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Infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520996/epidemiology-of-travellers-diarrhea
#2
Robert Steffen
Background: Travellers' diarrhea (TD) continues to be the most frequent health problem in travellers with destinations in lower income parts of the world as compared with where they reside, even if that risk has slightly decreased. Methods: A systematic review was published 18 months ago; now PubMed was searched for more recent publications relating to travel, diarrhea, epidemiology, incidence, risk. Results: A trend to decreasing incidence rates have been noted in this as compared with the last century, but TD remains frequent...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520707/using-molecular-characterization-to-support-investigations-of-aquatic-facility-associated-outbreaks-of-cryptosporidiosis-alabama-arizona-and-ohio-2016
#3
Michele C Hlavsa, Dawn M Roellig, Matthew H Seabolt, Amy M Kahler, Jennifer L Murphy, Taishayla K McKitt, Evelyn F Geeter, Ron Dawsey, Sherri L Davidson, Thuy N Kim, Theresa H Tucker, Sally Ann Iverson, Brenna Garrett, Nicole Fowle, Jennifer Collins, Gregory Epperson, Scott Zusy, Joli R Weiss, Ken Komatsu, Edwin Rodriguez, J Gage Patterson, Rebecca Sunenshine, Brandi Taylor, Katie Cibulskas, Lynn Denny, Keoni Omura, Boris Tsorin, Kathleen E Fullerton, Lihua Xiao
Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, which can cause profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 2-3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening wasting and malabsorption in immunocompromised patients. Fecal-oral transmission of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the parasite's infectious life stage, occurs via ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or following contact with infected persons or animals, particularly preweaned bovine calves (1)...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506204/antibiotic-effects-of-loperamide-homology-of-human-targets-of-loperamide-with-targets-in-acanthamoeba-spp
#4
Abdul Mannan Baig, Zohaib Rana, M Mohsin Mannan, S Sumayya Tariq, H R Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Loperamide is an anti-diarrheal drug prescribed for non-infectious diarrhea. The drug is an opioid receptor agonist, a blocker of voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav) and a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor on human cells. Loperamide has been reported to exert anti-amoebic effects against pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba castellanii. OBJECTIVES: The precise mode of antibiotic action, cellular target homology with human counterparts and the pattern of cell death induced by loperamide in Acanthamoeba castellanii remain to be established...
April 25, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494766/filmarray%C3%A2-gi-panel-performance-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-gastroenteritis-or-hemorragic-diarrhea
#5
Antonio Piralla, Giovanna Lunghi, Gianluigi Ardissino, Alessia Girello, Marta Premoli, Erika Bava, Milena Arghittu, Maria Rosaria Colombo, Alessandra Cognetto, Patrizia Bono, Giulia Campanini, Piero Marone, Fausto Baldanti
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. The rapid and specific identification of infectious agents is crucial for correct patient management. However, diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis is usually performed with diagnostic panels that include only a few pathogens. In the present bicentric study, the diagnostic value of FilmArray™ GI panels was assessed in unformed stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis and in a series of samples collected from pediatric patients with heamorragic diarrhea...
May 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491061/4-4-diaponeurosporene-producing-bacillus-subtilis-increased-mouse-resistance-against-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-in-a-cd36-dependent-manner
#6
Haofei Liu, Wenwen Xu, Qinghua Yu, Qian Yang
Deficient mucosal innate immunity is a hallmark of infectious diarrhea, such as Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium)-induced gastroenteritis. Here, we report that oral administration of a 4,4'-diaponeurosporene-producing Bacillus subtilis (B.s-Dia) could improve mice mucosal immunity, as showed by an increased resistance against S. typhimurium infection. Intragastric administration of B.s-Dia for 7 days could increase the secretion of CCL20 by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and then recruit more dendritic cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490591/deletion-of-a-197-amino-acid-region-in-the-n-terminal-domain-of-spike-protein-attenuates-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-piglets
#7
Yixuan Hou, Chun-Ming Lin, Masaru Yokoyama, Boyd L Yount, Douglas Marthaler, Arianna L Douglas, Shristi Ghimire, Yibin Qin, Ralph S Baric, Linda J Saif, Qiuhong Wang
We previously isolated a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain PC177, by blind serial passaging the intestinal contents of a diarrheic piglet in Vero cell culture. Compared with a US highly virulent PEDV strain PC21A, the tissue culture-adapted PC177 (TC-PC177) contains a 197 aa-deletion in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein. We orally inoculated neonatal, conventional suckling piglets with TC-PC177 or PC21A to compare the pathogenicity. Within 7 days post-inoculation, TC-PC177 caused mild diarrhea and lower fecal viral RNA shedding, with no mortality, whereas PC21A caused severe clinical signs and 55% mortality...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480431/anti-viral-effect-of-herbal-medicine-korean-traditional-cynanchum-paniculatum-bge-kitag-extracts
#8
Woong Kim, Tae-Seok Oh, Youn-Jin Park
BACKGROUND: Pestiviruses in general, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in particular, present several potential targets for directed antiviral therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The antiviral effect of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag (Dog strangling vine: DS) extract on the bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus was tested. First, a cytotoxicity test in MDBK (Madin-Darby bovine kidney) cells was done with all organic extract concentrations. RESULTS: The cytotoxic concentration CC50 for the ethyl acetate (EA) extracts was 18...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475152/prevalence-of-rotavirus-genogroup-a-and-norovirus-genogroup-ii-in-bassaseachic-falls-national-park-surface-waters-in-chihuahua-mexico
#9
Ma Carmen E Delgado-Gardea, Patricia Tamez-Guerra, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Aurora Mendieta-Mendoza, Francisco Javier Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Juan Francisco Contreras-Cordero, Gilberto Erosa-de la Vega, María Concepción Pérez-Recoder, Blanca Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen González-Horta, Rocío Infante-Ramírez
In areas lacking potable water treatment, drinking contaminated water may represent a public health threat. In addition to enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites, fecal contamination in water environments is associated with the transmission of enteric viruses and other causal agents of infectious disease. Rotavirus and norovirus are the main enteric viral agents responsible for diarrheic outbreaks. The aim of the present study was to detect seasonal variation of rotavirus and norovirus in the surface water at Bassaseachic Falls National Park during 2013...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474475/what-happened-to-koch-s-postulates-in-diarrhea
#10
Shamima Sultana, Shafiqul A Sarker, Harald Brüssow
In 1890 Robert Koch has formulated postulates describing what criteria a parasite has to fulfill to qualify as an etiological agent for an infectious disease. Since then Koch's postulates have experienced reformulations by nearly every generation of microbiologists reflecting new discoveries changing the understanding of infectious diseases pathogenesis. The latest addition to this discussion is the role of the host commensal microbiota in turning infections into disease. After an overview of the historical developments of the postulates, we analyzed data on diarrhea etiology from Bangladesh with respect to Koch's postulates...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473937/herpes-simplex-proctitis-mimicking-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-a-teenaged-male
#11
Kristen E Sandgren, Nathan B Price, Warren P Bishop, Patrick J McCarthy
We report the case of a 17-year-old male who was initially assessed for pain with defecation, bloody rectal discharge, and diarrhea, consistent with proctitis. Though proctitis is most commonly due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), infectious etiologies must also be considered, including sexually transmitted causes of infectious proctitis. In discussion of his sexual history, he identified as homosexual and acknowledged engaging in receptive anal intercourse. Rectal biopsies obtained via colonoscopy were culture-positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV), leading to a diagnosis of HSV proctitis and treatment with an appropriate antiviral medication...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473308/sa%C3%A3%C2%BAde-na-copa-the-world-s-first-application-of-participatory-surveillance-for-a-mass-gathering-at-fifa-world-cup-2014-brazil
#12
Onicio Leal Neto, George Santiago Dimech, Marlo Libel, Wayner Vieira de Souza, Eduarda Cesse, Mark Smolinski, Wanderson Oliveira, Jones Albuquerque
BACKGROUND: The 2005 International Health Regulations (IHRs) established parameters for event assessments and notifications that may constitute public health emergencies of international concern. These requirements and parameters opened up space for the use of nonofficial mechanisms (such as websites, blogs, and social networks) and technological improvements of communication that can streamline the detection, monitoring, and response to health problems, and thus reduce damage caused by these problems...
May 4, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470362/pathogen-exposure-in-cattle-at-the-livestock-wildlife-interface
#13
Malavika Rajeev, Mathew Mutinda, Vanessa O Ezenwa
Land use is an important driver of variation in human infectious disease risk, but less is known about how land use affects disease risk in livestock. To understand how land use is associated with disease risk in livestock, we examined patterns of pathogen exposure in cattle across two livestock ranching systems in rural Kenya: private ranches with low- to medium-intensity cattle production and high wildlife densities, and group ranches with high-intensity cattle production and low wildlife densities. We surveyed cattle from six ranches for three pathogens: Brucella spp...
May 3, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468056/-surveillance-on-other-infectious-diarrheal-diseases-in-china-from-2014-to-2015
#14
P Zhang, J Zhang
Objective: To analyze the current situation on infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid (hereinafter referred to as Other Infectious Diarrheal Diseases) under the current monitoring program in China from 2014 to 2015, to provide evidence for developing strategies related to the control of these diseases. Methods: All the reported infectious diarrhea cases and information on public health emergencies relevant to infectious diarrhea were collected from the "Chinese Information System for Disease Control and Prevention" ...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466091/yeast-surface-display-of-escherichia-coli-enterotoxin-and-its-effects-of-intestinal-microflora-and-mucosal-immunity
#15
ShiYu Li, Zhou Sha, Xiaoxu Wang, Zhaoyang Bu, Li Wang, Xiaohui Guan, Xulong Lang, Xinglong Wang
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of infectious diarrhea in animals. In this study, yeast surface display technology was employed to investigate the effects of ETEC enterotoxin fusion protein on the intestinal flora and mucosal immunity of rats. ETEC estA, estB, and eltAB (heat-labile and heat-stable toxins) were expressed on the surface of yeast. Rats were divided into normal saline, yeast and display yeast groups. Fecal and jejunal content samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days...
May 2, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461779/the-capacity-of-diagnostic-laboratories-in-kenya-for-detecting-infectious-diseases
#16
H-C Slotved, Kennedy K Yatich, Shem Otoi Sam, Edwardina Otieno Ndhine
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to present data of the diagnostic capacity of Kenyan laboratories to diagnose a number of human pathogens. The study is based on the data obtained from a biosecurity survey conducted in Kenya in 2014/2015 and data from the Statistical Abstract of Kenya for 2015. The biosecurity survey has previously been published; however, the survey also included information on laboratory capacity to handle a number of pathogens, which have not been published. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the survey on 86 laboratory facilities...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456597/associations-of-giardia-lamblia-assemblages-with-hiv-infections-and-symptomatology-hiv-virus-and-assemblage-b-were-they-born-to-each-other
#17
Clarissa Perez Faria, Graziela Maria Zanini, Gisele Silva Dias, Maria do Céu Sousa
Giardia lamblia is an intestinal parasite that has an extensive genetic variation among isolates. This species is divided into eight different assemblages (A-H), but only assemblages A and B have been associated with human infections. Studies on the associations of G. lamblia assemblages and symptoms have been done but were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to correlate G. lamblia assemblages with symptoms in patients with and without HIV/AIDS and its association with the CD4T cell count. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INI/FIOCRUZ) in Rio de Janeiro from January 2011 to February 2015...
April 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448477/evaluation-of-gelatin-tannate-against-symptoms-of-acute-diarrhea-in-pediatric-patients
#18
Eren Çağan, Saime Ceylan, Şenay Mengi, Havva Hasret Çağan
BACKGROUND Acute diarrhea is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children aged ≤3 years. Some drugs (e.g., the mucoprotector gelatin tannate) plus a reduced osmolality oral rehydration solution (ORS) may effectively reduce symptom duration and severity. The current trial was therefore designed to assess the efficacy and safety of gelatin tannate in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, single-center study comparing gelatin tannate plus ORS (103 patients) with ORS plus placebo (100 patients) in children aged 3 months to 12 years with infectious or noninfectious acute diarrhea...
April 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439072/fecal-microbial-characterization-of-hospitalized-patients-with-suspected-infectious-diarrhea-shows-significant-dysbiosis
#19
Tzipi Braun, Ayelet Di Segni, Marina BenShoshan, Roy Asaf, James E Squires, Sarit Farage Barhom, Efrat Glick Saar, Karen Cesarkas, Gill Smollan, Batia Weiss, Sharon Amit, Nathan Keller, Yael Haberman
Hospitalized patients are at increased risk for acquiring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and inadequate nutrition. The human intestinal microbiota plays vital functions in nutrient supply and protection from pathogens, yet characterization of the microbiota of hospitalized patients is lacking. We used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the global pattern of microbial composition of fecal samples from 196 hospitalized patients with suspected infectious diarrhea in comparison to healthy, non-hospitalized subjects (n = 881), and to traditional culture results...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427109/traveler-s-diarrhea-vision-abnormalities-and-unsteady-gait-in-a-young-woman
#20
Tobias Mühling, Felix Gundling, Thomas Helmberger, Wolfgang Schepp
We report on the course of disease in a young woman, originally admitted with suspected refractory infectious tropical traveler's diarrhea. However, symptoms did not resolve upon either symptomatic or subsequent antibiotic therapy. When neurologic deterioration was observed, imaging studies revealed a dramatic series of thromboembolic events, including intracranial hemorrhage caused by extensive sinus vein thrombosis as well as thrombi of the right cardiac ventricle. Colonic mucosal biopsy samples finally led to the histologic diagnosis of ulcerative colitis...
April 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
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