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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667186/infectious-diseases-in-older-adults-of-long-term-care-facilities-update-on-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Robin L P Jump, Christopher J Crnich, Lona Mody, Suzanne F Bradley, Lindsay E Nicolle, Thomas T Yoshikawa
The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in older adults in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), particularly nursing facilities, remains a challenge for all health providers who care for this population. This review provides updated information on the currently most important challenges of infectious diseases in LTCFs. With the increasing prescribing of antibiotics in older adults, particularly in LTCFs, the topic of antibiotic stewardship is presented in this review. Following this discussion, salient points on clinical relevance, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, therapy, and prevention are discussed for skin and soft tissue infections, infectious diarrhea (Clostridium difficile and norovirus infections), bacterial pneumonia, and urinary tract infection, as well as some of the newer approaches to preventive interventions in the LTCF setting...
April 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663063/-treatment-with-pd-1-pd-l1-and-ctla-4-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-immune-mediated-side-effects
#2
REVIEW
M-O Grimm, H Oppel-Heuchel, S Foller
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new standard therapy for advanced or metastatic urothelial as well as renal cell carcinoma. Atezolizumab and Pembrolizumab have been approved for the treatment of cisplatin-ineligible patients with transitional call cancer in the 1st line setting; both antibodies and Nivolumab may also be used after platinum based prior therapy. Regarding renal cell carcinoma approval for 1st line treatment with the combination of Nivolumab and Ipilimumab for patients at intermediate or high risk (IMDC) is currently expected...
April 16, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659574/the-impact-of-school-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-improvements-on-infectious-disease-using-serum-antibody-detection
#3
Anna N Chard, Victoria Trinies, Delynn M Moss, Howard H Chang, Seydou Doumbia, Patrick J Lammie, Matthew C Freeman
BACKGROUND: Evidence from recent studies assessing the impact of school water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions on child health has been mixed. Self-reports of disease are subject to bias, and few WASH impact evaluations employ objective health measures to assess reductions in disease and exposure to pathogens. We utilized antibody responses from dried blood spots (DBS) to measure the impact of a school WASH intervention on infectious disease among pupils in Mali. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We randomly selected 21 beneficiary primary schools and their 21 matched comparison schools participating in a matched-control trial of a comprehensive school-based WASH intervention in Mali...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658217/-management-of-infectious-diarrhea-in-nursing-homes
#4
Nabila Ferahta, Delphine Héquet, Tosca Bizzozzero, Kristof Major, Christiane Petignat
Infectious diarrheas are of great concern in nursing homes and can engender outbreaks. Their importance in terms of morbidity, mortality and health economics justify the implementation of prevention and control measures. Although past studies emphasize the importance of infectious diarrheas occurring during hospitalization, data on nursing homes epidemiology remain scarce. This article is founded on recent data of the literature, on recommendations for the management of infectious diarrheas and for prevention and control of outbreaks in nursing homes...
April 11, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651973/the-clinical-and-immunological-features-of-patients-with-primary-antibody-deficiencies
#5
Gholamreza Azizi, Yasser Bagheri, Marzieh Tavakol, Forough Askarimoghaddam, Kiyoomars Poorrostami, Hosein Rafiemanesh, Reza Yazdani, Fatemeh Kiaee, Sima Habibi, Kosar Abouhamzeh, Hamed Mohammadi, Mostafa Qorbani, Hassan Abolhassani, Asghar Aghamohammadi
BACKGROUND: Primary antibody deficiency (PAD) comprises a range of diseases from early to late terminal B cells defects and is associated with the various clinical complications. METHODS: A total of 461 patients (311 males and 150 females) with PADs enrolled in the retrospective cohort study and for all patients' demographic information, clinical records and laboratory data were collected to investigate clinical complications. RESULTS: The most prevalent first presentations of immunodeficiency were respiratory tract infections in 63...
April 12, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627329/molecular-identification-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-two-cities-of-the-colombian-caribbean-coast
#6
Vivian Villalba-Vizcaíno, Yaleyvis Buelvas, Barbara Arroyo-Salgado, Lyda R Castro
INTRODUCTION: Parasitoses are an important health problem and its post-infectious consequences can cause high morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Epidemiological data is scarce in our region. We aimed to obtain frequency and circulating genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in two cities of the Caribbean Coast. METHODS: To identify parasites in samples, a fecal concentration and microscopical examination were performed. For further identification and genotyping of G...
April 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618640/porcine-deltacoronavirus-engages-the-transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-functional-receptor-porcine-aminopeptidase-n-for-infectious-cellular-entry
#7
Bin Wang, Yan Liu, Chun-Miao Ji, Yong-Le Yang, Qi-Zhang Liang, Pengwei Zhao, Ling-Dong Xu, Xi-Mei Lei, Wen-Ting Luo, Pan Qin, Jiyong Zhou, Yao-Wei Huang
Identification of cellular receptors used by coronavirus (CoV) entry into the host cells is critical to understand pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies. The fourth CoV genus, Deltacoronavirus , evolutionally related to the Gammacoronavirus , has just been defined recently. In the current study, we demonstrate that porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) acts as a cross-genus CoV functional receptor for both enteropathogenic porcine DeltaCoV (PDCoV) and AlphaCoV (transmissible gastroenteritis virus, TGEV) based upon three lines of evidences...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618180/comparative-analysis-of-gut-microbial-communities-in-children-under-5-years-old-with-diarrhea
#8
Hongyu Wen, Xin Yin, Zhenya Yuan, Xiuying Wang, Siting Su
Diarrhea is a global disease with the high morbidity and mortality rate in children. In this study, 25 fecal samples were collected from children under 5 years old. Seven samples have been taken from healthy children without diarrhea and marked as the healthy control group; eight samples have been sampled from the children with diarrhea caused by dyspepsia and defined as thenon-infectious group, and ten samples have been taken from children with diarrhea induced by intestinal infections and identified as the infectious group...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615247/evaluation-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-transmission-potential-to-na%C3%A3-ve-calves-by-direct-and-indirect-exposure-routes
#9
Shollie M Falkenberg, Rohana P Dassanayake, John D Neill, Julia F Ridpath
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can cause both acute and persistent infections in cattle. Exposure to BVDV persistently infected (PI) animals results in transmission of the virus to a naïve animal which causes a transient acute infection. While it is known that direct exposure to PI animals is a highly efficient means of transmission, less information is available regarding the potential for transmission from acutely infected either by direct or indirect exposure to naïve animals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for spread of the virus from calves acutely infected, with typical virulence field viruses know to have minimal shedding and viremia, to naïve contact animals either by direct or indirect exposure...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614595/-the-462nd-case-chronic-watery-diarrhea-and-acute-kidney-injury
#10
Y H Ni, J Li, W X Zhou, Y P Luo, Q W Jiang, Y Liu, C Yue, G Sun, J M Qian
A 60-year-old man presented with severe watery diarrhea for 2 months complicated with weight loss and acute kidney injury. He did not respond well to antidiarrheal medicines, empirical antibiotics and dietary exclusion of gluten or even complete bowel rest. The final diagnosis of autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) was made based on histopathologic findings of endoscopic biopsy from duodenal mucosa after excluding neoplastic disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and infectious diarrhea, etc. Chronic diarrhea and oliguria alleviated after the administration of corticosteroids...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597352/clostridium-difficile-toxins-a-and-b-decrease-intestinal-slc26a3-protein-expression
#11
Hayley P Coffing, Shubha Priyamvada, Arivarasu Natarajan Anbazhagan, Christine Salibay, Melinda A Engevik, James Versalovic, Mary Beth Yacyshyn, Bruce R Yacyshyn, Sangeeta Tyagi, Seema Saksena, Ravinder K Gill, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja
Clostridium difficile infection is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States. While C. difficile toxins A and B are the primary mediators of CDI, the overall pathophysiology underlying C. difficile associated diarrhea remains poorly understood. Studies have shown that both NHE3 (Na+ /H+ exchanger) and DRA (Down Regulated in Adenoma, Cl- /HCO3 - exchanger) resulting in decreased electrolyte absorption are implicated in infectious and inflammatory diarrhea. Furthermore, studies have shown that NHE3 is depleted at the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells and down-regulated in patients with CDI, but the role of DRA in C...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593183/evaluation-of-antigen-positive-toxin-negative-enzyme-immunoassay-results-for-the-diagnosis-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
Yukinobu Akamatsu, Shota Morishita, Ryo Okamoto, Kensaku Okada, Tsuyoshi Kitaura, Naomi Miyake, Kosuke Yamaguchi, Masaki Nakamoto, Hisashi Shimohiro, Miyako Takata, Akira Yamasaki, Naoto Burioka, Eiji Shimizu
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a challenging nosocomial infectious disease. C. DIFF Quik Chek Complete assay is widely used to detect glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin A/B of C. difficile simultaneously. However, the interpretation of GDH positive/toxin negative results is problematic. We performed a retrospective study of patients with GDH positive/toxin negative results to determine the probability of detecting toxigenic C. difficile and its risk factors. Between April 2012 and March 2017, we investigated cultures of fecal specimens followed by toxin detection tests...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588198/identification-of-enteric-viruses-circulating-in-a-dog-population-with-low-vaccine-coverage
#13
Christian D B T Alves, Oscar F O Granados, Renata da F Budaszewski, André F Streck, Matheus N Weber, Samuel P Cibulski, Luciane D Pinto, Nilo Ikuta, Cláudio W Canal
Although the use of vaccines has controlled enteric diseases in dogs in many developed countries, vaccine coverage is still under optimal situation in Brazil. There is a large population of nonimmunized dogs and few studies about the identification of the viruses associated with diarrhea. To address this situation, stool samples from 325 dogs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for the detection of common enteric viruses such as Canine adenovirus (CAdV), Canine coronavirus (CCoV), Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine rotavirus (CRV) and Carnivorous protoparvovirus 1 (canine parvovirus 2; CPV-2)...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578445/epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalised-pediatric-patients-in-georgia
#14
I Migriauli, V Meunargia, I Chkhaidze, G Sabakhtarishvili, K Gujabidze, G Khokrishvili, J Janashia, G Kamkamidze
Clostridium difficile, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus, is the most common identifiable etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The incidence of Clostridium difficile infections among hospitalized children has been increasing across the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate occurrence of Clostridium difficile and some other gastrointestinal pathogens among hospitalized pediatric patients in Georgia, as far as currently statistical data on the topic is very limited in the country. One of the objectives of the study was to test and pilot the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction diagnostic systems for rapid and simultaneous identification of number of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics as these are one of the primary public health priorities in Georgia and worldwide...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569483/pathological-assessment-of-gastrointestinal-biopsies-from-patients-with-idelalisib-associated-diarrhea-and-colitis
#15
Cecilia Cs Yeung, David M Hockenbery, Maria Westerhoff, Steven E Coutre, Ruth H Sedlak, Ronald L Dubowy, Veerendra Munugalavadla, Kerry Taylor, Francesc Bosch
AIM: Idelalisib (IDELA) treatment is associated with diarrhea/colitis (incidence of ∼15% grade ≥3). We performed a retrospective analysis of gastrointestinal biopsies from 29 patients treated with IDELA across 9 clinical trials. METHODS: A central core laboratory performed histopathologic review, immunohistochemistry, and droplet digital PCR viral studies. These results were correlated with tissue immune profiling data and morphologic features per modified Geboes score...
March 23, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564854/-nursing-care-of-older-people-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
Ya-Ting Chuang, Yueh-Juen Hwu
The global incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased in recent decades. The etiology of CDI includes aging as well as the misuse of antibiotics. This highly infectious disease requires that healthcare workers be vigilant and take isolation precautions, particularly in long-term facilities. CDI contributes to the development of severe diarrhea, which may cause imbalance of electrolytes, malabsorption of nutrients, physical disabilities, and psychosocial impacts in older patients. This article explores the pathophysiology, impacts, treatments (e...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562266/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-and-children-2017-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-and-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-shea
#17
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557569/does-forest-loss-increase-human-disease-evidence-from-nigeria
#18
Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548295/aeromonas-caviae-mimicking-vibrio-cholerae-infectious-enteropathy-in-a-cholera-endemic-region-with-possible-public-health-consequences-two-case-reports
#19
Marco van Zwetselaar, Balthazar Nyombi, Tolbert Sonda, Happiness Kumburu, Nyasatu Chamba, Marieke C J Dekker, Kajiru G Kilonzo, Sarah J Urasa, Blandina T Mmbaga
BACKGROUND: Aeromonas species have been documented to yield false positive results in microbiological tests for Vibrio cholerae. They share many biochemical properties with Vibrio species, with which they were jointly classified in the family Vibrionaceae until genotypic information provided new insights. Aeromonas species are increasingly associated with gastrointestinal infections, albeit with great apparent variation in pathogenicity and virulence both between and within species of the genus...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543807/association-between-gastrointestinal-tract-infections-and-glycated-hemoglobin-in-school-children-of-poor-neighborhoods-in-port-elizabeth-south-africa
#20
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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