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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096379/molecular-mechanism-underlying-juvenile-hormone-mediated-repression-of-precocious-larval-adult-metamorphosis
#1
Takumi Kayukawa, Akiya Jouraku, Yuka Ito, Tetsuro Shinoda
Juvenile hormone (JH) represses precocious metamorphosis of larval to pupal and adult transitions in holometabolous insects. The early JH-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) plays a key role in the repression of metamorphosis as a mediator of JH action. Previous studies demonstrated that Kr-h1 inhibits precocious larval-pupal transition in immature larva via direct transcriptional repression of the pupal specifier Broad-Complex (BR-C). JH was recently reported to repress the adult specifier gene Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93); however, its mechanism of action remains unclear...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091752/management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-practice-patterns-and-outcomes-of-cinacalcet-treatment-with-or-without-active-vitamin%C3%A2-d-in-austria-and-switzerland-the-observational-transit-study
#2
Wolfgang Pronai, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Andreas Bock, Renate Klauser-Braun, Christine Jäger, Gunther Pendl, Margit Hemetsberger, Karl Lhotta
Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a complex disorder requiring an individualized multicomponent treatment approach. This study was conducted to identify treatment combinations used in clinical practice in Austria and Switzerland and the potential to control this disorder. A total of 333 adult hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients were analyzed. All patients received conventional care prior to initiation of a cinacalcet-based regimen. During the study, treatment components, e.g. cinacalcet, active vitamin D analogues and phosphate binders, were adapted to individual patient requirements and treatment dynamics were documented...
January 13, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089368/the-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-for-youth-with-epilepsy-basic-biological-sociological-and-psychological-issues
#3
REVIEW
Peter Camfield, Carol Camfield, Kanetee Busiah, David Cohen, Alison Pack, Rima Nabbout
Transition from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with epilepsy is challenging for the patient, family, and health care workers. This paper is the first of three that summarize the main findings from the 2nd Symposium on Transition in Epilepsies, held in Paris from June 14-25, 2016. In this paper we describe five basic themes that have an important effect on transition. First, there are important brain changes in adolescence that leave an imbalance between risk taking and pleasure seeking behaviors and frontal executive function compared with adults...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078219/hormone-therapy-for-transgender-patients
#4
REVIEW
Cécile A Unger
Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients...
December 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074850/juvenile-hormone-biosynthesis-in-adult-blattella-germanica-requires-nuclear-receptors-seven-up-and-ftz-f1
#5
Ferran Borras-Castells, Claudia Nieva, José L Maestro, Oscar Maestro, Xavier Belles, David Martín
In insects, the transition from juvenile development to the adult stage is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers metamorphosis and the end of the growth period, the reappearance of this hormone after the imaginal molt marks the onset of reproductive adulthood. Despite the importance of such transition, the regulatory mechanism that controls it remains mostly unknown. Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) have essential roles in the tissue- and stage-specific activation of adult CA JH-biosynthetic activity...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074678/prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease-cerebrovascular-disease-and-dementia-in-women-the-case-for-menopause-hormone-therapy
#6
Dennis A Davey
Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease and aging-related cognitive impairment and dementia (ARCID) increase in prevalence in women with advancing age. The development of Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease and ARCID may be postponed or prevented by protective measures including the active treatment of vascular risk factors and continuing exercise and healthy lifestyle from early- and mid-life onward. Bilateral oophorectomy before the natural menopause is associated with an increased incidence of ARCID and the increased risk is significantly reduced by estrogen therapy...
January 11, 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064159/prognostic-significance-of-pre-end-stage-renal-disease-serum-alkaline-phosphatase-for-post-end-stage-renal-disease-mortality-in-late-stage-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-transitioning-to-dialysis
#7
Keiichi Sumida, Miklos Z Molnar, Praveen K Potukuchi, Fridtjof Thomas, Jun Ling Lu, Yoshitsugu Obi, Connie M Rhee, Elani Streja, Kunihiro Yamagata, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Csaba P Kovesdy
BACKGROUND: Higher serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels have been associated with excess mortality in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, little is known about the impact of late-stage NDD-CKD ALP levels on outcomes after dialysis initiation. METHODS: Among 17 732 US veterans who transitioned to dialysis between October 2007 and September 2011, we examined the association of serum ALP levels averaged over the last 6 months of the pre-ESRD transition period ('prelude period') with all-cause, cardiovascular and infection-related mortality following dialysis initiation, using Cox (for all-cause mortality) and competing risk (for cause-specific mortality) regressions adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, medications, estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum albumin levels over the 6-month prelude period, and vascular access type at dialysis initiation...
January 7, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063926/luteinizing-hormone-modulates-intracellular-calcium-protein-tyrosine-phosphorylation-and-motility-during-human-sperm-capacitation
#8
Aideé S López-Torres, María E González-González, Esperanza Mata-Martínez, Fernando Larrea, Claudia L Treviño, Mayel Chirinos
In order to fertilize, spermatozoa must undergo physiological and biochemical changes during their transit along the female reproductive tract before reaching and fusing with the oocyte, process known as capacitation. Sperm modifications associated with capacitation are modulated by their interaction with molecules present in the female reproductive tract. During the woman fertile window, some reproductive hormones reach their maximum concentrations in serum, such as the luteinizing hormone (LH). Since spermatozoa preparing to fertilize may be exposed to LH, the purpose of this work was to study the effects of this hormone on intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i), protein tyrosine phosphorylation, sperm motility and acrosome reaction under capacitating conditions...
January 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062678/facility-practice-variation-to-help-understand-the-effects-of-public-policy-insights-from-the-dialysis-outcomes-and-practice-patterns-study-dopps
#9
Douglas S Fuller, Bruce M Robinson
Recent Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services policies have used dialysis facility practice variation to develop public ratings and adjust payments. In the Dialysis Facility Compare star rating system (DFC SRS), facility-relative rates of performance-based clinical measures varied nearly two-fold for mortality (standardized mortality ratio; 10th/90th percentiles: 0.71, 1.34) and hospitalization (standardized hospitalization ratio; 10th/90th percentiles: 0.64, 1.37), and nearly four-fold for transfusion (standardized transfusion ratio; 10th/90th percentiles: 0...
January 6, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#10
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042023/diverse-pathways-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-related-with-cancer-progression-and-metastasis-and-potential-effects-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-process
#11
Hae-Miru Lee, Kyung-A Hwang, Kyung-Chul Choi
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with normal functions of natural hormones in the body, leading to a disruption of the endocrine system. Specifically, EDCs have the potential to cause formation of several hormone-dependent cancers, including breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion and acquire mesenchymal phenotype is closely associated with malignant transformation and the initiation of cancer metastasis...
December 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035533/mitochondrial-cholesterol-and-the-paradox-in-cell-death
#12
Carmen García-Ruiz, Vicente Ribas, Anna Baulies, Jose C Fernández-Checa
Mitochondria are considered cholesterol-poor organelles, and obtain their cholesterol load by the action of specialized proteins involved in its delivery from extramitochondrial sources and trafficking within mitochondrial membranes. Although mitochondrial cholesterol fulfills vital physiological functions, such as the synthesis of bile acids in the liver or the formation of steroid hormones in specialized tissues, recent evidence indicates that the accumulation of cholesterol in mitochondria may be a key event in prevalent human diseases, in particular in the development of steatohepatitis (SH) and its progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030842/loss-of-runx3-expression-inhibits-bone-invasion-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Junhee Park, Hyun-Jeong Kim, Ki Rim Kim, Sun Kyoung Lee, Hyungkeun Kim, Kwang-Kyun Park, Won-Yoon Chung
High recurrence and lower survival rates in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are associated with its bone invasion. We identified the oncogenic role of RUNX3 during bone invasion by OSCC. Tumor growth and the generation of osteolytic lesions were significantly inhibited in mice that were subcutaneously inoculated with RUNX3-knockdown human OSCC cells. RUNX3 knockdown enhanced TGF-β-induced growth arrest and inhibited OSCC cell migration and invasion in the absence or presence of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a major growth factor abundant in the bone microenvironment...
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024987/effects-of-high-intensity-training-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#14
Camilla M Mandrup, Jon Egelund, Michael Nyberg, Martina H Lundberg Slingsby, Caroline Andersen, Sofie Løgstrup, Jens Bangsbo, Charlotte Suetta, Bente Stallknecht, Ylva Hellsten
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the causal factors have been proposed to be the loss of estrogen and the subsequent alterations of the hormonal milieu. However, which factors that contribute to the deterioration of cardio-metabolic health in postmenopausal women is debated as the menopausal transition is also associated with increased age and fat mass. Furthermore, indications of reduced cardio-metabolic adaptations to exercise in postmenopausal women add to the adverse health profile...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012561/peripheral-apelin-13-administration-inhibits-gastrointestinal-motor-functions-in-rats-the-role-of-cholecystokinin-through-cck1-receptor-mediated-pathway
#15
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, İlknur Birsen, V Nimet İzgüt-Uysal
Apelin is the endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor APJ. The APJ receptor is widely expressed in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues including stomach and small intestine. Apelin administration was shown to induce the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) which is a well-known alimentary hormone with its inhibitory actions on GI motor functions through CCK1 receptors on vagal afferent fibers. We investigated whether; (i) peripherally injected apelin-13 alters GI motor functions, (ii) apelin-induced changes are mediated by APJ receptor or CCK1 receptor and (iii) vagal afferents are involved in inhibitory effects of apelin...
December 16, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009424/addition-of-docetaxel-and-or-zoledronic-acid-to-standard-of-care-for-hormone-naive-prostate-cancer-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#16
Pengfei Zhang, Feng Wen, Ping Fu, Yu Yang, Qiu Li
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of the addition of docetaxel and/or zoledronic acid to the standard of care (SOC) for hormone-naive prostate cancer has been evaluated in the STAMPEDE trial. The object of the present analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these treatment options in the treatment of advanced hormone-naive prostate cancer in China. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model was carried out from the Chinese societal perspective...
November 22, 2016: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007528/puberty-and-structural-brain-development-in-humans
#17
REVIEW
Megan M Herting, Elizabeth R Sowell
Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment...
December 19, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002202/bh4-improves-postprandial-endothelial-function-after-a-high-fat-meal-in-men-and-postmenopausal-women
#18
Yashesh Shah, Leon Bass, Gareth W Davison, Nichole Seigler, Jennifer S Pollock, Jeff Thomas, Ryan A Harris
OBJECTIVE: The timing and duration of menopause is important when evaluating the risk for cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women, likely related in part to nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The flow-mediated dilation (FMD) test is a noninvasive assessment of NO bioavailability in humans, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is essential for NO synthesis. A high-fat meal (HFM) has been used to increase lipemia and reduce NO bioavailability. Thus, this study sought to determine if menopausal transition has any impact on the postprandial endothelial function response to a HFM, and evaluate the effect of BH4 on postprandial endothelial function in postmenopausal women and men...
December 19, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000609/an-i-in-vitro-i-3d-model-using-collagen-coated-gelatin-nanofibers-for-studying-breast-cancer-metastasis
#19
Janani Guru, Mamatha Pillai, Selvakumar Rajendran, Amitava Bhattacharyya, Sabarinath Chandrasekharan
Study of breast cancer metastasis is limited due to poor knowledge in molecular progression of breast tumor and varied heterogeneity. For better understanding of tumor metastasis, a reliable 3D <i>in vitro</i> model bridging the gap between 2D cultures and <i>in vivo</i> animal model studies is highly needed. Our study is focused on two keypoints (i) designing a 3D microenvironment for studying metastasis and (ii) simulating the metastasis milieu by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET)...
December 21, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997888/rasd1-knockdown-results-in-failure-of-oocyte-maturation
#20
Youngeun Lee, Kyeoung-Hwa Kim, Hyemin Yoon, Ok-Hee Lee, Eunyoung Kim, Miseon Park, Hoon Jang, Kwonho Hong, Hyuk Song, Jung Jae Ko, Woo Sik Lee, Kyung-Ah Lee, Eun Mi Chang, Youngsok Choi
BACKGROUND: Ras dexamethasone-induced protein (RASD1) is a member of Ras superfamily of small GTPases. RASD1 regulates various signaling pathways involved in iron homeostasis, growth hormone secretion, and circadian rhythm. However, RASD1 function in oocyte remains unknown. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, RASD1 expression in mouse ovary and RASD1 role in oocyte maturation-related gene expression, spindle formation, and chromosome alignment were analyzed...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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