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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140433/il-27-il-27receptor-signaling-provides-protection-in-clostridium-difficile-induced-colitis
#1
Lifang Wang, Ju Cao, Congya Li, Zhang Liping
Background: Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infection. The role of cytokine IL-27 in the immunopathology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains unknown. Methods: The production of IL-27 was determined in human and murine CDI. Furthermore, wild-type (WT) and IL-27 receptor-deficient (WSX-1 -/-) mice were treated with an antibiotic mixture and infected with C.difficile to investigate the effects of IL-27 on host response to CDI. Results: IL-27 production was elevated during CDI in humans and mice...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139189/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-octogenarian-patients
#2
Anca Trifan, Irina Girleanu, Carol Stanciu, Egidia Miftode, Camelia Cojocariu, Ana-Maria Singeap, Catalin Sfarti, Stefan Chiriac, Tudor Cuciureanu, Oana Stoica
AIM: To evaluate the risk factors and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized octogenarian patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of risk factors and outcome of C. difficile infection in hospitalized octogenarians was carried out at two academic centers in Romania from January 2014 to September 2016. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics; antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors use in-hospital and 2 months before admission; comorbidities; length of hospital stay; treatment; and outcome were carefully collected from the patients' medical charts and compared with those from octogenarians hospitalized during the same period...
November 15, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138099/effect-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-on-antimicrobial-utilisation-and-costs-in-patients-with-leukaemia-a-retrospective-interventional-controlled-study
#3
Miranda So, Muhammad Mamdani, Andrew Morris, Tim Lau, Raewyn Broady, Uday Deotare, Jennifer Grant, Dennis Dong Hwan Kim, Aaron D Schimmer, Andre Schuh, Salomeh Shajari, Marilyn Steinberg, Chaim M Bell, Shahid Husain
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASPs) on utilisation and cost of antimicrobials in leukaemia patients in Canada. METHODS: We conducted a multisite, retrospective, observational time-series study from 2005 to 2013. We implemented academic detailing as the intervention of an ASP in leukaemia units at a hospital, piloted February-July 2010, then fully implemented December 2010-March 2013, with no intervention in August-November 2010...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136420/assessment-of-environmental-contamination-with-pathogenic-bacteria-at-a-hospital-laundry-facility
#4
Karen E Michael, David No, William E Daniell, Noah S Seixas, Marilyn C Roberts
Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132405/identifying-predictive-features-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-recurrence-before-during-and-after-primary-antibiotic-treatment
#5
Sepideh Pakpour, Amit Bhanvadia, Roger Zhu, Abhimanyu Amarnani, Sean M Gibbons, Thomas Gurry, Eric J Alm, Laura A Martello
BACKGROUND: Colonization by the pathogen Clostridium difficile often occurs in the background of a disrupted microbial community. Identifying specific organisms conferring resistance to invasion by C. difficile is desirable because diagnostic and therapeutic strategies based on the human microbiota have the potential to provide more precision to the management and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrence. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of adult patients diagnosed with their first CDI...
November 13, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123385/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-elderly-an-update-on-management
#6
REVIEW
Tomefa E Asempa, David P Nicolau
The burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is profound and growing. CDI now represents a common cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. CDI disproportionally affects the elderly, possibly explained by the following risk factors: age-related impairment of the immune system, increasing antibiotic utilization, and frequent health care exposure. In the USA, recent epidemiological studies estimate that two out of every three health care-associated CDIs occur in patients 65 years or older...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122635/nosocomial-proton-pump-inhibitor-administration-and-the-impact-on-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-development-evidence-and-possible-mechanism
#7
REVIEW
Eric Wombwell, Megan E Chittum, Kayla R Leeser
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection continues to rise globally. Particularly concerning are hospital-acquired cases which attribute significant morbidity, mortality, and expenditures to the healthcare system. Proton pump inhibitors which are widely prescribed and generally considered to have minimal adverse effects, have recently come under scrutiny for positive associations with C. difficile infection development. This article will specifically review the current state of evidence demonstrating a positive association between nosocomial proton pump inhibitor administration and the incidence of hospital-acquired C...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121673/influence-of-vitamin-d-on-key-bacterial-taxa-in-infant-microbiota-in-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#8
Chris E Talsness, John Penders, Eugène H J M Jansen, Jan Damoiseaux, Carel Thijs, Monique Mommers
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties giving it the potential to affect microbial colonization of the intestinal tract. We investigated whether maternal vitamin D supplemention, maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, or direct supplementation of the infant influences key bacterial taxa within microbiota of one month old infants. Infant and maternal vitamin D supplement use was ascertained via questionnaires. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D was determined at approximately the 36th week of pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#9
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118745/biofilm-structures-in-a-mono-associated-mouse-model-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
Anna P Soavelomandroso, Françoise Gaudin, Sandra Hoys, Valérie Nicolas, Gayatri Vedantam, Claire Janoir, Sylvie Bouttier
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated disease with high recurrence rates. Host colonization is critical for the infectious process, both in first episodes and in recurrent disease, with biofilm formation playing a key role. The ability of C. difficile to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces is established, but has not yet been confirmed in the intestinal tract. Here, four different isolates of C. difficile, which are in vitro biofilm producers, were studied for their ability to colonize germ-free mice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117204/prevalence-of-binary-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-in-diarrhoeal-humans-in-the-absence-of-epidemic-ribotype-027
#11
Alan M McGovern, Grace O Androga, Daniel R Knight, Mark W Watson, Briony Elliott, Niki F Foster, Barbara J Chang, Thomas V Riley
Virulence of Clostridium difficile is primarily attributed to the large clostridial toxins A and B while the role of binary toxin (CDT) remains unclear. The prevalence of human strains of C. difficile possessing only CDT genes (A-B-CDT+) is generally low (< 5%), however, this genotype is commonly found in neonatal livestock both in Australia and elsewhere. Zoonotic transmission of C. difficile has been suggested previously. Most human diagnostic tests will not detect A-B-CDT+ strains of C. difficile because they focus on detection of toxin A and/or B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116880/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-clostridium-difficile-toxoid-vaccine-in-japanese-adults
#12
Osamu Matsuoka, Dhaval M Patel, Shin Sasaki, Hayato Oka, Toru Sasaki, Patricia J Pietrobon, Thelma Laot, Alain Bouckenooghe, Josemund Menezes, Guy de Bruyn
This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase I/II study conducted in a Japanese cohort to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Clostridium difficile vaccine (the same formulation as that used in the ongoing global Phase III study). Healthy Japanese adults aged 40-75 years were randomized to receive either C. difficile vaccine (N = 67) or placebo (N = 34) by intramuscular injection on Days 0, 7, and 30. Serum IgG specific for toxins A and B was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in vitro functional activity by toxin neutralizing assay (TNA)...
November 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116155/using-crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-to-generate-c-difficile-mutants-defective-in-selenoproteins-synthesis
#13
Kathleen N McAllister, Laurent Bouillaut, Jennifer N Kahn, William T Self, Joseph A Sorg
Clostridium difficile is a significant concern as a nosocomial pathogen, and genetic tools are important when analyzing the physiology of such organisms so that the underlying physiology/pathogenesis of the organisms can be studied. Here, we used TargeTron to investigate the role of selenoproteins in C. difficile Stickland metabolism and found that a TargeTron insertion into selD, encoding the selenophosphate synthetase that is essential for the specific incorporation of selenium into selenoproteins, results in a significant growth defect and a global loss of selenium incorporation...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112710/interventions-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-hospital-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-an-agent-based-modeling-approach-to-evaluate-clinical-effectiveness-in-adult-acute-care-hospitals
#14
Anna K Barker, Oguzhan Alagoz, Nasia Safdar
Background: Despite intensified efforts to reduce hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (C. difficile; HO-CDI), its clinical and economic impacts continue to worsen. Many institutions have adopted bundled interventions that vary considerably in composition, strength of evidence, and effectiveness. Considerable gaps remain in our knowledge of intervention effectiveness and disease transmission, which hinders HO-CDI prevention. Methods: We developed an agent-based model of C...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112564/a-surgical-clostridium-associated-risk-of-death-score-predicts-mortality-after-colectomy-for-clostridium-difficile
#15
Audrey S Kulaylat, Zain Kassam, Christopher S Hollenbeak, David B Stewart
BACKGROUND: A Clostridium difficile-associated risk of death score was recently developed and validated by using a national cohort of both nonsurgical and surgical patients admitted with C difficile infection. However, risk scores specifically derived from surgical cohorts and designed for patients with C difficile infection are currently unavailable. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a risk of death score for patients with C difficile infection who are being considered for total abdominal colectomy because of the failure of medical therapy...
December 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109161/combating-multi-drug-resistant-pathogens-with-host-directed-non-antibiotic-therapeutics
#16
Jourdan A Andersson, Jian Sha, Michelle L Kirtley, Emily Reyes, Eric C Fitts, Sara M Dann, Ashok K Chopra
Earlier, we reported that 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, trifluoperazine (TFP, anti-psychotic), amoxapine (AXPN, anti-depressant), and doxapram (DXP, breathing stimulant), identified from an in vitro murine macrophage cytotoxicity screen, provided 40-60% protection to mice against pneumonic plague when administered at the time of infection for 1-3 days. In this study, the therapeutic potential of these drugs was further evaluated in mice when administered up to 48 h post-infection against pneumonic plague...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106516/cost-effectiveness-of-bezlotoxumab-compared-with-placebo-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
Vimalanand S Prabhu, Erik R Dubberke, Mary Beth Dorr, Elamin Elbasha, Nicole Cossrow, Yiling Jiang, Stephen Marcella
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most commonly recognized cause of recurrent diarrhea. Bezlotoxumab, administered concurrently with antibiotics directed against C. difficile (standard of care [SoC]), has been shown to reduce the recurrence of CDI, compared with SoC alone. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of bezlotoxumab administered concurrently with SoC, compared with SoC alone, in subgroups of patients at risk of recurrence of CDI. Methods: A computer-based Markov health state transition model was designed to track the natural history of patients infected with CDI...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104651/preliminary-screening-of-type-iv-secretion-system-in-divergent-geographic-sources-of-clostridium-difficile
#18
Na Li, Hongbing Jia, Hui Yang, Bing Ji, Yongyun Liu, Xinguo Peng, Ying Cheng, Wen Zhang
In the present study, different geographical sources and sequence types (STs) of Clostridium difficile were preliminarily screened to investigate the distribution profiles of three core genes, VirB4, VirB6 and VirD4, of the type IV secretion system (T4SS). A total of 37 C. difficile strains from different sources were screened, inoculated and prepared for genome extraction. C. difficile toxins A and B were subjected to identification and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. The T4SS gene then underwent polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing analysis...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104169/asymptomatic-clostridium-difficile-carriage-rate-post-fecal-microbiota-transplant-is-low-a-prospective-clinical-and-stool-assessment
#19
Jessica R Allegretti, Andrew Allegretti, Emmalee Phelps, Huiping Xu, Zain Kassam, Monika Fischer
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the asymptomatic C. difficile carriage rates following FMT. METHODS: All patients who underwent FMT for recurrent CDI via colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy between June 2013 and April 2015 and had a minimum of 8-week follow-up post-FMT at two tertiary care referral centers were included in the study. Patients were prospectively followed both clinically and with stool assessments for 8 weeks post FMT. Assessments occurred at 1 week and 4 weeks post-FMT to assess for failure...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103690/clostridium-difficile-in-beef-cattle-farms-farmers-and-their-environment-assessing-the-spread-of-the-bacterium
#20
Cristina Rodriguez, Djalal-Eddine Hakimi, Raphael Vanleyssem, Bernard Taminiau, Johan Van Broeck, Michel Delmée, Nicolas Korsak, Georges Daube
In recent years, several studies have described the presence of Clostridium difficile in healthy and diarrhoeic farm and domestic animals. In pigs and cattle, the isolation of some PCR-ribotypes associated with human infection, especially PCR-ribotypes 014 and 078, has led us to hypothesize about the zoonotic transmission of C. difficile infections. If these animals are reservoirs of C. difficile, farmers in close contact with their animals are particularly at risk of acquiring and spreading the bacterium. This study investigates the presence of C...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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