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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923180/menopause-in-latin-america-symptoms-attitudes-treatments-and-future-directions-in-costa-rica
#1
REVIEW
T D Locklear, B J Doyle, A L Perez, S M Wicks, G B Mahady
Similar to their US counterparts, Costa Rican women enter menopause at ∼50 years of age, have similar symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats, as well as an overall negative attitude toward the menopausal transition. One study of rural women in Monteverde reported that women knew little about the menopausal transition, as the subject was not discussed. Similar to other Latin American women, the use of hormone therapy by Costa Rican women is low and instead they use alternative therapies, including massage, dietary changes and herbal medicines...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923176/gaps-limitations-and-new-insights-on-endogenous-estrogen-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone-as-related-to-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-women-traversing-the-menopause-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Samar R El Khoudary
While it is known that estrogen protects heart health in women prior to menopause, its role after menopause and during the menopause transition is far less apparent. Previous reviews summarizing the literature on the impact of endogenous estrogen on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on postmenopausal women and have not come to a clear conclusion. No previous review has summarized the associations between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), a proxy measure of the menopause transition, and CVD risk...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917368/improving-vasomotor-symptoms-psychological-symptoms-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-peri-or-post-menopausal-women-through-yoga-an-umbrella-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
M Shepherd-Banigan, K M Goldstein, R R Coeytaux, J R McDuffie, A P Goode, A S Kosinski, M G Van Noord, D Befus, S Adam, V Masilamani, A Nagi, J W Williams
OBJECTIVES: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), commonly reported during menopausal transition, negatively affect psychological health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). While hormone therapy is an effective treatment, its use is limited by concerns about possible harms. Thus, many women with VMS seek nonhormonal, nonpharmacologic treatment options. However, evidence to guide clinical recommendations is inconclusive. This study reviewed the effectiveness of yoga, tai chi and qigong on vasomotor, psychological symptoms, and HRQoL in peri- or post-menopausal women...
October 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915322/hormonal-regulation-of-adipogenesis
#4
Mi-Jeong Lee
Adipose tissue includes multiple anatomical depots that serve as an energy reserve that can expand or contract to maintain metabolic homeostasis. During normal growth and in response to overnutrition, adipose tissue expands by increasing the volume of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy) and/or by generating new adipocytes (hyperplasia) via recruitment and differentiation of adipose progenitors. This so-called healthy expansion through hyperplasia is thought to be beneficial in that it protects against obesity associated metabolic disorders by allowing for the "safe" storage of excess energy...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914501/andrology-of-male-to-female-transsexuals-influence-of-cross-sex-hormone-therapy-on-testicular-function
#5
REVIEW
F Schneider, S Kliesch, S Schlatt, N Neuhaus
Patients with gender dysphoria are offered cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery to achieve the transition between the sex assigned at birth and gender identity. According to international guidelines, cross-sex hormone therapy in trans-women should lead to a psychologically and physiologically healthy body with feminized serum hormone levels, resulting in suppression of spermatogenesis. However, in a recently published multi-center study, we discovered a high proportion of patients with male serum hormone levels and qualitatively intact spermatogenesis on the day of sex reassignment surgery...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911179/deciphering-the-function-of-the-blunt-circadian-rhythm-of-melatonin-in-the-newborn-lamb-impact-on-adrenal-and-heart
#6
Maria Seron-Ferre, Claudia Torres-Farfan, Francisco J Valenzuela, Sebastian Castillo-Galan, Auristela Rojas, Natalia Mendez, Henry Reynolds, Guillermo J Valenzuela, Anibal J Llanos
Neonatal lambs, as with human and other neonates, have low arrhythmic endogenous levels of melatonin for several weeks until they start their own pineal rhythm of melatonin production at approximately 2 weeks of life. During pregnancy, daily rhythmic transfer of maternal melatonin to the fetus has important physiological roles in sheep, nonhuman primates, and rats. This melatonin rhythm provides a circadian signal and also participates in adjusting the physiology of several organs in preparation for extrauterine life...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910694/an-epidemiologic-perspective-on-the-stem-cell-hypothesis-in-human-carcinogenesis
#7
REVIEW
David Schottenfeld
BACKGROUND: Tomasetti and Vogelstein have hypothesized that the patterns of cancer incidence in various cells and tissues are highly correlated with the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors reviewed the risks in tissues of 17 types of cancer from the United States and 69 additional countries. Positive correlations were observed consistently between the tissue - specific cancer incidence and the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors concluded that approximately two-thirds of global cancer incidence may be attributed to random DNA replication errors...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903616/circulating-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate-decreases-even-with-a-slight-change-in-oestradiol
#8
Sumika Matsui, Toshiyuki Yasui, Kana Kasai, Kanako Yoshida, Takeshi Kato, Hirokazu Uemura, Akira Kuwahara, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Minoru Irahara
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on changes in circulating dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) with focus on the relationship between oestrogen level and change in DHEA-S. Forty-two women were enrolled in this longitudinal study. Nineteen women received oral oestradiol and twenty-three women received transdermal oestradiol continuously. Twenty women received progesterone continuously except for women who had undergone hysterectomy. Circulating oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and DHEA-S levels before and at 3 months after commencement of HRT were measured...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903489/from-the-cover-exposure-to-an-environmentally-relevant-mixture-of-brominated-flame-retardants-decreased-p-%C3%AE-cateninser675-expression-and-its-interaction-with-e-cadherin-in-the-mammary-glands-of-lactating-rats
#9
Elham Dianati, Michael G Wade, Barbara F Hales, Bernard Robaire, Isabelle Plante
Proper mammary gland development and function require precise hormonal regulation and bidirectional cross talk between cells provided by means of paracrine factors as well as intercellular junctions; exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can disturb these processes. Exposure to one such family of chemicals, the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is ubiquitous. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BFR exposures disrupt signaling pathways and intercellular junctions that control mammary gland development...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894457/strigolactones-biosynthesis-and-their-role-in-abiotic-stress-resilience-in-plants-a-critical-review
#10
REVIEW
Wajeeha Saeed, Saadia Naseem, Zahid Ali
Strigolactones (SLs), being a new class of plant hormones, play regulatory roles against abiotic stresses in plants. There are multiple hormonal response pathways, which are adapted by the plants to overcome these stressful environmental constraints to reduce the negative impact on overall crop plant productivity. Genetic modulation of the SLs could also be applied as a potential approach in this regard. However, endogenous plant hormones play central roles in adaptation to changing environmental conditions, by mediating growth, development, nutrient allocation, and source/sink transitions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893182/the-dynamic-landscape-of-gene-regulation-during-bombyx-mori-oogenesis
#11
Qiang Zhang, Wei Sun, Bang-Yong Sun, Yang Xiao, Ze Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oogenesis in the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a complex process involving previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. During this process, follicles show drastic morphological and physiological changes. However, the genome-wide regulatory profiles of gene expression during oogenesis remain to be determined. RESULTS: In this study, we obtained time-series transcriptome data and used these data to reveal the dynamic landscape of gene regulation during oogenesis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889219/a-validated-uplc-ms-ms-method-coupled-with-protein-precipitation-and-ion-exchange-solid-phase-extraction-for-the-quantitation-of-porcine-relaxin-b29-in-dog-plasma-and-its-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#12
Chong Su, Hui Sun, Hong Yang, Lei Yin, Jiwen Zhang, John Paul Fawcett, Jingkai Gu
Porcine relaxin is a 6 kDa peptide hormone of pregnancy with important physiological and pharmacological effects. It contains a number of analogs of which porcine relaxin B29 is one of the most important. To support the development of porcine relaxin B29 as a new drug, we established an UPLC-MS/MS method for its quantitation in dog plasma. Sample preparation by protein precipitation and ion exchange solid phase extraction was followed by UPLC on an XBridge™ BEH300 C18 column at 40 °C in a run time of only 5...
September 9, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887413/dynamic-assembly-and-activation-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-enhancers-through-coregulator-switching
#13
Shino Murakami, Anusha Nagari, W Lee Kraus
Although many features of active transcriptional enhancers have been defined by genomic assays, we lack a clear understanding of the order of events leading to enhancer formation and activation as well as the dynamics of coregulator interactions within the enhancer complex. Here, we used selective loss- or gain-of-function mutants of estrogen receptor α (ERα) to define two distinct phases of ligand-dependent enhancer formation. In the first phase (0-20 min), p300 is recruited to ERα by Mediator as well as p300's acetylhistone-binding bromodomain to promote initial enhancer formation, which is not competent for sustained activation...
September 8, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880708/inhibition-of-e2f1-activity-and-cell-cycle-progression-by-arsenic-via-retinoblastoma-protein
#14
Lynn A Sheldon
The regulation of cell cycle progression by steroid hormones and growth factors is important for maintaining normal cellular processes including development and cell proliferation. Deregulated progression through the G1/S and G2/M cell cycle transitions can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and cancer. The transcription factor E2F1, a key cell cycle regulator, targets genes encoding proteins that regulate cell cycle progression through the G1/S transition as well as proteins important in DNA repair and apoptosis...
September 7, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880476/allosteric-modulation-as-a-unifying-mechanism-for-receptor-function-and-regulation
#15
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Changeux, Arthur Christopoulos
Four major receptor families enable cells to respond to chemical and physical signals from their proximal environment. The ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels, G-protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases are all allosteric proteins that carry multiple, spatially distinct, yet conformationally linked ligand-binding sites. Recent studies point to common mechanisms governing the allosteric transitions of these receptors, including the impact of oligomerization, pre-existing and functionally distinct conformational ensembles, intrinsically disordered regions, and the occurrence of allosteric modulatory sites...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874841/epiphyseal-bone-formation-occurs-via-thyroid-hormone-regulation-of-chondrocyte-to-osteoblast-transdifferentiation
#16
Patrick Aghajanian, Weirong Xing, Shaohong Cheng, Subburaman Mohan
Endochondral ossification in the diaphysis of long bones has been studied in-depth during fetal development but not postnatally in the epiphysis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that Sox9 and Col2 expressing immature chondrocytes in the epiphysis transition into prehypertrophic and hypetrophic chondrocytes and finally into osteoblasts expressing Col1 and BSP during postnatal day 7-10, when serum levels of thyroid hormone (TH) rise. Lineage tracing using Rosa-td tomato (Col2-Cre-ERT2) mice treated with tamoxifen indicated that the same Col2 expressing chondrocytes expressed prehypertrophic, hypertrophic, and subsequently bone formation markers in a sequential manner in euthyroid but not hypothyroid mice, thus providing evidence that chondrocyte to osteoblast transdifferentiation is TH-dependent...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872596/survey-of-veterinarians-using-a-novel-physical-compression-squeeze-procedure-in-the-management-of-neonatal-maladjustment-syndrome-in-foals
#17
Monica Aleman, Kalie M Weich, John E Madigan
Horses are a precocious species that must accomplish several milestones that are critical to survival in the immediate post-birth period for their survival. One essential milestone is the successful transition from the intrauterine unconsciousness to an extrauterine state of consciousness or awareness. This transition involves a complex withdrawal of consciousness inhibitors and an increase in neuroactivating factors that support awareness. This process involves neuroactive hormones as well as inputs related to factors such as cold, visual, olfactory, and auditory stimuli...
September 5, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867352/health-concerns-of-transgender-and-gender-nonconforming-youth-and-their-parents-upon-presentation-to-a-transgender-clinic
#18
Shauna M Lawlis, Hillary R Donkin, Justin R Bates, Maria T Britto, Lee Ann E Conard
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of specific health concerns identified by transgender and gender nonconforming patients and their parents at initial clinic visit. METHODS: Checklists were developed in an iterative process and distributed to both patients and parents at their initial visit to a transgender clinic. Retrospective chart review and secondary data analyses were performed to determine the number of items endorsed, frequency with which each item was endorsed, and provider domain of each item endorsed: physician, social work, or both physician and social work...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862950/cardiac-adaptations-to-high-intensity-aerobic-training-in-premenopausal-and-recent-postmenopausal-women-the-copenhagen-women-study
#19
Jon Egelund, Peter G Jørgensen, Camilla M Mandrup, Thomas Fritz-Hansen, Bente Stallknecht, Jens Bangsbo, Michael Nyberg, Ylva Hellsten
BACKGROUND: We examined the role of menopause on cardiac dimensions and function and assessed the efficacy of exercise training before and after menopause. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of healthy premenopausal (n=36, 49.4±0.3 years) and postmenopausal (n=37, 53.5±0.5 years) women with no history of cardiovascular disease and with a mean age difference between groups of only 4 years were studied. Cardiac dimensions and systolic and diastolic function were determined by transthoracic echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging and 2-dimensional speckle tracking...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862522/the-social-context-of-hormone-and-silicone-injection-among-puerto-rican-transwomen
#20
Mark B Padilla, Sheilla Rodríguez-Madera, Alixida G Ramos Pibernus, Nelson Varas-Díaz, Torsten B Neilands
This paper draws on ethnographic, qualitative and survey data with transwomen in Puerto Rico to examine the social and political-economic context of lay injection with hormone and silicone - common practices within this community. We describe specific practices of hormone and silicone injection, the actors that govern them, the market for the sale and distribution of syringes and the networks of lay specialists who provide services to a population that is neglected by and largely excluded from biomedical settings...
September 1, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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