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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632083/patient-reported-outcome-measure-of-spiritual-care-as-delivered-by-chaplains
#1
Austyn Snowden, Iain Telfer
Chaplains are employed by health organizations around the world to support patients in recognizing and addressing their spiritual needs. There is currently no generalizable measure of the impact of these interventions and so the clinical and strategic worth of chaplaincy is difficult to articulate. This article introduces the Scottish PROM, an original five-item patient reported outcome measure constructed specifically to address this gap. It describes the validation process from its conceptual grounding in the spiritual care literature through face and content validity cycles...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627779/new-horizon-for-breast-cancer-biomarker-discoveries-what-might-the-liquid-biopsy-of-nipple-aspirate-fluid-hold
#2
Ferdinando Mannello
The existence of cellular, molecular and biochemical heterogeneity of human breast cancers reveals the intricacy of biomarkers complexity, stimulating studies on new approaches (like "liquid biopsies") for the improvements in precision medicine. Breast cancer is recognized as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with tumors significantly diverse and containing many types of cells showing different genetic and epigenetic profiles. In this field, the technology of Liquid Biopsy (applied to a fluid produced by breast gland, named nipple aspirate fluids, NAF) highlights the power of combining basic and clinical research...
June 19, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625251/-a-novel-protein-peptide-associated-with-ischemic-heart-disease-dermcidin
#3
Hu Xia, Kai Feng
Dermcidin (DCD) was found in isolated human skin sweat glands with antimicrobial effect, and was defined as a kind of new small molecule antimicrobial peptide. It was a part of human sweat glands in the skin as the immune system's innate defense. With the studies of DCD, its extensive biological functions are gradually discovered. Since 2010, a number of studies have shown that DCD may be a new risk factor for atherosclerosis. And the role of DCD in ischemic heart disease has drawn increasing attention in particular its relationship with insulin secretion and glycemic control, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and hypertension, platelet aggregation and acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621420/the-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-basic-developmental-biology-research-to-translational-approaches
#4
Benjamin Amram, Yamit Cohen-Tayar, Ahuvit David, Ruth Ashery-Padan
The development of the eye has been a topic of extensive investigation, from the early studies on tissue induction to more recent breakthroughs in resolving the mechanism regulating progenitor patterning and their gradual and coordinated differentiation into diverse tissue types that function together throughout life. Among the ocular tissue types, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is at the forefront of developmental biology and stem cell research. The growing interest in this lineage stems from its importance for photoreceptor function as well as from its requirement during embryogenesis for the development of the photoreceptors and the choroid...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615732/managing-rheumatic-and-musculoskeletal-diseases-past-present-and-future
#5
REVIEW
Gerd R Burmester, Johannes W J Bijlsma, Maurizio Cutolo, Iain B McInnes
Progress in rheumatology has been remarkable in the past 70 years, favourably affecting quality of life for people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. Therapeutics have advanced considerably in this period, from early developments such as the introduction of glucocorticoid therapy to the general use of methotrexate and other disease-modifying agents, followed by the advent of biologic DMARDs and, most recently, small-molecule signalling inhibitors. Novel strategies for the use of such agents have also transformed outcomes, as have multidisciplinary nonpharmacological approaches to the management of rheumatic musculoskeletal disease including surgery, physical therapy and occupational therapy...
June 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600775/diagnostic-bacteriology-raman-spectroscopy
#6
Rebecca L Pavlicek, Nicole J Crane, Meron Ghebremedhin, Katherine E Cilwa, Eric A Elster
Current clinical methodology for identification of bacterial infections relies predominantly on culturing microbes from patient material and performing biochemical tests. This can often be an inefficient and lengthy process, which has a significant detrimental effect upon patient care. Techniques used in other aspects of molecular research have the potential to revolutionize the way in which diagnostic tests are used and delivered in the clinical setting. The need for rapid, accurate, and cost-effective molecular techniques in the diagnostic laboratory is imperative to improving patient care, preventing the spread of drug resistance and decreasing the overall burden associated with nosocomial infections...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599011/medicine-performing-arts-and-science-dancing-to-the-same-tune
#7
EDITORIAL
Bronwen J Ackermann
A substantial period of time has been spent developing rigorous quantitative scientific approaches to inform medical practice (evidence-based practice). While this process has been important for many medical breakthroughs, and continues to play a critical role in medical and scientific research, it was felt to cause a medical shift away from the individual patient, as practitioners focussed more on the method of practice than the person themselves. However, following this period when a preponderance of attention was paid to quantitative studies, the tide has now turned back to integrating this knowledge with the clinical skills and expertise of medical practitioners...
June 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597499/lupus-in-the-far-east-a-modern-epidemic
#8
REVIEW
Philip H Li, Chak-Sing Lau
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a diverse and heterogeneous disease with much variation between different ethnicities. Although more severe and prevalent in non-Caucasian populations, the bulk of evidence regarding 'Asian lupus' had traditionally been extrapolated from studies on patient minorities in the West. Lupus research in Asia has since grown exponentially and now takes a leading role in improving the care for SLE patients worldwide. With recent advances, particularly from studies in population-specific phenotyping, genome-wide association studies, lupus nephritis and innovative treatment modalities, we now have an expanding understanding of both the basic science and clinical management of SLE...
May 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596936/new-bioengineering-breakthroughs-and-enabling-tools-in-regenerative-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Alvaro Mata, Helena S Azevedo, Lorenzo Botto, Nuria Gavara, Lei Su
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we provide a general overview of recent bioengineering breakthroughs and enabling tools that are transforming the field of regenerative medicine (RM). We focus on five key areas that are evolving and increasingly interacting including mechanobiology, biomaterials and scaffolds, intracellular delivery strategies, imaging techniques, and computational and mathematical modeling. RECENT FINDINGS: Mechanobiology plays an increasingly important role in tissue regeneration and design of therapies...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592171/next-generation-human-skin-constructs-as-advanced-tools-for-drug-development
#10
H E Abaci, Zongyou Guo, Yanne Doucet, Joanna Jacków, Angela Christiano
Many diseases, as well as side effects of drugs, manifest themselves through skin symptoms. Skin is a complex tissue that hosts various specialized cell types and performs many roles including physical barrier, immune and sensory functions. Therefore, modeling skin in vitro presents technical challenges for tissue engineering. Since the first attempts at engineering human epidermis in 1970s, there has been a growing interest in generating full-thickness skin constructs mimicking physiological functions by incorporating various skin components, such as vasculature and melanocytes for pigmentation...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591112/the-promise-of-organ-and-tissue-preservation-to-transform-medicine
#11
Sebastian Giwa, Jedediah K Lewis, Luis Alvarez, Robert Langer, Alvin E Roth, George M Church, James F Markmann, David H Sachs, Anil Chandraker, Jason A Wertheim, Martine Rothblatt, Edward S Boyden, Elling Eidbo, W P Andrew Lee, Bohdan Pomahac, Gerald Brandacher, David M Weinstock, Gloria Elliott, David Nelson, Jason P Acker, Korkut Uygun, Boris Schmalz, Brad P Weegman, Alessandro Tocchio, Greg M Fahy, Kenneth B Storey, Boris Rubinsky, John Bischof, Janet A W Elliott, Teresa K Woodruff, G John Morris, Utkan Demirci, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Erik J Woods, Robert N Ben, John G Baust, Dayong Gao, Barry Fuller, Yoed Rabin, David C Kravitz, Michael J Taylor, Mehmet Toner
The ability to replace organs and tissues on demand could save or improve millions of lives each year globally and create public health benefits on par with curing cancer. Unmet needs for organ and tissue preservation place enormous logistical limitations on transplantation, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and a variety of rapidly advancing areas spanning biomedicine. A growing coalition of researchers, clinicians, advocacy organizations, academic institutions, and other stakeholders has assembled to address the unmet need for preservation advances, outlining remaining challenges and identifying areas of underinvestment and untapped opportunities...
June 7, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589925/mesenchymal-stem-cells-support-growth-and-organization-of-host-liver-colorectal-tumor-organoids-and-possibly-resistance-to-chemotherapy
#12
Mahesh Devarasetty, Edina Wang, Shay Soker, Aleksander Skardal
Despite having yielded extensive breakthroughs in cancer research, traditional 2D cell cultures have limitations in studying cancer progression and metastasis and screening therapeutic candidates. 3D systems can allow cells to grow, migrate, and interact with each other and the surrounding matrix, resulting in more realistic constructs. Furthermore, interactions between host tissue and developing tumors influence the susceptibility of tumors to drug treatments. Host-liver colorectal-tumor spheroids composed of primary human hepatocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were created in simulated microgravity rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors...
June 7, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585444/artificial-cultivation-of-true-morels-current-state-issues-and-perspectives
#13
Qizheng Liu, Husheng Ma, Ya Zhang, Caihong Dong
Morels (Morchella, Ascomycota), which are some of the most highly prized edible and medicinal mushrooms, are of great economic and scientific value. Morel cultivation has been a research focus worldwide for more than 100 years, and the outdoor cultivation of morels has succeeded and expanded to a large scale in China in recent years. In this study, we review the progress in recent research regarding the life cycle and reproductive systems in the genus Morchella and the current state of outdoor cultivation...
June 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583367/application-of-modelling-and-nanotechnology-based-approaches-the-emergence-of-breakthroughs-in-theranostics-of-central-nervous-system-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Parichehr Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Atyabi, Rassoul Dinarvand
The limited efficiency of the current treatment options against the central nervous system (CNS) disorders has created increasing demands towards the development of novel theranostic strategies. The enormous research efforts in nanotechnology have led to the production of highly-advanced nanodevices and biomaterials in a variety of geometries and configurations for targeted delivery of genes, drugs, or growth factors across the blood-brain barrier. Meanwhile, the richness or reliability of data, drug delivery methods, therapeutic effects or potential toxicity of nanoparticles, occurrence of the unexpected phenomena due to the polydisperse or polymorphic nature of nanomaterials, and personalized theranostics have remained as challenging issues...
June 2, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578785/alzheimer-disease-scientific-breakthroughs-and-translational-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Richard J Caselli, Thomas G Beach, David S Knopman, Neill R Graff-Radford
Alzheimer disease (AD) was originally conceived as a rare disease that caused presenile dementia but has come to be understood as the most prevalent cause of dementia at any age worldwide. It has an extended preclinical phase characterized by sequential changes in imaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers with subtle memory decline beginning more than a decade before the emergence of symptomatic memory loss heralding the beginning of the mild cognitive impairment stage. The apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is a prevalent and potent risk factor for AD that has facilitated research into its preclinical phase...
June 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573274/laser-post-ionisation-combined-with-a-high-resolving-power-orbitrap-mass-spectrometer-for-enhanced-maldi-ms-imaging-of-lipids
#16
S R Ellis, J Soltwisch, M R L Paine, K Dreisewerd, R M A Heeren
Coupling laser post-ionisation with a high resolving power MALDI Orbitrap mass spectrometer has realised an up to ∼100-fold increase in the sensitivity and enhanced the chemical coverage for MALDI-MS imaging of lipids relative to conventional MALDI. This could constitute a major breakthrough for biomedical research.
June 2, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571720/astrocytes-in-memory-function-pioneering-findings-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Adar Adamsky, Inbal Goshen
Astrocytes have been generally believed to perform mainly homeostatic and supportive functions for neurons in the central nervous system. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests previously unrecognized and surprising functions for astrocytes, including regulation of synaptic formation, transmission and plasticity, all of which are considered as the infrastructure for information processing and memory formation and stabilization. This review discusses the involvement of astrocytes in memory functions and the possible mechanisms that may underlie it...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558287/fib-based-fabrication-of-an-operative-pt-hfo2-tin-device-for-resistive-switching-inside-a-transmission-electron-microscope
#18
A Zintler, U Kunz, Y Pivak, S U Sharath, S Vogel, E Hildebrandt, H-J Kleebe, L Alff, L Molina-Luna
Recent advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based chips for in situ transmission electron microscopy are opening exciting new avenues in nanoscale research. The capability to perform current-voltage measurements while simultaneously analyzing the corresponding structural, chemical or even electronic structure changes during device operation would be a major breakthrough in the field of nanoelectronics. In this work we demonstrate for the first time how to electrically contact and operate a lamella cut from a resistive random access memory (RRAM) device based on a Pt/HfO2/TiN metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure...
April 21, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540598/parp-inhibitors-in-prostate-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Praveen Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Matthew J Schiewer, Karen E Knudsen, Wm Kevin Kelly
The genomic landscape of metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) reveals that up to 90% of patients harbor actionable mutations and >20% have somatic DNA repair gene defects (DRD). This provides the therapeutic rationale of PARP inhibition (PARPi) to achieve "synthetic lethality" in treating this fatal disease. Clinical trials with PARP inhibitors have shown significant response rates up to 88% for PCa patients having DRD like BRCA1/2 or ATM mutations. The FDA has awarded "breakthrough designation" to develop the PARPi olaparib in treating this subset of metastatic PCa patients...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534003/new-pharmacological-approaches-to-treating-non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Michael A Kelberman, Elena M Vazey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) are better predictors of quality of life changes, caregiver burden, and mortality than motor symptoms. Levodopa has limited, and sometimes detrimental, effects on these symptoms. In this review we discuss recent evidence on pharmacological treatments for non-motor symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Breakthroughs have been made in the treatment of psychosis and sleep dysfunction. Pimavanserin has become the first FDA approved drug for PD psychosis...
December 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
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