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cardiovascular risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340221/nationwide-multicentre-kidney-biopsy-study-of-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Kengo Furuichi, Yukio Yuzawa, Miho Shimizu, Akinori Hara, Tadashi Toyama, Hiroshi Kitamura, Yoshiki Suzuki, Hiroshi Sato, Noriko Uesugi, Yoshifumi Ubara, Satoshi Hisano, Yoshihiko Ueda, Shinichi Nishi, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Tomoya Nishino, Kentaro Kohagura, Daisuke Ogawa, Koki Mise, Yugo Shibagaki, Kenjiro Kimura, Masakazu Haneda, Hirofumi Makino, Seiichi Matsuo, Takashi Wada
Background.: The clinical and pathologic manifestations of nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes are diverse, but large-scale pathologic studies with long-term observations are limited. Methods.: Kidney biopsies and clinical data of 600 patients with type 2 diabetes were collected retrospectively from 13 centres across Japan. Thirteen pathologic findings (nine glomerular lesions, two interstitial lesions and two vascular lesions) were clearly defined and scored. Results...
March 2, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339992/rheumatoid-arthritis-specific-cardiovascular-risk-scores-are-not-superior-to-general-risk-scores-a-validation-analysis-of-patients-from-seven-countries
#2
Cynthia S Crowson, Sherine E Gabriel, Anne Grete Semb, Piet L C M van Riel, George Karpouzas, Patrick H Dessein, Carol Hitchon, Virginia Pascual-Ramos, George D Kitas
Objectives.: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators developed for the general population do not accurately predict CVD events in patients with RA. We sought to externally validate risk calculators recommended for use in patients with RA including the EULAR 1.5 multiplier, the Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score for RA (ERS-RA) and QRISK2. Methods.: Seven RA cohorts from UK, Norway, Netherlands, USA, South Africa, Canada and Mexico were combined...
March 8, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339013/immunological-effects-of-occupational-exposure-to-lead-review
#3
Concettina Fenga, Silvia Gangemi, Valentina Di Salvatore, Luca Falzone, Massimo Libra
It is well-known that occupational and environmental exposure to several factors, including benzene, heavy metals, chemicals and mineral fibers, is associated with the risk of developing a great number of diseases. Numerous studies have been carried out in order to investigate the mechanisms of toxicity of these substances, with particular regard to the possible toxic effects on the immune system. However, little is known about the influence of heavy metals, such as lead, on the immune system in human populations...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338875/does-baseline-hypotension-predict-incident-depression-in-a-cohort-of-community-dwelling-older-people-data-from-the-irish-longitudinal-study-on-ageing-tilda
#4
Robert Briggs, Rose Anne Kenny, Sean P Kennelly
Background: hypotension is now recognised as a risk factor for syncope, cardiovascular events and mortality, but it may also represent a risk factor for late life depression (LLD). The aim of this study was to clarify the longitudinal relationship between hypotension and incident LLD. Methods: this is a longitudinal study involving community-dwelling participants aged ≥50 years, using data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was administered at baseline and at follow-up 2 years later...
March 10, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338862/family-aggregation-of-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-a-register-based-prospective-study-of-pooled-nordic-twin-cohorts
#5
Karri Silventoinen, Jacob Hjelmborg, Sören Möller, Samuli Ripatti, Axel Skythe, Emmi Tikkanen, Nancy L Pedersen, Patrik Ke Magnusson, Kaare Christensen, Jaakko Kaprio
Background: Familial factors play an important role in the variation of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but less is known about how they affect the risk of death from CVD. We estimated familial aggregation of CVD mortality for twins offering the maximum level of risk due to genetic and other familial factors. Methods: Altogether, 132 771 twin individuals, including 65 196 complete pairs from Denmark, Finland and Sweden born in 1958 or earlier, participated in this study...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338810/associations-of-proatrial-natriuretic-peptide-with-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-from-the-general-population
#6
Tina S Goharian, Jens P Goetze, Jens Faber, Lars B Andersen, Anders Grøntved, Jørgen L Jeppesen
BACKGROUND: In middle-aged and elderly populations, circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations are negatively associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome. Whether these negative associations are also present in healthy adolescents and young adults from the general population are unknown. METHODS: In a cross-sectional setting, we measured plasma concentrations of mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) in 343 adolescents (age 14-16 years) and 616 young adults (age 20-28 years) from the Danish site of the European Youth Heart Study, which is a population-based study of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children, adolescents and young adults...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338639/beyond-the-cholesterol-lowering-effect-of-soy-protein-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-soy-and-its-constituents-on-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
D Dan Ramdath, Emily M T Padhi, Sidra Sarfaraz, Simone Renwick, Alison M Duncan
The hypocholesterolemic effect of soy is well-documented and this has led to the regulatory approval of a health claim relating soy protein to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, soybeans contain additional components, such as isoflavones, lecithins, saponins and fiber that may improve cardiovascular health through independent mechanisms. This review summarizes the evidence on the cardiovascular benefits of non-protein soy components in relation to known CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, inflammation, and obesity beyond cholesterol lowering...
March 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338608/impact-of-high-carbohydrate-diet-on-metabolic-parameters-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Chan-Hee Jung, Kyung Mook Choi
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whether dietary carbohydrates have beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiometabolic risk factors has drawn attention. Although a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet have gained popularity for several decades, there is scarce review focusing on the effects of HC diet on glucose, lipids and body weight in patients with T2DM. In this review, we examined recently-published literature on the effects of HC diets on metabolic parameters in T2DM...
March 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338522/developments-in-intestinal-cholesterol-transport-and-triglyceride-absorption
#9
Yared Paalvast, Jan Freark de Boer, Albert K Groen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent advances in research focused on intestinal lipid handling. RECENT FINDINGS: An important strategy in reducing atherosclerosis and risk of cardiovascular events is to increase the rate of reverse cholesterol transport, including its final step; cholesterol excretion from the body. The rate of removal is determined by a complex interplay between the factors involved in regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption. One of these factors is a process known as transintestinal cholesterol excretion...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338521/ethnicity-lipids-and-cardiovascular-disease
#10
Katia Gazzola, Rens Reeskamp, Bert-Jan van den Born
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease differs among ethnic groups and along geographic boundaries. At present, most of the projected increase in mortality from cardiovascular disease occurs in sub-Saharan African, Chinese and Southeast Asian populations. Ethnic disparities in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease coincide with quantitative and qualitative differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. High plasma cholesterol is one of the most important preventable causes of ischemic heart disease...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338187/the-predictive-value-of-baseline-ldl-tg-level-on-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-in-a-followed-up-cohort-population
#11
X-H Ding, P Ye, X-N Wang, R-H Cao, X Yang, W-K Xiao, Y Zhang, Y-Y Bai, H-M Wu
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at identifying the predictive roles of Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglycerides (LDL-TG) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study in a routine health check-up population was performed with an average follow-up of 4.8 years. The participants involved in this study were 1680, from 2007 to 2009, and all had followed-up for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and the development of MACEs...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337464/obesity-age-ethnicity-and-clinical-features-of-prostate-cancer-patients
#12
Victor J Wu, Darren Pang, Wendell W Tang, Xin Zhang, Li Li, Zongbing You
Approximately 36.5% of the U.S. adults (≥ 20 years old) are obese. Obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and several types of cancer. The present study included 1788 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy at the Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana, from January, 2001 to March, 2016. The patient's medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Body mass index (BMI), age, ethnicity (Caucasians versus African Americans), clinical stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were retrieved...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337347/myocardial-infarction-after-endoscopic-removal-of-foreign-body
#13
Carola Maraboto, Florentino Lupercio, Ileana L Piña
The development of cardiac complications during or after endoscopic procedures is rare. However, mortality from myocardial ischemia, particularly in the elderly population, is elevated. We illustrate the rare case of a 79-year-old man with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who developed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) after endoscopic removal of a foreign body. This case report summarizes a rare complication of a low-risk procedure and highlights the importance of considering this potential adverse event, particularly in patients with significant cardiovascular risk factors, to promote early diagnosis and proper treatment...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336747/cross-sectional-associations-between-dietary-intake-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-type-2-diabetes-baseline-data-from-a-randomised-trial
#14
Laura Chiavaroli, Arash Mirrahimi, Christopher Ireland, Sandra Mitchell, Sandhya Sahye-Pudaruth, Judy Coveney, Omodele Olowoyeye, Darshna Patel, Russell J de Souza, Livia S A Augustin, Balachandran Bashyam, Sathish Chandra Pichika, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Stephanie K Nishi, Lawrence A Leiter, Robert G Josse, Gail E McKeown-Eyssen, Alan R Moody, Cyril W C Kendall, John L Sievenpiper, David J A Jenkins
OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) by carotid ultrasound (CUS), a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, in those with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 325 participants from three randomised controlled trials collected in the same way. SETTING: Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 325 participants with type 2 diabetes, taking oral antidiabetic agents, with an HbA1c between 6...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336560/lipoprotein-a-and-hiv-allele-specific-apolipoprotein-a-levels-predict-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-hiv-infected-young-women-in-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#15
Enkhmaa Byambaa, Anuurad Erdembileg, Wei Zhang, Chin-Shang Li, Robert Kaplan, Jason Lazar, Dan Merenstein, Roksana Karim, Brad Aouizerat, Mardge Cohen, Kenneth Butler, Savita Pahwa, Igho Ofotokun, Adaora A Adimora, Elizabeth Golub, Lars Berglund
OBJECTIVE: In the general population, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been established as an independent causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) levels are to a major extent regulated by a size polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] gene. The roles of Lp(a)/apo(a) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related elevated cardiovascular disease risk remain unclear. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The associations between total plasma Lp(a) level, allele-specific apo(a) level, an Lp(a) level carried by individual apo(a) alleles, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were assessed in 150 HIV-infected and 100 HIV-uninfected women in the WIHS (Women's Interagency HIV Study)...
March 23, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336397/soluble-endoglin-modulates-the-pro-inflammatory-mediators-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-il-6-in-cultured-human-endothelial-cells
#16
Michala Varejckova, Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Matej Vicen, Barbora Vitverova, Petra Fikrova, Eva Dolezelova, Jana Rathouska, Alena Prasnicka, Katerina Blazickova, Stanislav Micuda, Carmelo Bernabeu, Ivana Nemeckova, Petr Nachtigal
AIMS: Endoglin is a transmembrane glycoprotein, that plays an important role in regulating endothelium. Proteolytic cleavage of membrane endoglin releases soluble endoglin (sEng), whose increased plasma levels have been detected in diseases related to the cardiovascular system. It was proposed that sEng might damage vascular endothelium, but detailed information about the potential mechanisms involved is not available. Thus, we hypothesized that sEng contributes to endothelial dysfunction, leading to a pro-inflammatory phenotype by a possible modulation of the TGF-β and/or inflammatory pathways...
March 20, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336371/novel-adaptive-and-innate-immunity-targets-in-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Justine M Abais-Battad, John Henry Dasinger, Daniel J Fehrenbach, David L Mattson
Hypertension is a worldwide epidemic and global health concern as it is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. A relationship between the immune system and its contributing role to the pathogenesis of hypertension has been long established, but substantial advancements within the last few years have dissected specific causal molecular mechanisms. This review will briefly examine these recent studies exploring the involvement of either innate or adaptive immunity pathways. Such pathways to be discussed include innate immunity factors such as antigen presenting cells and pattern recognition receptors, adaptive immune elements including T and B lymphocytes, and more specifically, the emerging role of T regulatory cells, as well as the potential of cytokines and chemokines to serve as signaling messengers connecting innate and adaptive immunity...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336370/purinergic-p2y6-receptors-a-new-therapeutic-target-of-age-dependent-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Caroline Sunggip, Akiyuki Nishimura, Kakeru Shimoda, Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Makoto Tsuda, Motohiro Nishida
Aging has a remarkable effect on cardiovascular homeostasis and it is known as the major non-modifiable risk factor in the development of hypertension. Medications targeting sympathetic nerve system and/or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are widely accepted as a powerful therapeutic strategy to improve hypertension, although the control rates remain unsatisfactory especially in the elder patients with hypertension. Purinergic receptors, activated by adenine, uridine nucleotides and nucleotide sugars, play pivotal roles in many biological processes, including platelet aggregation, neurotransmission and hormone release, and regulation of cardiovascular contractility...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336350/smoking-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-occurrence-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-men-versus-women-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#19
Qing Wang, Yibin Guo, Cheng Wu, Liang Yin, Wei Li, Hua Shen, Wang Xi, Tianyi Zhang, Jia He, Zhinong Wang
BACKGROUND: Although smoking is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases, the number of large-scale cohort studies on the association between smoking and atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited and the results obtained are also inconsistent, and even fewer studies have addressed the difference between the male and female genders. The present study was intended to clarify and quantify the association between smoking and the risk of AF in men versus women. METHODS: Using AF- and smoking-related keywords, a comprehensive literature search on PubMed, EMbase and Web of Science was conducted with a time limit until December 2016, which was followed by manual screening, quality assessment and data extraction...
March 6, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335844/heart-failure-induced-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Ofer Havakuk, Kevin S King, Luanda Grazette, Andrew J Yoon, Michael Fong, Noa Bregman, Uri Elkayam, Robert A Kloner
Heart failure (HF) is a systemic illness with grave implications for bodily functions. The brain, among other vital organs, often suffers insults as a result of HF, and both anatomic and functional brain abnormalities were found in the HF population. This injury was demonstrated across a wide range of clinical conditions and cardiac functions and was shown to affect patients' outcomes. Although reduced cardiac output and high burden of cardiovascular risk factors are the prevailing explanations for these findings, there are data showing the involvement of neurohormonal, nutritional, and inflammatory mechanisms in this complex process...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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