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Infectious diarrhea

Soumita Das, Rashini Jayaratne, Kim E Barrett
Every year, enteric infections and associated diarrhea kill millions of people. The situation is compounded by increases in the number of enteric pathogens that are acquiring resistance to antibiotics, as well as (hitherto) a relative paucity of information on host molecular targets that may contribute to diarrhea. Many forms of diarrheal disease depend on the dysregulation of intestinal ion transporters, and an associated imbalance between secretory and absorptive functions of the intestinal epithelium. A number of major transporters have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diarrheal diseases and thus an understanding of their expression, localization, and regulation after infection with various bacteria, viruses, and protozoa likely will prove critical in designing new therapies...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury, Quazi Shihab Uddin Ibrahim, Md Shafiqul Bari, M M Jahangir Alam, Susanna J Dunachie, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Md Ismail Patwary
Bangladesh is one of the world's most vulnerable countries for climate change. This observational study examined the association of temperature, humidity and rainfall with six common climate-sensitive infectious diseases in adults (malaria, diarrheal disease, enteric fever, encephalitis, pneumonia and bacterial meningitis) in northeastern Bangladesh. Subjects admitted to the adult medicine ward of a tertiary referral hospital in Sylhet, Bangladesh from 2008 to 2012 with a diagnosis of one of the six chosen climate-sensitive infectious diseases were enrolled in the study...
2018: PloS One
John Richard Lee, Matthew Magruder, Lisa Zhang, Lars F Westblade, Michael J Satlin, Amy Robertson, Emmanuel Edusei, Carl Crawford, Lilan Ling, Ying Taur, Jonas Schlueter, Michelle Lubetzky, Darshana Dadhania, Eric Pamer, Manikkam Suthanthiran
Post-transplant diarrhea is associated with kidney allograft failure and death but its etiology remains unknown in the majority of cases. Because altered gut microbial ecology is a potential basis for diarrhea, we investigated whether post-transplant diarrhea is associated with gut dysbiosis. We enrolled 71 kidney allograft recipients for serial fecal specimen collections in the first 3 months of transplantation and profiled the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene V4-V5 deep sequencing. The Shannon diversity index was significantly lower in 28 diarrheal fecal specimens from 25 recipients with post-transplant diarrhea than in 112 fecal specimens from 46 recipients without post-transplant diarrhea...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Christina Bradshaw, Yuanchao Zheng, Samuel A Silver, Glenn M Chertow, Jin Long, Shuchi Anand
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal illness is a major reason for hospitalization, but data on consequent acute kidney injury (AKI) are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of AKI in infectious and non-infectious diarrheal illness requiring hospitalization and to identify correlates and outcomes of diarrhea-associated AKI. DESIGN: Using data from the 2012 National Inpatient Sample (NIS), we created a cohort of patients with a primary diagnosis of diarrheal illness...
June 18, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
T L Ollivett, K E Leslie, T F Duffield, D V Nydam, J Hewson, J Caswell, P Dunn, D F Kelton
The objective of this field trial was to evaluate the effect of a vaccine protocol using a commercially available trivalent vaccine designed for intranasal use. Experimental challenge studies have demonstrated varying efficacies of vaccines administered via the intranasal route. A total of 468 calves from 3 herds were enrolled and randomized into 3 treatment groups (positive control, PC, n = 211; intranasal vaccine, IN, n = 215; negative control, NC, n = 42) and followed for 8 to 12 wk. The PC consisted of one dose of commercially available multivalent injectable vaccine against bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, and bovine viral diarrhea administered subcutaneously at 6 wk of age...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
P Olias, I Dettwiler, A Hemphill, P Deplazes, A Steiner, M Meylan
Diarrhea in calves is one of the most important cattle diseases in Switzerland. The diagnosis and treatment of calf diarrhea represent a major challenge. Single-celled Cryptosporidium parasites are the most prevalent causative agents of calf diarrhea besides rotavirus in the first weeks of life, and are responsible for about 50% of diarrheal cases. Cryptosporidium parvum has been described as a cause of diarrhea in one to three weeks old calves since the 1970s. Oral ingestion of persistent environmental oocysts results in severe diarrhea lasting four to six days and shedding of large numbers of infectious oocysts...
June 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Zhifei He, Ghose Bishwajit, Dongsheng Zou, Sanni Yaya, Zhaohui Cheng, Yan Zhou
Having access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities constitute a key component of healthy living and quality of life. Prolonged exposure to insanitary living conditions can significantly enhance the burden of infectious diseases among children and affect nutritional status and growth. In this study we examined the prevalence of some common infectious diseases/disease symptoms of childhood among under-five children in Nigeria, and the association between the occurrence of these diseases with household’s access to WASH facilities...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michelle W Parker, Ndidi Unaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Vesna Milićević, Jelena Maksimović-Zorić, LJubiša Veljović, Branislav Kureljušić, Božidar Savić, Đorđe Cvetojević, Nemanja Jezdimirović, Vladimir Radosavljević
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most economically important diseases of cattle. With its very high prevalence, cattle kept on pastures become a source of the virus for the wildlife which, due to their susceptibility, then easily can serve as a source for re-infections of cattle. Therefore, we investigated the BVDV infection in Serbian wild boar and assessed the role of wild boar in BVDV epidemiology including possible spreading to domestic species. This study was based on examination of 50 spleen samples which were collected from wild boars located in Eastern Serbia during the hunting season 2016/2017...
May 24, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Shu-Huan Huang, Yi-Fang Lin, Ming-Han Tsai, Shuan Yang, Mei-Ling Liao, Shao-Wen Chao, Cheng-Cheng Hwang
Conventional methods for identifying gastroenteritis pathogens are time consuming, more likely to result in a false-negative, rely on personnel with diagnostic expertise, and are dependent on the specimen status. Alternatively, molecular diagnostic methods permit the rapid, simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity. The present study compared conventional methods with the Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (xTAG GPP) for the diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis in northern Taiwan...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Umar Zahid, Fnu Sagar, Mayar Al Mohajer, Aneela Majeed
Immunocompromised patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematologic malignancy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI). The recurrence of infection and its associated morbidity and mortality are due to multiple risk factors. Diarrhea is common in HSCT recipients, but the diagnosis of diarrhea caused by CDI is a therapeutic challenge due to frequent Clostridium difficile colonization with diarrhea secondary to non-infectious causes...
April 2, 2018: Curēus
Adam H Agbaria, Guy Beck Rosen, Itshak Lapidot, Daniel H Rich, Mahmoud Huleihel, Shaul Mordechai, Ahmad Salman, Joseph Kapelushnik
Human viral and bacterial infections are responsible for a variety of diseases that are still the main causes of death and economic burden for society across the globe. Despite the different responses of the immune system to these infections, some of them have similar symptoms, such as fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea, and fatigue. Thus, physicians usually encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections on the basis of these symptoms. Rapid identification of the etiology of infection is highly important for effective treatment and can save lives in some cases...
June 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Xingyang Cui, Yunjia Shi, Lili Zhao, Shanshan Gu, Chengwei Wei, Yan Yang, Shanshan Wen, Hongyan Chen, Junwei Ge
The mink circovirus (MiCV), a newly discovered pathogen, is associated with diarrhea in farmed minks. The prevalence and economic importance of this virus remain poorly understood, and a quantitative method for diagnosis of MiCV infection has not been established. This research aims to develop a highly specific, sensitive, and quantitative assay for MiCV. A Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed to detect different isolates of the MiCV in mink samples. The qPCR system is highly sensitive with a detection limit of as low as 10 viral DNA copies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Patrick da Silva, Fernanda Z Manieri, Carmen M Herrera, M Stephen Trent, Cristiano G Moreira
Salmonella enterica serovars are associated with diarrhea and gastroenteritis and are a helpful model for understanding host-pathogen mechanisms. Salmonella Typhimurium regulates the distribution of O-antigen (OAg) and presents a trimodal distribution based on Wzy polymerase, WzzST (long chain length OAg, L-OAg) and WzzfepE (very long chain length OAg, VL-OAg) co-polymerases; however, several mechanisms regulating this process remain unclear. Here, we report that LPS modifications modulate the infectious process and that OAg chain length determination plays an essential role during infection...
June 4, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Carlos D Flombaum, Dazhi Liu, Shirley Qiong Yan, Amelia Chan, Sherry Mathew, Paul A Meyers, Ilya G Glezerman, Thangamani Muthukumar
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury complicating high-dose methotrexate therapy increases the risk for severe mucositis, myelosuppression, and death. It is unclear whether high-dose leucovorin and supportive therapy without the use of glucarpidase can reduce toxicity from high-dose methotrexate. STUDY DESIGN: The charts of all patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center whose methotrexate drug levels at 48 or 72 hours after administration were ≥10 times the toxic level were reviewed between January 2000 and December 2011...
June 4, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Federica Pizzurro, Francesca Cito, Guendalina Zaccaria, Massimo Spedicato, Angelo Cerella, Massimiliano Orsini, Mario Forzan, Nicola D'Alterio, Alessio Lorusso, Maurilia Marcacci
Here we report and characterize a porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreak which occurred in a swine fattening farm in the province of Teramo, Abruzzi region (central Italy), in January 2016. PED virus (PEDV) identification was determined by real-time RT-PCR performed on RNAs purified from fecal samples collected from two symptomatic pigs. Whole genome sequence (PEDV 1842/2016) was also obtained by next generation sequencing straight from RNA purified from one fecal sample. Genome comparison with extant global PEDV strains revealed a high nucleotide identity with recently reported European and American S-INDEL PEDVs...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Seifeldin Hakim, Francisco Davila, Mitual Amin, Ismail Hader, Mitchell S Cappell
A 65-year-old Japanese man living in the United States presented with pyrexia and chills associated with intermittent lower abdominal and back pain for 5 days. He denied recent travel, rash, diarrhea, or rectal bleeding. Physical examination revealed spiking pyrexia, and routine laboratory tests revealed mild leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Abdominal CT with contrast showed findings highly compatible with aortitis. Comprehensive autoimmune evaluation was negative. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from blood cultures...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
C Roussel, A Sivignon, A de Vallée, G Garrait, S Denis, V Tsilia, N Ballet, P Vandekerckove, T Van de Wiele, N Barnich, S Blanquet-Diot
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major food-borne pathogens responsible for traveler's diarrhea. The production of adhesins and the secretion of enterotoxins constitute the major virulence traits of the bacteria. Treatments are mainly symptomatic and can involve antibiotherapy. However, given the rise of antibiotic resistance worldwide, there is an urgent need for the development of new preventive strategies for the control of ETEC infections. Among them, a promising approach is the use of probiotics...
May 25, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Andreia Volpato, Aleksandro S Da Silva, Regiane B Crecencio, Thainã Tomasi, Bruno F Fortuoso, Marluciana P Ribeiro, Rodrigo Secco, Wanderson A B Pereira, Nathieli B Bottari, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Vera Maria M Morsch, Matheus D Baldissera, Lenita M Stefani, Gustavo Machado
The immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties of selenium (Se), an essential trace element for animals, has increase its use because may prevent/or reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify whether Se and vitamins (A and E) applied via subcutaneous associated with secnidazole via oral exert positive effects in the antioxidant and immune systems, as well as whether prevent infections caused by protozoan and bacteria, and consequently, reduce the number of cases of diarrhea in heifers...
May 22, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
R Barral-Arca, J Pardo-Seco, F Martinón-Torres, A Salas
Recently, a biomarker signature consisting of 2-transcript host RNAs was proposed for discriminating bacterial from viral infections in febrile children. We evaluated the performance of this signature in a different disease scenario, namely a cohort of Mexican children (n = 174) suffering from acute diarrhea of different infectious etiologies. We first examined the admixed background of the patients, indicating that most of them have a predominantly Native American genetic ancestry with a variable amount of European background (ranging from 0% to 57%)...
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
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