthroughs and outline the acquired fundamental insights to aid future developments...
May 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497296/preferential-flow-characteristics-of-reclaimed-mine-soils-in-a-surface-coal-mine-dump
#11
Lv Gang, Li Jun, Li Yexin, Wang Ting, Liu Yazhuo, Fu Xinyang
There are a large number of macropores/tubular channels of a few centimeters and plant roots in reclaimed dump soils, which are the main reasons for the formation of soil macropores and soil preferential flow. To systematically study the morphological characteristics and variation of soil preferential flow for different reclaimed vegetations in a dump, a dye-staining experiment and physical and chemical analysis were carried out to investigate the formation mechanism and influencing factors of soil preferential flow in the vegetation restoration process...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493171/immunotherapy-in-urothelial-cancer-recent-results-and-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Matthew S Farina, Kevin T Lundgren, Joaquim Bellmunt
Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the only systemic treatment of locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma for decades. Long-term survival remains stagnant around 12-14 months for patients with advanced disease who have progressed on or recurred after receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Improving clinical outcomes for patients with urothelial carcinoma in all disease settings requires the development of novel treatments, especially for patients who failed on first-line chemotherapy. Since the discovery of intravesical Bacillus-Calmette Guerin (BCG) in the 1970s for non-muscle invasive disease, there have not been any major breakthrough drugs that exploit the immune-sensitivity of bladder cancer until recently...
May 11, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487653/chinese-herbal-medicines-attenuate-acute-pancreatitis-pharmacological-activities-and-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Hong Xiang, Qingkai Zhang, Bing Qi, Xufeng Tao, Shilin Xia, Huiyi Song, Jialin Qu, Dong Shang
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a commonly occurring gastrointestinal disorder. An increase in the annual incidence of AP has been observed, and it causes acute hospitalization and high mortality. The diagnosis and treatment guidelines for AP recommend conservative medical treatments focused on reducing pancreatic secretion and secondary injury, as a primary therapeutic approach. Unfortunately, the existing treatment options have limited impact on the incidence and severity of AP due to the complex and multifaceted pathological process of this disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487103/the-high-risk-polytrauma-patient-and-inferior-vena-cava-filter-use
#14
Onur Berber, Aswin Vasireddy, Obi Nzeako, Adel Tavakkolizadeh
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact on practice of vena cava filter insertion guidelines (Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma: practice management guidelines). DESIGN: The study was performed at a level 1 trauma centre with data from the 'Trauma Audit and Research Network' cross-referenced to hospital data. RESULTS: A total of 1138 specific 'high-risk' major trauma patients were identified over a 6-year period...
April 20, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485771/stora-framsteg-f%C3%A3-r-systemisk-behandling-vid-malignt-melanom
#15
Gustav Ullenhag, Johan Hansson, Lars Ny
Great advances in the systemic treatment in malignant melanoma patients Up until a few years ago there was no systemic treatment with the capacity to  prolong overall survival for patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Several new treatments have been established in clinical practice in recent years and they belong to two main groups; checkpoint inhibitors and inhibitors of an intracellular pathway (MAP kinase). The latter drugs are only active in melanomas with an activating BRAF mutation, which is present in half of the patients...
May 9, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485209/pleiotropic-functions-of-the-yeast-greatwall-family-protein-kinase-rim15p-a-novel-target-for-the-control-of-alcoholic-fermentation
#16
Daisuke Watanabe, Hiroshi Takagi
Rim15p, a Greatwall-family protein kinase in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for cellular nutrient responses, such as the entry into quiescence and the induction of meiosis and sporulation. In higher eukaryotes, the orthologous gene products are commonly involved in the cell cycle G2/M transition. How are these pleiotropic functions generated from a single family of protein kinases? Recent advances in both research fields have identified the conserved Greatwall-mediated signaling pathway and a variety of downstream target molecules...
June 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482670/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-lung-cancer-current-status-and-future-directions
#17
Yun Fan, Weimin Mao
Recently, the immune checkpoint inhibitors that target programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have made a breakthrough in treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with the efficacy of approximately 20%; among which, nivolumab has acquired treatment indications in lung squamous cell carcinoma. The inhibitors targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) are also undergoing clinical trials. Researches on immune checkpoint inhibitors have been rapidly implemented in a variety of different types of lung cancer, such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and locally advanced NSCLC, and these inhibitors began to be applied in combination with some established treatments, including chemotherapy, targeting therapy and radiotherapy...
April 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482279/improving-certainty-in-single-molecule-imaging
#18
REVIEW
John Sh Danial, Ana J García-Sáez
The spatiotemporal organization of biological entities and the complex network of interactions they sponsor has proven challenging to visualize. Modern biophysics has brought a wealth of techniques for probing cellular structure and dynamics of which fluorescence-based single molecule detection has emerged as a powerful tool. In this review, we summarize notable breakthroughs in biological research based on single molecule imaging, identify prevailing shortcomings in single molecule detection and present current opinion on ameliorating some of its limitations for wider applicability...
May 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475698/the-growing-need-for-validated-biomarkers-and-endpoints-for-dry-eye-clinical-research
#19
Neeta S Roy, Yi Wei, Eric Kuklinski, Penny A Asbell
Purpose: Biomarkers with minimally invasive and reproducible objective metrics provide the key to future paradigm shifts in understanding of the underlying causes of dry eye disease (DED) and approaches to treatment of DED. We review biomarkers and their validity in providing objective metrics for DED clinical research and patient care. Methods: The English-language literature in PubMed primarily over the last decade was surveyed for studies related to identification of biomarkers of DED: (1) inflammation, (2) point-of-care, (3) ocular imaging, and (4) genetics...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474173/-genetics-of-bipolar-disorder
#20
REVIEW
M Budde, A J Forstner, K Adorjan, S K Schaupp, M M Nöthen, T G Schulze
Bipolar disorder (BD) has a multifactorial etiology. Its development is influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in which genetic risk allelic variants for the disorder could be replicated for the first time, marked the breakthrough in the identification of the responsible risk genes. In addition to these common genetic variants with moderate effects identified by GWAS, rare variants with a higher penetrance are expected to play a role in disease development...
May 4, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
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