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Infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471465/effects-of-dietary-energy-level-and-intake-of-corn-by-product-based-diets-on-newly-received-growing-cattle-antibody-production-acute-phase-protein-response-stress-and-immunocompetency-of-healthy-and-morbid-animals
#1
T J Spore, S P Montgomery, E C Titgemeyer, G A Hanzlicek, C I Vahl, T G Nagaraja, K T Cavalli, W R Hollenbeck, R A Wahl, D A Blasi
Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462280/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-and-children-2017-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-and-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-shea
#2
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441245/case-of-enteric-fever-with-bicytopenia
#3
Madeeha Subhan, Waleed Sadiq
Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Typhoid has its own contribution to the disease burden, especially in Pakistan and other tropical countries. Herein, we present a case of enteric fever with a rare presentation. Our patient is a 20-year-old man who gradually developed high-grade fever lasting seven days associated with rigors and chills. No additional accompanying systemic signs helped to localize the infection. After extensive laboratory testing, his typhoid serology was positive along with leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia...
December 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440628/drug-reaction-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-dress-syndrome-secondary-to-furosemide-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Jared James, Yasser M Sammour, Andrew R Virata, Terri A Nordin, Igor Dumic
BACKGROUND DRESS is a rare, life threatening syndrome that occurs following exposure to certain medications, most commonly antibiotics and antiepileptics. While sulfonamide antibiotics are frequently implicated as causative agents for DRESS syndrome, furosemide, a nonantibiotic sulfonamide, has not been routinely reported as the causative agent despite its widespread use. CASE REPORT A 63 year old male who started furosemide for lower extremity edema 10 weeks prior presented with diarrhea, fever of 39.4°C, dry cough and maculopapular rash involving >50% of his body...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427406/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-transplant-recipients-during-the-first-year-post-transplant
#5
Luis Guzman, Fang Qiu, Andre C Kalil, David F Mercer, Alan Langnas, Diana F Florescu
BACKGROUND: C. difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhea. Risk factors for C. difficile infections (CDI) in intestinal transplant recipients (ITR) are not well defined. The aim of our study was to assess specific risk factors for CDI in ITR. METHODS: This is a 1:3 case-control study that included 29 ITR who developed CDI (cases) and 87 ITR without CDI (controls) observed during the first year post transplantation. Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare variables...
February 10, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426709/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-undifferentiated-and-infectious-acute-diarrhea-in-the-adult-horse
#6
REVIEW
Sarah D Shaw, Henry Stämpfli
Acute, infectious, diarrhea in adult horses is a major cause of morbidity and is associated with numerous complications. Common causes include salmonellosis, clostridiosis, Coronavirus, and infection with Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac horse fever). Treatment is empirical and supportive until results of specific diagnostic tests are available. Supportive care is aimed at restoring hydration, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and limiting the systemic inflammatory response. The mainstays of therapy are intravenous fluid therapy, electrolyte supplementation where necessary, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and nutritional support...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426660/ped-subunit-vaccine-based-on-coe-domain-replacement-of-flagellin-domain-d3-improved-specific-humoral-and-mucosal-immunity-in-mice
#7
Qianniu Li, Ouyang Peng, Tingting Wu, Zhichao Xu, Licheng Huang, Yun Zhang, Chunyi Xue, Zhifen Wen, Qingfeng Zhou, Yongchang Cao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an important re-emergent infectious disease and inflicts huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. To meet the pressing need of developing a safe and cost-efficient PED maternal vaccine, we generated three PED subunit vaccine candidates, using recombined Salmonella flagellin (rSF) as a mucosal molecular adjuvant. Domain D3 in rSF was replaced with COE domain of PEDV to generate rSF-COE-3D. COE fused to the flanking C'/N' terminal of rSF yielded rSF-COE-C and rSF-COE-N...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426407/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-selected-respiratory-and-reproductive-tract-pathogen-exposure-in-european-bison-bison-bonasus-in-poland
#8
Michał K Krzysiak, Artur Jabłoński, Wojciech Iwaniak, Monika Krajewska, Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Magdalena Larska
After the complete extinction from the wild of European bison (Bison bonasus) at the beginning of the twentieth century, the worldwide species population was restored to approximately 5500 individuals, with the species however remaining endangered. Despite numerous studies on the ecology and genetics of European bison, the threats of infectious diseases have been largely unexamined. The aim of this study was to screen the exposure of the world's largest population of European bison to the pathogens, which may influence the condition and development of the endangered species...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424482/zinc-deficiency-like-syndrome-in-fleckvieh-calves-clinical-and-pathological-findings-and-differentiation-from-bovine-hereditary-zinc-deficiency
#9
M C Langenmayer, S Jung, M Majzoub-Altweck, F M Trefz, C Seifert, G Knubben-Schweizer, R Fries, W Hermanns, N S Gollnick
BACKGROUND: Zinc deficiency-like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417077/ciprofloxacin-use-in-hospitalized-children-approved-or-off-label
#10
Toktam Faghihi, Leila Yavari Tekmehdash, Mania Radfar, Kheirollah Gholami
Objective: Fluoroquinolones are not routinely used as the first-line antimicrobial therapy in pediatrics. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved fluoroquinolones on certain indications in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent and how ciprofloxacin is used on approved indication or as off-label. Besides, dose adequacy and treatment duration were assessed. Methods: In a 10-month observational study, all children receiving systemic ciprofloxacin were assessed...
October 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408016/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-patients-with-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Mehdi Goudarzi, Bahareh Hajikhani, Mona Ghazi, Hossein Goudarzi, Ramin Pouriran
Clostridium difficile is the main infectious cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C. difficile AAD in hospitalized patients. We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane library for subject headings and text words related to C. difficile AAD. Studies that investigated the prevalence or frequency of C. difficile AAD in health care settings were considered eligible. Using a random-effects model, data obtained from the identified studies were combined...
January 31, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404745/in-silico-analysis-of-the-ef-hand-proteins-in-the-genome-of-giardia-intestinalis-assembly-a
#12
Magda E Alvarado, Claudia Rubiano, Diana Velandia, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia intestinalis is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine of humans and other mammals, causing a disease that can manifest itself with acute diarrhea. This parasite is an early divergent eukaryote with a compact genome and a life cycle composed of two distinct cell types: the trophozoite, the replicative form, and the cyst, the infectious form. Signal transduction pathways implicated in differentiation processes of G. intestinalis are largely unknown. Calcium, considered an essential messenger in cell signaling, has been shown to regulate a myriad of key cell processes including metabolism, motility, and exocytosis, among other important functions, through calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs)...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403083/inflammatory-and-infectious-manifestations-of-immunodeficiency-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#13
REVIEW
Nicole C Panarelli, Rhonda K Yantiss
Immune compromise may result from genetic abnormalities, HIV/AIDS, or consequences of therapy for neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Many immunocompromised patients develop severe gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly diarrhea, accompanied by non-specific or mild endoscopic abnormalities; mucosal biopsy with pathologic interpretation has a major role in the diagnosis and management of these patients. Immunocompromised individuals are at risk for all the diseases that affect those with a healthy immune system, but they are also prone to other illnesses that rarely affect immunocompetent patients...
February 5, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399581/efficacy-of-inactivated-variant-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-vaccines-in-growing-pigs
#14
Seung Heon Lee, Dong-Kun Yang, Ha-Hyun Kim, In-Soo Cho
Purpose: The first aim of this study was to develop a novel inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) vaccine using the recently isolated Korean PEDV QIAP1401 strain and to evaluate its protective efficacy in growing pigs. The second was to determine the optimum adjuvant formulation of the inactivated PEDV vaccine that induces protection against viral challenge. Materials and Methods: To generate high titers of infectious PEDV, the QIAP1401 isolate was passaged in Vero cells...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396332/association-between-floods-and-infectious-diarrhea-and-their-effect-modifiers-in-hunan-province-china-a-two-stage-model
#15
Zhidong Liu, Feifei Zhang, Ying Zhang, Jing Li, Xuena Liu, Guoyong Ding, Caixia Zhang, Qiyong Liu, Baofa Jiang
BACKGROUND: Understanding the potential links between floods and infectious diarrhea is important under the context of climate change. However, little is known about the risk of infectious diarrhea after floods and what factors could modify these effects in China. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to quantitatively examine the relationship between floods and infectious diarrhea and their effect modifiers. METHODS: Weekly number of infectious diarrhea cases from 2004 to 2011 during flood season in Hunan province were supplied by the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System...
January 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395727/foal-diarrhea-established-and-postulated-causes-prevention-diagnostics-and-treatments
#16
REVIEW
Olimpo Oliver-Espinosa
Diarrhea is one of the most important diseases in young foals and may occur in more than half of foals until weaning age. Several infectious and noninfectious underlying causes have been implicated but scientific evidence of pathogenesis is evolving. It is important to investigate all known potential causes and identify infectious agents to avoid outbreaks, evaluate the level of systemic compromise, and establish adequate therapy. It is crucial to differentiate foals that can be managed in field conditions from those that should be sent to a referral center...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394943/efficacy-of-genogroup-1-based-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-live-vaccine-against-genogroup-2-field-strain-in-japan
#17
Tetsuo Sato, Kazuki Oroku, Yoshiyuki Ohshima, Yoshiaki Furuya, Chihiro Sasakawa
BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a lethal infectious disease in suckling piglets with symptoms including watery diarrhea caused by PED virus (PEDV). Since the late 1990's, live vaccines based on genogroup 1 virus have been used in Japan, and a significant amount of the vaccine has been used even after new genogroups invaded in 2013. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a conventional PED live vaccine on a newly prevalent genogroup 2 field strain in experimental and field situations...
February 2, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394385/use-of-a-multiplex-dna-extraction-pcr-in-the-identification-of-pathogens-in-travelers-diarrhea
#18
Bradley A Connor, Marina Rogova, Olga Whyte
Background: Diarrhea is one of the most common ailments afflicting travelers with attack rates of 30-40% for medium to high-risk destinations. As travelers' diarrhea (TD) is syndromic and caused by a wide range of pathogens, including bacteria, parasites and viruses, multiplex deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology can be useful for determining the etiology of TD pathogens. Objective: The goal of this retrospective study was to produce clinically relevant and useful data on gastrointestinal illness related to travel identified by culture-independent methods of diagnosis-use of the multiplex DNA extraction PCR platform (BioFire FilmArray GI Panel) and to describe the use of this technology in detection of enteric pathogens...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391682/seroprevalence-of-viral-and-bacterial-diseases-among-the-bovines-in-himachal-pradesh-india
#19
Shailja Katoch, Shweta Dohru, Mandeep Sharma, Vikram Vashist, Rajesh Chahota, Prasenjit Dhar, Aneesh Thakur, Subhash Verma
Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan...
December 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391001/detection-of-persistent-pestivirus-infection-in-pud%C3%A3%C2%BA-pudu-puda-in-a-captive-population-of-artiodactyls-in-chile
#20
Rodrigo Salgado, Ezequiel Hidalgo-Hermoso, José Pizarro-Lucero
BACKGROUND: Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is the viral agent causing the most important economic losses in livestock throughout the world. Infection of fetuses before their immunological maturity causes the birth of animals persistently infected with BVDV (PI), which are the main source of infection and maintenance of this pathogen in a herd. There is evidence of susceptibility to infection with BVDV in more than 50 species of the order Artiodactyla, and the ability to establish persistent infection in wild cervid species of South America could represent an important risk in control and eradication programs of BVDV in cattle, and a threat to conservation of these wild species...
February 1, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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