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hormone transition

Michael F Sweeney, Carlos Sonnenschein, Ana M Soto
Background: Three-dimensional cultures of mammary epithelial cells allow for biologically-relevant studies of the development of the mammary gland in rodents and humans under normal and pathological conditions, like carcinogenesis. Under these conditions, mammotropic hormones play significant roles in tissue morphogenesis. Therefore, a system that recreates the normal, hormonally responsive epithelium would be a valuable tool to study the normal state and its transition to carcinogenesis...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Francesca Caumo, Giovanna Romanucci, Kylie Hunter, Manuel Zorzi, Silvia Brunelli, Petra Macaskill, Nehmat Houssami
BACKGROUND: The Verona population-based breast cancer (BC) screening program provides biennial mammography to women aged 50-69 years. Based on emerging evidence of enhanced detection, the program transitioned to digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) screening. METHODS: This is a prospective pilot evaluation of DBT with synthesised 2D mammography screening implemented during April 2015-March 2017; the rate and characteristics of cancers detected at DBT screening were compared with those detected at the preceding digital mammography (DM) screening round (April 2013-March 2015) in the same screening program...
March 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Sreeharsha Gurrapu, Emanuela Pupo, Giulia Franzolin, Letizia Lanzetti, Luca Tamagnone
Semaphorin 4C (Sema4C) expression in human breast cancers correlates with poor disease outcome. Surprisingly, upon knock-down of Sema4C or its receptor PlexinB2 in diverse mammary carcinoma cells (but not their normal counterparts), we observed dramatic growth inhibition associated with impairment of G2/M phase transition, cytokinesis defects and the onset of cell senescence. Mechanistically, we demonstrated a Sema4C/PlexinB2/LARG-dependent signaling cascade that is required to maintain critical RhoA-GTP levels in cancer cells...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Emine Çamtosun, Zeynep Şıklar, Merih Berberoğlu
OBJECTIVES: Continuation of GH treatment in adolescents with severe childhood onset Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD) during the transition period, irrespective of achievement of final height is still debatable.We aimed to investigate the metabolic profile, BMD and body composition of the patients with isolated childhood onset GHD in whom GH treatments were terminated after they reached their final height, prospectively six months after the cessation of therapy. METHODS: Twelve patients, 6 of which with peak GH <5 ng/mL (Permanent GHD, Group 1), and 6 of which with peak GH >5 ng/mL (Transient GHD, Group 2) after insulin stimulation test were evaluated for anthropometric and laboratory parameters including fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FI), lipid profile, BMD, body composition measurements, and 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring before (baseline) and at six months after discontinuation of GH...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Matthew J Paul, Clemens K Probst, Lauren M Brown, Geert J de Vries
Alongside the development of sexual characteristics and reproductive competence, adolescents undergo marked cognitive, social, and emotional development [1]. A fundamental question is whether these changes are triggered by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at puberty (puberty dependent) or whether they occur independently of HPG activation (puberty independent). Disentangling puberty-dependent from puberty-independent mechanisms is difficult because puberty and adolescence typically proceed concurrently...
March 6, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Suzanne R Burstein, Hyun Jeong Kim, Jasmine A Fels, Liping Qian, Sheng Zhang, Ping Zhou, Anatoly A Starkov, Costantino Iadecola, Giovanni Manfredi
Recent evidence highlights a role for sex and hormonal status in regulating cellular responses to ischemic brain injury and neurodegeneration. A key pathological event in ischemic brain injury is the opening of a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPT) induced by excitotoxic calcium levels, which can trigger irreversible damage to mitochondria accompanied by the release of pro-apoptotic factors. However, sex differences in brain MPT modulation have not yet been explored. Here, we show that mitochondria isolated from female mouse forebrain have a lower calcium threshold for MPT than male mitochondria, and that this sex difference depends on the MPT regulator cyclophilin D (CypD)...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
C S Krumm, S L Giesy, C L Orndorff, Y R Boisclair
Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced predominantly by adipose tissue; it circulates as oligomers of 3, 6, 18, or more units. Plasma adiponectin might be involved in the development of insulin resistance in transition dairy cows because it falls to a nadir around parturition. The possibility that this regulation occurs through a post-transcriptional mechanism was suggested in a previous study that showed unchanged adiponectin mRNA abundance combined with reduced expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones implicated in assembly of adiponectin oligomers...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hwei-Ming Peng, Chase Barlow, Richard J Auchus
Unlike most of the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450s, microsomal P450 17A1 and mitochondrial P450 11B2 catalyze sequential multi-step reactions in steroid biosynthesis. The membrane phospholipid composition might be one parameter that modulates the efficiency and processivity of specific pathways. Here we systematically examined the effects of physiologically relevant phospholipids on the catalysis of purified P450 17A1, P450 11B2, and P450 11B1 in reconstituted assay systems. Both dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC, 18:1) and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC, 12:0) were found to be very efficient in reconstituting 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase reactions of P450 17A1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Do-Hwan Lim, Seungjae Lee, Jee Yun Han, Min-Seok Choi, Jae-Sang Hong, Youngmo Seong, Young-Soo Kwon, Young Sik Lee
The steroid hormone ecdysone has a central role in the developmental transitions of insects through its control of responsive protein-coding and microRNA (miRNA) gene expression. However, the complete regulatory network controlling the expression of these genes remains to be elucidated. In this study, we performed cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing of endogenous Argonaute 1 (Ago1) protein, the core effector of the miRNA pathway, in Drosophila S2 cells. We found that regulatory interactions between miRNAs and their cognate targets were substantially altered by Ago1 in response to ecdysone signaling...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Nengquan Sheng, Li Yan, Kai Wu, Weiqiang You, Jianfeng Gong, Landian Hu, Gewen Tan, Hongqi Chen, Zhigang Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide. However, the mechanisms underlying its development are still poorly understood. Thyroid hormone Receptor Interactor 13 (TRIP13) is a key mitosis regulator, and recent evidence has shown that it is an oncogene. Here, we report that TRIP13, which is overexpressed in CRC, is correlated with the CEA (carcino-embryonic antigen), CA19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9) and pTNM (pathologic primary tumor, lymph nodes, distant metastasis) classification...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Jessica N R Peoples, Timmi Maxmillian, Quynh Le, Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Paul S Brookes, George A Porter, Victor L Davidson, Steven N Ebert
Cardiac energy demands during early embryonic periods are sufficiently met through glycolysis, but as development proceeds, oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria becomes increasingly vital. Adrenergic hormones are known to stimulate metabolism in adult mammals and are essential for embryonic development, but relatively little is known about their effects on metabolism in the embryonic heart.  Here, we show that embryos lacking adrenergic stimulation have approximately 10-fold less cardiac ATP compared to littermate controls...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
F de Michele, J Poels, M G Giudice, F De Smedt, J Ambroise, M Vermeulen, D Gruson, C Wyns
STUDY QUESTION: How does the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), as reflected by the expression of connexin 43 and claudin 11 proteins during the pubertal transition period, take place in vitro compared to samples from a large cohort of pre/peripubertal boys? SUMMARY ANSWER: The BTB connexin 43 and claudin 11 expression patterns appeared to be partially achieved in organotypic culture when compared to that in samples from 71 pre/peripubertal patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although alterations in the protein expression patterns of the BTB, whose main components are connexin 43 and claudin 11, are known to be associated with impaired spermatogenesis in mice and adult men, there is a lack of knowledge on its formation in pre-peripubertal human tissue both in vitro and in vivo...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Alicja Dolzblasz, Edyta M Gola, Katarzyna Sokołowska, Elwira Smakowska-Luzan, Adriana Twardawska, Hanna Janska
Shoot and root apical meristems (SAM and RAM, respectively) are crucial to provide cells for growth and organogenesis and therefore need to be maintained throughout the life of a plant. However, plants lacking the mitochondrial protease AtFTSH4 exhibit an intriguing phenotype of precocious cessation of growth at both the shoot and root apices when grown at elevated temperatures. This is due to the accumulation of internal oxidative stress and progressive mitochondria dysfunction. To explore the impacts of the internal oxidative stress on SAM and RAM functioning, we study the expression of selected meristem-specific ( STM , CLV3 , WOX5 ) and cell cycle-related (e...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wen Hui, Shenghua Liu, Jie Zheng, Zujun Fang, Qiang Ding, Chenchen Feng
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, and CTNNB1 is frequently mutated in ACC. Our study aims to screen for effective agents with antineoplastic activity against ACC with CTNNB1 mutation. In-silico screening of the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) database was conducted. Drug sensitivity in cells with CTNNB1 mutation was analyzed and further in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using the compound. Only one compound, Nutlin-3a, an MDM2 inhibitor, was significantly sensitive in 18 cancer cells with CTNNB1 mutation...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Sébastien Bélanger, Suzanne Marchand, Pierre-Étienne Jacques, Blake Meyers, François Belzile
In barley, it is possible to induce embryogenesis in the haploid and uninucleate microspore to obtain a diploid plant that is perfectly homozygous. To change developmental fates in this fashion, microspores need to engage in cellular de-differentiation, interrupting the pollen formation, and restore totipotency prior to engaging in embryogenesis. In this work, we used the barley cultivar Gobernadora to characterize the transcriptome of microspores prior to (day 0) and immediately after (days 2 and 5) the application of a stress pretreatment...
March 12, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Kilmer S McCully
The indoleamine hormone melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland, controls circadian rhythm, and is dependent upon adenosyl methionine for enzymatic synthesis of melatonin from N-acetyl serotonin. Pineal melatonin secretion declines dramatically with aging and dementia. Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and the marked decline in adenosyl methionine with aging leads to dysregulation of methionine metabolism and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thioretinaco ozonide is a disulfonium complex formed from thioretinamide, cobalamin, and ozone, which binds the alpha and gamma-phosphate groups of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and oxygen in the process of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Kavitha Vellanki, Susan Hou
Most women with dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 (CKD stage 5D) are in the postmenopausal age group. Early menopause is reported for all CKD stages (stages 3-5D). The traditional definition of menopause is not applicable in CKD stage 5(D) because menses can resume with hormone replacement therapy or kidney transplantation. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms continues to be the primary indication for hormone replacement therapy, with no dosing studies done specifically for CKD or kidney transplantation populations...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Anne-Laure Nivet, Isabelle Dufort, Isabelle Gilbert, Marc-André Sirard
In reproduction, FSH is one of the most important hormones, especially in females, because it controls the number of follicles and the rate of follicular growth. Although several studies have examined the follicular response at the transcriptome level, it is difficult to obtain a clear and complete picture of the genes responding to an increase in FSH in an in vivo context because follicles undergo rapid morphological and physical changes during their growth. To help define the transcriptome downstream response to FSH, an in vitro model was used in the present study to observe the short-term (4h) cellular response...
March 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Xiao-Tong Luo, Bao-Dong Cai, Lei Yu, Jun Ding, Yu-Qi Feng
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are regarded as the sixth plant hormone that is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Sensitive quantification of BRs will be greatly benefit to illuminate the detail mechanisms about how BRs play crucial role in plant developmental processes such as cell division, cell expansion, cytodifferentiation, seed germination, vegetative growth and resisting biological or abiotic stress. In the current study, we developed a method for rapid and sensitive determination of endogenous BRs in plant tissues by combining LC-MS and a novel sample preparation strategy, in which the plant tissue extract was supplied to solid phase boronate affinity labeling and extraction, followed by desorption and salt-induced phase transition extraction for further purification...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
M A Hipolito Rodrigues, L Maitrot-Mantelet, G Plu-Bureau, A Gompel
Migraine is a common, disabling and incapacitating headache disorder that may be triggered by many factors, such as hormones especially during the perimenopausal period, where large alterations in estradiol levels can occur. The evidence implies that hormonal fluctuations are one of the important triggers of migraine. During reproductive life and during hormonal contraception, the course of migraine can be impacted. Different types of migraine with and without aura can be variously influenced by hormones. Migraine can constitute a risk factor for stroke and this must be taken in account for menopause hormone therapy...
March 9, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
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