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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789190/use-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-to-identify-mlst-clade-4-clostridium-difficile-isolates
#1
Jing-Wei Cheng, Chang Liu, Timothy Kudinha, Meng Xiao, Shu-Ying Yu, Chun-Xia Yang, Ming Wei, Guo-Wei Liang, Dong-Hua Shao, Fanrong Kong, Zhao-Hui Tong, Ying-Chun Xu
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of health care-associated infections. Previous studies suggest that C. difficile MLST clade 4 strains with higher drug resistance rates constitute the major clone spreading in China. Thus development of a rapid and accurate typing method for these strains is needed to monitor the epidemiology of this clone and to guide clinical treatment. A total of 160 non-duplicate C. difficile isolates recovered from three large teaching hospitals in Beijing were studied. All the 41 clade 4 C...
April 26, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788418/efficacy-of-bezlotoxumab-based-on-timing-of-administration-relative-to-start-of-antibacterial-therapy-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
Thomas Birch, Yoav Golan, Giuliano Rizzardini, Erin Jensen, Lori Gabryelski, Dalya Guris, Mary Beth Dorr
Background: The fully human monoclonal antibody bezlotoxumab binds Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile toxin B and reduces recurrence rates in patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) receiving antibacterial treatment for a primary or recurrent episode. Objectives: To investigate whether the timing of bezlotoxumab administration relative to the onset of antibacterial treatment affected clinical outcome in the Phase 3 trials MODIFY I (NCT01241552) and MODIFY II (NCT01513239)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788296/comparison-of-c-difficile-stool-toxin-concentrations-in-adults-with-symptomatic-infection-and-asymptomatic-carriage-using-an-ultrasensitive-quantitative-immunoassay
#3
Nira R Pollock, Alice Banz, Xinhua Chen, David Williams, Hua Xu, Christine A Cuddemi, Alice X Cui, Matthew Perrotta, Eaman Alhassan, Brigitte Riou, Aude Lantz, Mark A Miller, Ciaran P Kelly
Background: We used an ultrasensitive, quantitative Single Molecule Array (Simoa) immunoassay to test whether concentrations of C. difficile toxins A and/or B in the stool of adult inpatients with CDI were higher than in asymptomatic carriers of toxinogenic C. difficile. Methods: Patients enrolled as CDI-NAAT had clinically significant diarrhea and positive nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), per US guidelines, and received CDI treatment. Potential carriers had recently received antibiotics and did not have diarrhea; positive NAAT confirmed carriage...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781761/prevention-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-by-reconstitution-of-the-microbiota
#4
Noa Eliakim-Raz, Jihad Bishara
This review summarizes the latest advances in treating and preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common infectious disease cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults in developed countries. As customary antibiotic therapies against C. difficile, metronidazole and vancomycin, are broad spectrum, they affect greatly the gut microbiota, which result in very high recurrence rates. Therefore, new strategies are researched intensively. New therapies focus on limiting further destruction of the gut microbiota or restoring the microbiota to its pre-destructed state...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779649/evaluation-of-a-best-practice-alert-to-reduce-unnecessary-clostridium-difficile-testing-following-receipt-of-a-laxative
#5
Anastasia Bilinskaya, Kellie J Goodlet, Michael D Nailor
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the effect of an alert notifying providers ordering Clostridium difficile PCR when their patient received a laxative within 24 hours at four hospitals. METHODS: All patients whose provider received the laxative alert when ordering C. difficile testing were examined. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty-six patients had 483 alerts triggered, with 75% overridden. While 74% of patients had ≥2 bowel movements immediately pre-order, 33% of C...
April 21, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779082/does-obesity-influence-the-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#6
Sajiv Chandradas, Hamed Khalili, Ashwin Ananthakrishnan, Connor Wayman, Warren Reidel, Jill Waalen, Gauree G Konijeti
BACKGROUND: Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at an increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) compared with the general population. Recent data suggest that obesity also increases the risk of CDI. AIMS: To examine whether obesity influences the risk of CDI among patients with UC. STUDY: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of UC patients seen in gastroenterology clinic between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2015...
May 19, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771298/detection-and-isolation-of-c-difficile-asymptomatic-carriers-during-c-difficile-infection-outbreaks-an-exploratory-study
#7
Bianka Paquet-Bolduc, Philippe Gervais, Jean-Francois Roussy, Sylvie Trottier, Matthew Oughton, Ivan Brukner, Jean Longtin, Vivian G Loo, Andre Dascal, Yves Longtin
Unit-wide detection and isolation of C. difficile asymptomatic carriers was performed during four C. difficile infection outbreaks. Of 114 patients screened, 15 (13%) were carriers. Prevalence of carriage varied between outbreaks from 0% to 29% (p=0.004). Isolating carriers was not associated with significantly shorter outbreak duration compared with historical controls.
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769275/-point-counterpoint-active-surveillance-for-carriers-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-should-be-performed-to-guide-prevention-efforts
#8
L Clifford McDonald, Daniel J Diekema
In 2017, we published a point-counterpoint on laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). At that time, Drs Ferric Fang, Christopher Polage, and Mark Wilcox discussed the strategies for diagnosing Clostridium difficile colitis in symptomatic patients. Since that manuscript new guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of American and the Society for Health Care Epidemiology have been published (1) and healthcare systems have begun to explore screening asymptomatic patients for C. difficile colonization...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768720/bis-cyclic-guanidine-as-a-novel-class-of-compounds-potent-against-clostridium-difficile
#9
Chunhui Li, Peng Teng, Zhong Peng, Peng Sang, Xingmin Sun, Jianfeng Cai
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) symptoms range from diarrhea to severe toxic megacolon and even death. Due to its rapid acquisition of resistance, C. difficile is listed as an urgent antibiotic-resistant threat, and has surpassed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as the most common hospital-acquired infections in the USA. To combat the pathogen, the new structural class of pseudo peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activities could play an important role. Herein, we report that bis-cyclic guanidine compounds that exhibit potent antibacterial activity against C...
May 16, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760687/molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficil-e-isolates-in-china-from-2010-to-2015
#10
Xiao-Shu Liu, Wen-Ge Li, Wen-Zhu Zhang, Yuan Wu, Jin-Xing Lu
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a worldwide public health problem causing high mortality and a large disease burden. Molecular typing and analysis is important for surveillance and infection control of CDI. However, molecular characterization of C . difficile across China is extremely rare. Here, we report on the toxin profiles, molecular subtyping with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR ribotyping, and epidemiological characteristics of 199 C. difficile isolates collected between 2010 through 2015 from 13 participating centers across China...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760684/bioprospecting-deep-sea-actinobacteria-for-novel-anti-infective-natural-products
#11
Dongbo Xu, Linna Han, Chunhui Li, Qi Cao, Duolong Zhu, Nolan H Barrett, Dedra Harmody, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Peter J McCarthy, Xingmin Sun, Guojun Wang
The global prevalence of drug resistance has created an urgent need for the discovery of novel anti-infective drugs. The major source of antibiotics in current clinical practice is terrestrial actinobacteria; the less-exploited deep-sea actinobacteria may serve as an unprecedented source of novel natural products. In this study, we evaluated 50 actinobacteria strains derived from diverse deep water sponges and environmental niches for their anti-microbial activities against a panel of pathogens including Candida albicans , Clostridium difficile , Staphylococcus aureus , and methicillin-resistant S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760211/updates-to-clostridium-difficile-spore-germination
#12
Travis J Kochan, Matthew H Foley, Michelle S Shoshiev, Madeline J Somers, Paul E Carlson, Philip C Hanna
Germination of Clostridium difficile spores is a crucial early requirement for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Likewise, C. difficile cannot cause disease pathologies unless their spores germinate into metabolically active, toxin-producing cells. Recent advances in our understanding of C. difficile spore germination mechanisms indicate that this process is both complex and unique. This review defines unique aspects of the germination pathways of C. difficile and compares them to two other well-studied organisms, Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium perfringens C...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759925/metronidazole-in-the-prevention-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhoea-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-high-risk-hospitalised-patients
#13
Marco Tobar-Marcillo, Maria Guerrero-Duran, Ariana Avecillas-Segovia, Lillana Pacchiano-Aleman, Roberto Basante-Díaz, Hiram Vela-Vizcaino, Eduardo Espinosa-Aznar, Pedro Castorena García, Ricardo Santiago-Ramírez, Ixel Rivas-Bucio
BACKGROUND: In-hospital diarrhoea has a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates among hospitalised patients. Chemoprophylaxis with antibiotics in selected patients could be a cost-effective tool for prevention. METHODS: A prospective randomised, open-label study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Mexico City, selecting patients at high risk of acquiring in-hospital diarrhoea and assigning them to a group taking metronidazole 500mg orally every eight hours for seven days or an observation group...
May 11, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758524/effect-of-ds-2969b-a-novel-gyrb-inhibitor-on-rat-and-monkey-intestinal-microbiota
#14
Manoj Kumar, Tarun Mathur, Vattan Joshi, Dilip J Upadhyay, Shin-Ichi Inoue, Nobuhisa Masuda
DS-2969b, a novel GyrB inhibitor, transiently and reversibly altered the counts of limited intestinal microbiota at around 10 μg/g of faecal levels in rats and monkeys. Considering the high activity of DS-2969b against Clostridium difficile, 10 μg/g of faecal levels would be sufficient for clearing C. difficile from the intestine.
May 2, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757406/effect-of-antibiotic-treatment-on-the-formation-of-non-spore-clostridium-difficile-persister-like-cells
#15
R Álvarez, O Inostroza, M Garavaglia, N P Minton, D Paredes-Sabja, F Gil
Background: The spore is the virulence factor identified to be involved in the recurrence of the disease caused by Clostridium difficile. Objectives: To demonstrate that lethal antibiotic concentrations induce the appearance of C. difficile persister-like non-spore cells. Methods: C. difficile and derivative spo0A mutant strains were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics, as determined using an agar dilution method. Persister-cell generation was determined for all strains using up to 10 × the MIC of every antibiotic for up to 6 days...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748286/structural-basis-for-recognition-of-frizzled-proteins-by-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#16
Peng Chen, Liang Tao, Tianyu Wang, Jie Zhang, Aina He, Kwok-Ho Lam, Zheng Liu, Xi He, Kay Perry, Min Dong, Rongsheng Jin
Clostridium difficile infection is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. The major virulence factor, C. difficile toxin B (TcdB), targets colonic epithelia by binding to the frizzled (FZD) family of Wnt receptors, but how TcdB recognizes FZDs is unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of a TcdB fragment in complex with the cysteine-rich domain of human FZD2 at 2.5-angstrom resolution, which reveals an endogenous FZD-bound fatty acid acting as a co-receptor for TcdB binding...
May 11, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746725/a-phase-i-single-ascending-dose-study-in-healthy-subjects-to-assess-the-safety-tolerability-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-ds-2969b-a-novel-gyrb-inhibitor
#17
Justin Dennie, Alexander G Vandell, Satoshi Inoue, Roohi Gajee, Joseph Pav, George Zhang, Cynthia Zamora, Nobuhisa Masuda, Minoru Uchiyama, Makiko Yamada, Giorgio Senaldi
DS-2969b is a novel GyrB inhibitor in development for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects on normal gastrointestinal microbiota groups of single daily oral ascending doses of DS-2969b in healthy subjects. The study enrolled 6 sequential ascending dose cohorts (6 mg, 20 mg, 60 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg, and 600 mg). In each cohort, 6 subjects were administered DS-2969b and 2 subjects were administered matching placebo...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743833/why-is-it-so-difficult-to-evaluate-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-as-a-treatment-for-ulcerative-colitis
#18
REVIEW
Natalie Grace Fairhurst, Simon P L Travis
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has recently re-emerged as a viable therapeutic option for colonic disorders. Its efficacy has been proved in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection which has encouraged research into the use of FMT for other disorders involving gut dysbiosis, such as ulcerative colitis (UC), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by relapsing and remitting colonic inflammation. Although the FMT protocol for C. difficile treatment is well established, there are numerous additional factors to consider when applying FMT to treat inflammatory diseases...
April 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743303/searching-for-a-potential-algorithm-for-clostridium-difficile-testing-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-does-toxin-enzyme-immunoassay-testing-help
#19
Angela M Theiss, Agnes Balla, Angie Ross, Denise Francis, Christina Wojewoda
Clostridium difficile is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States. Methods for identifying the organism in stool include molecular platforms, enzyme immunoassays for toxin, and culture. Controversy persists over whether molecular tests are too sensitive at identifying C. difficile and have raised questions about how additional laboratory information could inform clinical management and reduce over treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether clinical factors were related to toxin status of patients and whether information about toxin status could potentially inform clinical management of patients...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740244/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-in-raw-cow-sheep-and-goat-meat-in-jazan-saudi-arabia
#20
Marwah Bakri
Background:Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial infection associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalized patients especially old patients. In my previous studies, it was shown the occurrence of C. difficile in animals feces and vegetables which may act as a source of infection to humans. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile in retail raw cow, sheep, and goat, meat in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Method: A total of 600 raw meat samples from cow, sheep, and goat were collected during June-December 2015, and tested for the presence of C...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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