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Infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035438/high-throughput-screening-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-pathogenic-genes-via-pathway-enrichment-and-operon-analysis
#1
Guangxin Yuan, Jia Fu, Liping An, Yan Zhuang, Yu Wang, Yunfeng Song, Zijing Qiao, Xiaolong Wang, Yufei Tian, Xiao Han, Peige Du, Guangyu Xu
BACKGROUND: About thirty thousand people globally die every day from infectious diarrhea, mostly caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. METHODS: In order to search for clinical diagnostic biomarkers and novel drug targets for infectious diarrhea, we used a bibliometric method to collect pathogenic genes of E. coli O157:H7 and performed a functional analysis of the important pathogenic genes by pathway enrichment and operon analysis. RESULTS: We found 364 pathogenic genes which may be involved in infection with E...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017253/rapid-clearance-and-frequent-reinfection-with-enteric-pathogens-among-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-zanzibar
#2
Maria Eva Andersson, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi Msellem, Birger Trollfors, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Magnus Lindh
Background: Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986192/effect-of-antibiotics-for-infectious-diarrhea-on-the-duration-of%C3%A2-hospitalization-a-retrospective-cohort-study-at-a-single-center%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-japan-from-2012-to-2015
#3
Yosuke Sasaki, Yoshitaka Murakami, Hiroaki Zai, Hitoshi Nakajima, Yoshihisa Urita
OBJECTIVE: Routine empirical antimicrobial therapy for patients with infectious diarrhea is not recommended in general practice. Conversely, prescription of empirical antibiotics for hospitalized patients remains controversial due to a lack of studies providing evidence for its benefits. Thus, this study aimed to examine whether empirical antimicrobial therapy would shorten the hospitalization duration for infectious diarrhea patients. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective cohort study was performed at the Department of General Medicine and Emergency Care, Toho University Medical Center Omori Hospital, using medical records...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985140/inflammatory-bactericidal-lectin-regiii%C3%AE-friend-or-foe-for-the-host
#4
Tsuyoshi Miki, Nobuhiko Okada, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
In the inflamed gut, the bactericidal lectin RegIIIβ is massively produced by intestinal mucosa. RegIIIβ binds peptidoglycan and lipid A respectively, and thus can kill certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including the gut commensal microbiota and enteropathogenic bacteria. Considering the expression pattern and bactericidal activity, RegIIIβ is believed to be a host defense factor for protecting against the infection with enteropathogenic bacteria. However, it was poorly understood how RegIIIβ recognizes the target bacteria and kill them, and how RegIIIβ plays role(s) in infectious diarrhea...
October 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959734/drug-free-approach-to-study-the-unusual-cell-cycle-of-giardia-intestinalis
#5
Kathleen Horlock-Roberts, Chase Reaume, Guillem Dayer, Christine Ouellet, Nicholas Cook, Janet Yee
Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, a form of severe and infectious diarrhea. Despite the importance of the cell cycle in the control of proliferation and differentiation during a giardia infection, it has been difficult to study this process due to the absence of a synchronization procedure that would not induce cellular damage resulting in artifacts. We utilized counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE), a size-based separation technique, to successfully obtain fractions of giardia cultures enriched in G1, S, and G2...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956255/multiple-presentations-of-lrba-deficiency-a-single-center-experience
#6
Sevgi Kostel Bal, Sule Haskologlu, Nina K Serwas, Candan Islamoglu, Caner Aytekin, Tanil Kendirli, Zarife Kuloglu, Gulsan Yavuz, Buket Dalgic, Zeynep Siklar, Aydan Kansu, Arzu Ensari, Kaan Boztug, Figen Dogu, Aydan Ikinciogullari
INTRODUCTION: LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency categorized as common variable immunodeficiency associated with autoimmune manifestations and inflammatory bowel diseases; however, the clinical spectrum has been extended. Here, we present our cohort of Turkish LRBA-deficient patients from a single center, demonstrating a diversity of clinical manifestations. METHOD: Seven affected individuals from five families were assessed retrospectively in this study...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954173/antidiarrheal-activity-of-extracts-from-maytenus-gonoclada-and-inhibition-of-dengue-virus-by-lupeol
#7
Fernando C Silva, Vanessa G Rodrigues, Lucienir P Duarte, Ivana S Lula, Ruben D Sinisterra, Sidney A Vieira-Filho, Rodrigo A L Rodrigues, Erna G Kroon, Patrícia L Oliveira, Luiz M Farias, Paula P Magalhães, Grácia D F Silva
Diarrhea is an infectious disease caused by bacterial, virus, or protozoan, and dengue is caused by virus, included among the neglected diseases in several underdeveloped and developing countries, with an urgent demand for new drugs. Considering the antidiarrheal potential of species of Maytenus genus, a phytochemical investigation followed by antibacterial activity test with extracts of branches and heartwood and bark of roots from Maytenus gonoclada were conducted. Moreover, due the frequency of isolation of lupeol from Maytenus genus the antiviral activity against Dengue virus and cytotoxicity of lupeol and its complex with β-cyclodextrins were also tested...
July 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948467/post-infectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Yeong Yeh Lee, Chandramouli Annamalai, Satish S C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is characterized by persistent abdominal pain and diarrhea, typically following an episode of infectious gastroenteritis. The mechanisms that underlie IBS-D remain elusive, but PI-IBS provides a mechanistic model of this disorder. This review provides an up-to-date appraisal of the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management approaches for PI-IBS. RECENT FINDINGS: Disordered immune reactions and release of cytokines with resultant gut inflammation and dysfunction appear to be key features of PI-IBS...
September 25, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943892/comparative-genomic-analysis-and-characteristics-of-nccp15740-the-major-type-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-korea
#9
Taesoo Kwon, Si-Yun Chung, Young-Hee Jung, Su-Jin Jung, Sang-Gyun Roh, Je-Seop Park, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Won Kim, Young-Seok Bak, Seung-Hak Cho
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause infectious diarrhea and diarrheal death. However, the genetic properties of pathogenic strains vary spatially and temporally, making prevention and treatment difficult. In this study, the genomic features of the major type of ETEC in Korea from 2003 to 2011 were examined by whole-genome sequencing of strain NCCP15740, and a comparative genomic analysis was performed with O6 reference strains. RESULTS: The assembled genome size of NCCP15740 was 4,795,873 bp with 50...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943870/gastrointestinal-tract-as-entry-route-for-hantavirus-infection
#10
Peter T Witkowski, Casey C Perley, Rebecca L Brocato, Jay W Hooper, Christian Jürgensen, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Detlev H Krüger, Roland Bücker
Background: Hantaviruses are zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fevers and are thought to be transmitted to humans by exposure to aerosolized excreta of infected rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the predominant endemic hantavirus in Europe. A large proportion of PUUV-infected patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin. In this study we demonstrate that PUUV infection can occur via the alimentary tract. Methods: We investigated susceptibility of the human small intestinal epithelium for PUUV infection and analyzed the resistance of virions to gastric juice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941619/an-ensemble-approach-to-predicting-the-impact-of-vaccination-on-rotavirus-disease-in-niger
#11
Jaewoo Park, Joshua Goldstein, Murali Haran, Matthew Ferrari
Recently developed vaccines provide a new way of controlling rotavirus in sub-Saharan Africa. Models for the transmission dynamics of rotavirus are critical both for estimating current burden from imperfect surveillance and for assessing potential effects of vaccine intervention strategies. We examine rotavirus infection in the Maradi area in southern Niger using hospital surveillance data provided by Epicentre collected over two years. Additionally, a cluster survey of households in the region allows us to estimate the proportion of children with diarrhea who consulted at a health structure...
September 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935552/natural-products-applied-against-hydatid-cyst-protoscolices-a-review-of-past-to-present
#12
REVIEW
Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Abbasali Nourian, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Ahmad Daryani, Adel Spotin, Ehsan Ahmadpour
Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is distributed all around the world. CE is one of the most important global parasitic infectious diseases, both in humans and animals. This parasite causes hydatid cysts that can be lodge at different organs of host such as liver, lung even in heart and brain which may lead to death. Presently, numerous scolicidal chemical agents have been administrated for inactivation of the hydatid cyst contents. Because of increasing resistance and adverse effects of medications include abnormalities of liver function, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache; there is a need to find alternative therapies either with the least or without side effects...
December 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932313/serum-zinc-level-and-its-correlation-with-vesikari-system-scoring-in-acute-pediatric-diarrhea
#13
Ayman E Eskander, Lobna S Sherif, Mohammad Nabih, Nevine R El Baroudy, Ghobrial C Marcos, Ehsan A Badawy, Amira S El Refay
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains the most common infectious disease worldwide. Zinc has been studied extensively recently for its potential effect on prevention, control and treatment of acute diarrhoea. AIM: This study was designed to correlate the level of zinc with the severity of pediatric diarrhoea estimated by Vesikari Scoring System. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study included 80 children aged two months to 30 months from those suffering from the acute diarrheal episode and admitted to Pediatric Hospital "Abo El Rish" Cairo University...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914275/national-trends-2007-2013-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-septic-shock-impact-on-outcome
#14
Kshitij Chatterjee, Abhinav Goyal, Aditya Chada, Krishna Siva Kakkera, Howard L Corwin
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea and is associated with worse outcomes and higher cost. Patients with septic shock (SS) are at increased risk of acquiring C. difficile infections (CDIs) during hospitalization, but little data are available on CDI complicating SS. OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of CDI in SS between 2007-2013 and impact of CDI on outcomes in SS. METHODS: Outcomes were prevalence of CDI in SS, effect on mortality, length of stay (LOS), and 30-day readmission...
September 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912916/acute-liver-failure-in-a-patient-travelling-from-asia-the-other-face-of-the-coin-of-infectious-disease
#15
Balen Abdulrahman, Mohamed H Ahmed, John Ramage
We present a case of a 63-year-old male who had travelled from South India to United Kingdom (UK) visiting relatives. He had developed episodes of diarrhea, vomiting and fevers while travelling and on assessment in hospital, mild abdominal distension was noted with rapid deterioration to hypovolemic shock. Initial blood test showed a low platelet count with deranged liver function tests (LFTs). It was noted that during admission to intensive care unit (ICU), blood continued to ooze from a previous surgical laparoscopy wound, central and arterial line access sites...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905217/early-life-arsenic-exposure-infant-and-child-growth-and-morbidity-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Anisur Rahman, Caroline Granberg, Lars-Åke Persson
Epidemiological studies have suggested a negative association between early life arsenic exposure and fetal size at birth, and subsequently with child morbidity and growth. However, our understanding of the relationship between arsenic exposure and morbidity and growth is limited. This paper aims to systematically review original human studies with an analytical epidemiological study design that have assessed arsenic exposure in fetal life or early childhood and evaluated the association with one or several of the following outcomes: fetal growth, birth weight or other birth anthropometry, infant and child growth, infectious disease morbidity in infancy and early childhood...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901251/case-report-severe-hematological-muscle-and-liver-toxicity-caused-by-drugs-and-artichoke-infusion-interaction-in-an-elderly-polymedicated-patient
#17
M G Campos, J Machado, M L Costa, S Lino, F Correia, F Maltez
Case report, in a patient with a history of diabetes and hypertension, treated with metformin, gliclazide, enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, aspirin and diazepam, recently medicated for a gouty crisis with colchicine and clonixin without improvement. Believing it could help in the treatment of gouty crisis symptoms he took about 1.5 L of artichoke infusion (Cynara cardunculus). He felt better and did agriculture work but developed a distal muscle pain, severe anemia, standard biochemical liver cholestasis, increase of alkaline phosphatase and marked increase of inflammatory parameters (hyperleucocytosis) and enters in the emergency department at the hospital...
September 12, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899610/nosocomial-acquired-and-community-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-an-academic-hospital-in-italy-epidemiology-recurrences-and-toxin-genes-distribution
#18
Valeria Visconti, Grazia Brunetti, Maria Rosaria Cuomo, Alessandra Giordano, Giammarco Raponi
Toxinogenic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea. In this retrospective cohort study the molecular epidemiology of hospital-acquired and community-associated CDI was investigated in patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital. CD in stools samples was revealed by a two steps diagnostic algorithm, firstly screening for positivity to GDH antigen and thereafter RT-PCR analysis. Increased CDI incidence was observed ranging from 1.70episodes/10000patient-days in the 1st year, to 2...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885921/acquisition-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-organisms-during-travel
#19
Clinton K Murray, Dana M Blyth
The rate of multidrug resistance has continued to increase worldwide, presenting clinicians with further challenges related to patient care. In this article, we review information related to the acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms among travelers, including deployed personnel, as well as the potential impact on wound microbiology and travelers' diarrhea. Travel to Asia, experiencing travelers' diarrhea, and use of antibiotics, whereas abroad have been associated with an increased risk of acquiring MDR Enterobacteriaceae colonization...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885302/postinfection-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-links-between-gastroenteritis-inflammation-the-microbiome-and-functional-disease
#20
Ian A Downs, Olga C Aroniadis, Libusha Kelly, Lawrence J Brandt
Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a diarrheal disease that develops after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Profound alterations in the microbiota accompany IGE yet only 10% of IGE patients progress to PI-IBS. This review explores research linking IGE severity, psychological comorbidity, PI-IBS, and the microbiome in various patient populations. Selective pressures caused by inflammation and increased gastrointestinal motility during gastroenteritis can alter intestinal bacterial phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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