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Infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808642/burden-of-disease-attributable-to-vitamin-a-deficiency-in-iranian-population-aged-less-than-five-years-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2010
#1
Maryam Bahreynian, Mostafa Qorbani, Shohreh Naderimagham, Sara Nejatinamini, Asal Ataie-Jafari, Farshad Sharifi, Fahad Saqib, Alireza Khajavi, Morteza Mansourian, Ali Asghar Ahmadishokouh, Hamid Asayesh, Omid Safari, Roya Kelishadi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is considered as one of the most serious public health concerns in developing countriesand the leading cause of mortality in under-five-year-old children.A large number of young children and pregnant women especially in low-income, non-industrialized communities are more susceptible to VAD. This study aims to report the burden of disease (BOD) attributable to VAD in Iranian population aged less than 5 years by using data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2010...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804515/mmx-%C3%A2-technology-and-its-applications-in-gastrointestinal-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Silvia Nardelli, Laura Francesca Pisani, Gian Eugenio Tontini, Maurizio Vecchi, Luca Pastorelli
The Multimatrix(®) (MMX(®)) preparation MMX(®) is a recently obtained drug formulation developed to facilitate release of high concentrations of active drugs into the colon, with a homogeneous distribution along all colonic segments, particularly the most distal ones; the distal colonic tracts, indeed, are the most difficult to reach in significant amounts when a drug is given orally. The MMX(®) formulation is characterized by a lipophilic matrix dispersed in a hydrophilic structure. Indeed, in the last few years, MMX(®) technology has been widely used in the development of various drugs for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious gastrointestinal diseases localized in the colon...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790999/immunization-with-recombinant-tcdb-encapsulated-nanocomplex-induces-protection-against-clostridium-difficile-challenge-in-a-mouse-model
#3
Yi-Wen Liu, Yu-Hung Chen, Jenn-Wei Chen, Pei-Jane Tsai, I-Hsiu Huang
Clostridium difficile is considered to be one of the major cause of infectious diarrhea in healthcare systems worldwide. Symptoms of C. difficile infection are caused largely by the production of two cytotoxins: toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Vaccine development is considered desirable as it would decrease the mounting medical costs and mortality associated with C. difficile infections. Biodegradable nanoparticles composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and chitosan have proven to be a safe and effective antigen delivery system for many viral vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781945/profiling-of-virulence-associated-factors-in-shigella-species-isolated-from-acute-pediatric-diarrheal-samples-in-tehran-iran
#4
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Somayeh Yasliani Fard, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mahmood Mahmoudi
OBJECTIVES: The genus Shigella comprises the most infectious and diarrheagenic bacteria causing severe diseases, mostly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to detect nine virulence genes (ipaBCD, VirA, sen, set1A, set1B, ial, ipaH, stx, and sat) in Shigella species (spp.) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) and to determine the relation of Shigella spp. from pediatric diarrheal samples with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Shigella spp...
June 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767653/in-silico-analysis-to-identify-vaccine-candidates-common-to-multiple-serotypes-of-shigella-and-evaluation-of-their-immunogenicity
#5
Sapna Pahil, Neelam Taneja, Hifzur Rahman Ansari, G P S Raghava
Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery is an important cause of diarrhea, with the majority of the cases occurring in developing countries. Considering the high disease burden, increasing antibiotic resistance, serotype-specific immunity and the post-infectious sequelae associated with shigellosis, there is a pressing need of an effective vaccine against multiple serotypes of the pathogen. In the present study, we used bio-informatics approach to identify antigens shared among multiple serotypes of Shigella spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767339/assessing-gut-microbiota-perturbations-during-the-early-phase-of-infectious-diarrhea-in-vietnamese-children
#6
Hao Chung The, Paola Florez de Sessions, Song Jie, Duy Pham Thanh, Corinne N Thompson, Chau Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Collins Wenhan Chu, Tuan-Anh Tran, Nicholas R Thomson, Guy E Thwaites, Maia A Rabaa, Martin Hibberd, Stephen Baker
Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children...
August 2, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766554/campylobacter-jejuni-impairs-sodium-transport-and-epithelial-barrier-function-via-cytokine-release-in-human-colon
#7
R Bücker, S M Krug, V Moos, C Bojarski, M R Schweiger, M Kerick, A Fromm, S Janßen, M Fromm, N A Hering, B Siegmund, T Schneider, C Barmeyer, J D Schulzke
Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of foodborne bacterial enteritis worldwide. Patients present with diarrhea and immune responses lead to complications like arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome. Although studies exist in animal and cell models, we aimed at a functional and structural characterization of intestinal dysfunction and the involved regulatory mechanisms in human colon. First, in patients' colonic biopsies, sodium malabsorption was identified as an important diarrheal mechanism resulting from hampered epithelial ion transport via impaired epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) β- and γ-subunit...
August 2, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762696/probiotics-for-gastrointestinal-conditions-a-summary-of-the-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Thad Wilkins, Jacqueline Sequoia
Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. However, a lack of clear guidelines on when to use probiotics and the most effective probiotic for different gastrointestinal conditions may be confusing for family physicians and their patients. Probiotics have an important role in the maintenance of immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through the direct interaction with immune cells...
August 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759468/the-evaluation-of-critically-ill-transplant-patients-with-infectious-diarrhea
#9
Diana F Florescu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the most important etiologic agents of infectious diarrhea in critically ill transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Diarrhea, frequently caused by infectious pathogens, can cause significant morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. Diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration, acute renal failure, medication toxicity, rejection, graft-versus-host disease and impairs patients' quality of life...
July 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747822/beneficial-effect-of-bifidobacterium-longum-atcc-15707-on-survival-rate-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mice
#10
Bohyun Yun, Minyu Song, Dong-June Park, Sejong Oh
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the main cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea that can cause colitis or even death. The medical-treatment cost and deaths caused by CDI are increasing annually worldwide. New approaches for prevention and treatment of these infections are needed, such as the use of probiotics. Probiotics, including Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus, are microorganisms that confer a health benefit to the host when administered in adequate amounts. The effect of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707 on infectious disease caused by C...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737863/tendencia-de-los-egresos-hospitalarios-por-enfermedades-infecciosas-intestinales-en-ni%C3%A3-os-en-argentina-2005-2013
#11
Juan I Degiuseppe
INTRODUCTION: Acute diarrhea is one of the most serious public health problems in developing countries because it is generally associated with unfavorable living conditions. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in hospital discharges for intestinal infectious disease in children under age 5 recorded in official public hospitals from Argentina in the 2005-2013 period. POPULATION AND METHODS: This was an ecological, time-series study based on data provided by the Health Statistics and Information Department, at a national and regional level...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736642/gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel-as-second-line-therapy-following-folfirinox-in-metastatic-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-retrospective-analysis-of-response
#12
Khanh T Nguyen, Aparna Kalyan, H Scott Beasley, Aatur D Singhi, Weijing Sun, Herbert J Zeh, Daniel Normolle, Nathan Bahary
BACKGROUND: Given the tolerability of nPG in first-line therapy, we desired to evaluate the response and toxicity profiles of second-line gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel (nPG) following FOLFIRINOX. Methods: We retrospectively identified 30 patients who received first-line FOLFIRINOX for unresectable or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma followed by second-line nPG. Response was evaluated by RECIST criteria and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) change. RESULTS: Median age was 63 years with 77% percent having metastatic disease...
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736507/national-mortality-burden-due-to-communicable-non-communicable-and-other-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#13
Awoke Misganaw, Tilahun N Haregu, Kebede Deribe, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw Ferede Abera, Molla Gedefaw, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Kristopher J Krohn, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Yibeltal Assefa, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. METHODS: GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732536/national-mortality-burden-due-to-communicable-non-communicable-and-other-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#14
Awoke Misganaw, Tilahun N Haregu, Kebede Deribe, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw Ferede Abera, Molla Gedefaw, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Kristopher J Krohn, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Yibeltal Assefa, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. METHODS: GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries...
July 21, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728309/escherichia-coli-outer-membrane-protein-f-ompf-an-immunogenic-protein-induces-cross-reactive-antibodies-against-escherichia-coli-and-shigella
#15
Xiao Wang, Da Teng, Qingfeng Guan, Ruoyu Mao, Ya Hao, Xiumin Wang, Junhu Yao, Jianhua Wang
Diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most serious infectious diseases in humans and animals. Due to antibiotics resistance and the lack of efficient vaccine, more attention should be paid to find potential versatile vaccine candidates to prevent diseases. In this study, the sequence homology analysis indicated that OmpF from E. coli CVCC 1515 shares a high identity (90-100%) with about half of the E. coli (46.7%) and Shigella (52.8%) strains. Then the recombinant OmpF was supposed to be developed as a versatile vaccine to prevent E...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713103/-listeriosis-of-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-case-study
#16
Agnieszka Żak-Gołąb, Krzysztof Dąbrowski, Antoni Hrycek
In the recently an increase morbidity inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis was observed. The use of purine analogs and their metabolites are associated with a higher incidence of infections in this group of patients. Listeriosis is an infectious disease caused by a relatively anaerobic gram-positive bacteria - Listeria monocytogenes. Common symptoms include fever, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, but these pathogens can also cause myocarditis, central nervous system infections, including brain abscesses and sepsis...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703447/chronic-diarrhea-in-dogs-retrospective-study-in-136-cases
#17
M Volkmann, J M Steiner, G T Fosgate, J Zentek, S Hartmann, B Kohn
BACKGROUND: Chronic diarrhea (CD) is common in dogs, and information on frequency and distribution of primary and secondary causes is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate underlying causes and predictors of outcome in dogs with CD. ANIMALS: One hundred and thirty-six client-owned dogs with CD (≥3 weeks duration). METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records (Small Animal Clinic, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, 09/2009-07/2011)...
July 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693308/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-new-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-variant-that-occurred-in-korea-in-2014
#18
Dong-Kun Yang, Ha-Hyun Kim, Seong-Hun Lee, Soon-Seek Yoon, Joong-Won Park, In-Soo Cho
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has caused significant economic losses in the swine industry, and another epidemic occurred recently in Korea in 2014. Isolating and culturing the PED virus (PEDV) allow investigations into its pathogenesis and development of vaccines and diagnostic assays. In this study, we successfully isolated two PEDV isolates (QIAP1401 and QIAP1402) from naturally infected piglets in Jeju-do. Viral propagation was confirmed in Vero cells according to cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopic analyses...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689150/association-of-urinary-phenolic-compounds-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-chronic-diarrheal-symptoms-evidence-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#19
Punyanganie S de Silva, Xuan Yang, Joshua R Korzenik, Rose H Goldman, Kristopher L Arheart, Alberto J Caban-Martinez
Endocrine disruptors such as phenolic compounds and parabens may be involved in chronic non-infective disease. While products incorporating these compounds are extensively utilized in consumer and personal products, little is known about their effect on bowel health. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - consisting of the diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease - and irritable bowel syndrome are common chronic non-infectious diarrheal diseases. Despite limited knowledge on the etiology of IBD, these diseases have increased prevalence in industrialized countries and cause significant impairment to quality of life...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672432/pros-and-cons-while-looking-through-an-asian-window-on-the-rome-iv-criteria-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-pros
#20
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal
A decade after Rome III, in 2016, Rome IV criteria were published. There are major differences between Rome IV and the earlier iteration, some of which are in line with Asian viewpoints. The clinical applicability of the Rome IV criteria of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asian perspective is reviewed here. Instead of considering functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) to be largely psychogenic, Rome IV suggested the importance of the gut over brain ("disorders of gut-brain interaction" not "brain-gut interaction")...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
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