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Infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928081/multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-detection-of-gastrointestinal-pathogens-in-migrant-workers-in-qatar
#1
John M Humphrey, Sanjay Ranbhise, Emad Ibrahim, Hamad E Al-Romaihi, Elmoubasher Farag, Laith J Abu-Raddad, Marshall J Glesby
The causes of infectious diarrhea among the migrant worker population in Qatar are not well understood. We conducted a prospective observational study to understand the demographic and clinical characteristics and infectious causes of diarrhea among migrant workers in Doha, Qatar. A total of 126 male workers presenting to the Qatar Red Crescent Worker's Health Center outpatient clinic or emergency department were studied over a 5-month period in 2015-2016. Epidemiologic surveys were administered to all subjects and the prevalence of 22 different stool pathogens was determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (FilmArray(®) Gastrointestinal PCR)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921058/celiac-crisis-associated-with-herpes-simplex-virus-esophagitis
#2
Alan Chen, Christopher M Linz, Julie L Tsay, Ming Jin, Samer S El-Dika
Celiac crisis is a rare presentation of celiac disease that is characterized by life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and diarrhea. Triggers for celiac crisis include major surgeries, pancreatitis, and infections of cytomegalovirus, and salmonella. A 24-year-old woman presented with celiac crisis associated with severe herpes simplex virus (HSV) esophagitis. This case demonstrates that nutritional deficiencies seen in celiac disease can result in a relative immunodeficiency, which may lead to other infectious complications...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#3
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920755/finding-potential-therapeutic-targets-against-shigella-flexneri-through-proteome-exploration
#4
Mohammad Uzzal Hossain, Md Arif Khan, Abu Hashem, Md Monirul Islam, Mohammad Neaz Morshed, Chaman Ara Keya, Md Salimullah
Background:Shigella flexneri is a gram negative bacteria that causes the infectious disease "shigellosis." S. flexneri is responsible for developing diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps in human. Antibiotics are mostly given to patients infected with shigella. Resistance to antibiotics can hinder its treatment significantly. Upon identification of essential therapeutic targets, vaccine and drug could be effective therapy for the treatment of shigellosis. Methods: The study was designed for the identification and qualitative characterization for potential drug targets from S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920706/ipilimumab-induced-enteritis-without-colitis-a-new-challenge
#5
Marcus Messmer, Sunita Upreti, Yaman Tarabishy, Nikhilesh Mazumder, Reezwana Chowdhury, Mark Yarchoan, Matthias Holdhoff
INTRODUCTION: Ipilimumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), approved to treat metastatic melanoma. It was the first therapy shown to prolong survival in a large, randomized clinical trial. However, immune-related adverse events are common and can be severe. Enterocolitis is a common adverse event with ipilimumab, but enteritis without colitis has not been previously described. CASE REPORT: An 83-year-old man presented to our hospital with grade 3 diarrhea for 5 days...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907192/adaptive-test-schemes-for-control-of-paratuberculosis-in-dairy-cows
#6
Carsten Kirkeby, Kaare Græsbøll, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Lasse Engbo Christiansen, Nils Toft, Tariq Halasa
Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection that in dairy cattle causes reduced milk yield, weight loss, and ultimately fatal diarrhea. Subclinical animals can excrete bacteria (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, MAP) in feces and infect other animals. Farmers identify the infectious animals through a variety of test-strategies, but are challenged by the lack of perfect tests. Frequent testing increases the sensitivity but the costs of testing are a cause of concern for farmers. Here, we used a herd simulation model using milk ELISA tests to evaluate the epidemiological and economic consequences of continuously adapting the sampling interval in response to the estimated true prevalence in the herd...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889120/comparison-of-commercial-dna-extraction-kits-and-quantitative-pcr-systems-for-better-sensitivity-in-detecting-the-causative-agent-of-paratuberculosis-in-dairy-cow-fecal-samples
#7
D Fock-Chow-Tho, E Topp, E A Ibeagha-Awemu, N Bissonnette
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) worldwide. Oral-fecal contamination is the most important mode of transmission of paratuberculosis, so eradicating MAP-shedding animals could prevent disease propagation. Fecal culture, a well-known method for MAP diagnosis, requires costly specialized media and a long incubation time that sometimes ends in disappointing bacterial contamination. To facilitate the efforts of control programs, we evaluated the performance of direct fecal quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for their sensitivity and robustness for MAP detection...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888815/acute-diarrhoea-induced-by-rotavirus-in-children-hospitalysed-in-provincial-hospital-for-infectious-diseases-in-bydgoszcz-in-2014-year
#8
Beata Smok, Katarzyna Zieniewicz-Cieślik, Ewa Smukalska, Małgorzata Pawłowska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiology and course of rotavirus infection in children hospitalized at the T. Browicz Provincial Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Bydgoszcz, Poland in 2014 year. INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus infection is responsible for over 2 millions hospitalizations per year among children under 5 year old. Rotavirus gastroenterocolitis is one of the most common cause of severe dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and metabolic acidosis, leading to 400-600 thousand deaths per year in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886032/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-different-pathogens-of-acute-diarrhea-in-adults-in-beijing-china
#9
Lei Jia, Changying Lin, Zhiyong Gao, Mei Qu, Junyong Yang, Jingyi Sun, He Chen, Quanyi Wang
INTRODUCTION: Only a small proportion of patients with diarrhea are diagnosed with laboratory tests in China, and most are diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. Therefore, understanding the prevalence of different diarrheal pathogens and their specific symptoms is important. METHODOLOGY: Data from a prospective study in Beijing of acute diarrhea and the related pathogens were used to study the association between different pathogen groups and the infected patients' characteristics...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884652/clinical-and-molecular-epidemiologic-trends-reveal-the-important-role-of-rotavirus-in-adult-infectious-gastroenteritis-in-shanghai-china
#10
Yan Wang, Jinan Zhang, Pengbo Liu
As a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, the pathogenic role of rotavirus in adults has been underestimated for a long time. A hospital-based prospective clinical and molecular epidemiologic study of rotavirus infections in adults was performed between April 2014 and March 2015 in Shanghai, China. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 48 of 441 (10.9%) specimens with prevalence peaking in December (33.3%) and January (27.9%), whereas bacteria were identified in 45 of 846 (5.3%) samples (p<0.01). The rotavirus winter-spring seasonality (November-March) contrasts with the marked summer-fall seasonality (April-October) of bacterial pathogens (p<0...
November 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882866/the-performance-of-community-health-workers-in-the-management-of-multiple-childhood-infectious-diseases-in-lira-northern-uganda-a-mixed-methods-cross-sectional-study
#11
Phillip Wanduru, Moses Tetui, Doreen Tuhebwe, Michael Ediau, Monica Okuga, Christine Nalwadda, Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Peter Waiswa, Elizeus Rutebemberwa
BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to reduce child mortality by improving access to care, especially in remote areas. Uganda has one of the highest child mortality rates globally. Moreover, rural areas bear the highest proportion of this burden. The optimal performance of CHWs is critical. In this study, we assess the performance of CHWs in managing malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in the rural district of Lira, in northern Uganda. DESIGNS: A cross-sectional mixed methods study was undertaken to investigate the performance of 393 eligible CHWs in the Lira district of Uganda...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881814/chronic-norovirus-infections-in-cardiac-transplant-patients-considerations-for-evaluation-and-management
#12
Paul T Jurgens, Larry A Allen, Amrut V Ambardekar, Colleen K McIlvennan
Norovirus is a common self-limiting gastrointestinal infection, but in transplant recipients, symptoms can last for months and result in serious health complications. As there is currently no established treatment for chronic norovirus infection in transplant patients, management has been directed at symptom control, trial of various antivirals, and ultimately reductions in immunosuppression. We present 3 cases of chronic norovirus infection in cardiac transplant patients to illustrate various approaches to diagnosis, the prolonged nature of disease symptoms, and treatment options...
November 23, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879335/catabolite-and-oxygen-regulation-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-virulence
#13
Kimberly M Carlson-Banning, Vanessa Sperandio
: The biogeography of the gut is diverse in its longitudinal axis, as well as within specific microenvironments. Differential oxygenation and nutrient composition drive the membership of microbial communities in these habitats. Moreover, enteric pathogens can orchestrate further modifications to gain a competitive advantage toward host colonization. These pathogens are versatile and adept when exploiting the human colon. They expertly navigate complex environmental cues and interkingdom signaling to colonize and infect their hosts...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876571/fusobacterium-nucleatum-increases-proliferation-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-and-tumor-development-in-mice-by-activating-tlr4-signaling-to-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-upregulating-expression-of-microrna-21
#14
Yongzhi Yang, Wenhao Weng, Junjie Peng, Leiming Hong, Lei Yang, Yuji Toiyama, Renyuan Gao, Minfeng Liu, Mingming Yin, Cheng Pan, Hao Li, Bomin Guo, Qingchao Zhu, Qing Wei, Mary-Pat Moyer, Ping Wang, Sanjun Cai, Ajay Goel, Huanlong Qin, Yanlei Ma
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nearly 20% of the global cancer burden can be linked to infectious agents. Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes tumor formation by epithelial cells via unclear mechanisms. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by F nucleatum and evaluate their ability to promote colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. METHODS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines were incubated with F nucleatum or control reagents and analyzed in proliferation and would healing assays...
November 19, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869965/-new-century-new-challenges-changes-in-the-burden-of-disease-profile-in-brazil-1990-2010
#15
Fatima Marinho, Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos, Elisabeth Barboza França
OBJECTIVE: to describe the burden of disease in Brazil from 1990 to 2010. METHODS: analysis of the estimates of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 - Years of Life Lost due to premature mortality (YLL), Years Lost due to Disability (YLD), Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY=YLL+YLD) and risk factors. RESULTS: there was a decrease in deaths due to diarrhea and an increase in deaths due to diabetes and kidney disease, whilst deaths due to homicides and traffic accidents remained stable; cardiovascular diseases continued to be the leading cause of death despite a 30% reduction; the largest increases in DALY were due to diabetes and musculoskeletal diseases in women and alcohol abuse and low back pain in men; the main risk factors were poor diet and high blood pressure; smoking, domestic pollution and insufficient breastfeeding were found to have reduced...
October 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869401/yersiniosis-in-poland-in-2014
#16
Sylwia Kamińska, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to present the epidemiological situation of yersiniosis in Poland in 2014 and compare it with the situation in the previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The evaluation was based on analysis of data from the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland” for the period 2009-2014 (MP Czarkowski et al., National Institute of Hygiene and GIS – Chief Sanitary Inspectorate), interviews of individual yersiniosis cases, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations from the whole country and the data on deaths from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862959/understanding-zika-virus
#17
John S Murray
PURPOSE: This article describes what pediatric healthcare professionals should know about Zika virus (ZIKV). LITERATURE REVIEW: ZIKV is classified as an arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and genus Flavivirus. ZIKV is not new. The virus was first discovered almost 70 years ago in Uganda. The first isolate of the virus was found in rhesus monkeys in the Zika Forrest, hence the nomenclature. The primary route of ZIKV transmission to humans is through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito-primarily Aedes aegypti...
November 9, 2016: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852545/effects-of-zinc-or-synbiotic-on-the-duration-of-diarrhea-in-children-with-acute-infectious-diarrhea
#18
Ahmet Sami Yazar, Şirin Güven, Ener Çağrı Dinleyici
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Probiotic effects on acute infectious diarrhea are strain(s) specific, and all formulations should be evaluated by clinical trials. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a synbiotic preparation on the duration of diarrhea in children compared to a zinc suspension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center, randomized, and controlled clinical trial in children with acute infectious diarrhea. The first group received a synbiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus casei, L...
November 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832323/deep-pelvic-endometriosis-a-radiologist-s-guide-to-key-imaging-features-with-clinical-and-histopathologic-review
#19
REVIEW
Ayeh Darvishzadeh, Wendaline McEachern, Thomas K Lee, Priya Bhosale, Ali Shirkhoda, Christine Menias, Chandana Lall
While endometriosis typically affects the ovaries, deep infiltrating endometriosis can affect the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and deep pelvis, awareness of which is important for radiologists. Symptoms are nonspecific and can range from chronic abdominal and deep pelvic pain to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, hematuria, and rectal bleeding. Ultrasound and computed tomography may show nonspecific soft-tissue density masses causing bowel obstruction and hydronephrosis. This constellation of presenting symptoms and imaging evidence is easily mistaken for other pathologies including infectious gastroenteritis, diverticulitis, appendicitis, and malignancy, which may lead to unnecessary surgery or mismanagement...
November 10, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829823/a-new-lab-developed-real-time-pcr-assay-for-direct-detection-of-c-difficle-from-stool-sample-without-dna-extraction
#20
Brandon Li
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Detection of C. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool EIA, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the C. difficile toxin genes tcdB. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having C. difficile-associated disease were prospectively collected...
September 2016: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
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