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Diabetes endocrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779830/exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-do-we-need-to-treat-it-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Gábor Zsóri, Dóra Illés, Viktória Terzin, Emese Ivány, László Czakó
The exocrine and endocrine pancreata are very closely linked both anatomically and physiologically. Abdominal symptoms such as nausea, bloating, diarrhea, steatorrhea, and weight loss can often occur in diabetic patients. Impairments of the exocrine pancreatic function seem to be a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus; however, they are largely overlooked. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current concepts of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (PEI) in diabetes mellitus. The prevalence and symptoms of PEI in diabetes mellitus, the pathomechanism, and difficulties of diagnosis and therapy of PEI are summarized in this systematic review...
May 17, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773064/the-hydrocarbon-staple-beyond-recent-advances-towards-stapled-peptide-therapeutics-that-target-protein-protein-interactions
#2
Robert A Hillman, Jonathan W Nadraws, Michael A Bertucci
Anomalous protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have been correlated to a variety of disease states, such as cancer, infectious disease, neurological disorders, diabetes, endocrine disorders and cardiovascular disease. Stapled peptides are an emerging intervention for these PPIs due to their improved structural rigidity and pharmacokinetic properties relative to unstapled peptides. This review details the most recent advances in the field of stapled peptide therapeutics, including the increasing variety of PPIs being targeted and types of peptide staples being employed...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769672/pancreas-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Qiao Zhou, Douglas A Melton
The pancreas is made from two distinct components: the exocrine pancreas, a reservoir of digestive enzymes, and the endocrine islets, the source of the vital metabolic hormone insulin. Human islets possess limited regenerative ability; loss of islet β-cells in diseases such as type 1 diabetes requires therapeutic intervention. The leading strategy for restoration of β-cell mass is through the generation and transplantation of new β-cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Other approaches include stimulating endogenous β-cell proliferation, reprogramming non-β-cells to β-like cells, and harvesting islets from genetically engineered animals...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768476/treatment-with-specific-soluble-factors-promotes-the-functional-maturation-of-transcription-factor-mediated-pancreatic-transdifferentiated-cells
#4
Hiroaki Motoyama, Akira Kobayashi, Takahide Yokoyama, Akira Shimizu, Hiroshi Sakai, Tsuyoshi Notake, Kentaro Fukushima, Shin-Ichi Miyagawa
Pancreatic lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) display instructive roles in converting adult cells to endocrine pancreatic cells through a process known as transdifferentiation. However, little is known about potential factors capable of accelerating transdifferentiation following transduction to achieve the functional maturation of transdifferentiated cells. In this study, we demonstrated, using adult liver-derived progenitor cells, that soluble factors utilized in pancreatic differentiation protocols of pluripotent stem cells promote functional maturation of TFs-mediated transdifferentiated cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767287/screening-for-comorbid-conditions-in-patients-enrolled-in-the-soda-registry-a-2-year-observational-analysis
#5
Whitney W Woodmansee, Murray B Gordon, Mark E Molitch, Adriana G Ioachimescu, Don W Carver, Beloo Mirakhur, David Cox, Roberto Salvatori
PURPOSE: This 2-year analysis assessed frequency of comorbidities and comorbidity screening in the Somatuline® (lanreotide, LAN) Depot for Acromegaly (SODA) registry. METHODS: Patient data collected included pituitary hormone deficiencies, sleep studies, echocardiograms, gallbladder sonographies, colonoscopies, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone levels in patients with (DM) and without (non-DM) diabetes mellitus were analyzed...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764908/management-of-endocrine-disease-which-metabolic-procedure-comparing-outcomes-in-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#6
Adrian T Billeter, Javier de la Garza Herrera, Katharina M Scheurlen, Felix Nickel, Franck Billmann, Beat Müller-Stich
Obesity and its associated comorbidities have become one of the largest challenges for health care in the near future. Conservative therapy for obesity and related comorbidities have a very high failure rate and poor long-term results. Similarly, the conservative and medical management of the majority of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are only able to slow down disease progression but have no causal effect on the disease process. Obesity surgery has evolved as a highly effect therapy for severe obesity achieving long-lasting weight loss...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763710/diabetes-mellitus-in-friedreich-ataxia-a-case-series-of-19-patients-from-the-german-austrian-diabetes-mellitus-registry
#7
Angeliki Pappa, Martin G Häusler, Andreas Veigel, Konstantina Tzamouranis, Martin W Pfeifer, Andreas Schmidt, Martin Bökamp, Holger Haberland, Siegfried Wagner, Joachim Brückel, Gideon de Sousa, Lukas Hackl, Esther Bollow, Reinhard W Holl
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with progressive clinical course involving the neuromuscular and endocrine system. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one typical non-neurological manifestation, caused by beta cell failure and insulin resistance. Because of its rarity, knowledge on DM in FRDA is limited. Based on data from 200 301 patients with DM of the German-Austrian diabetes registry (DPV) and two exemplary patient reports, characteristics of patients with DM and FRDA are compared with classical type 1 or type 2 diabetes...
May 12, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761876/differential-gip-glp-1-intestinal-cell-distribution-in-diabetics-yields-distinctive-rearrangements-depending-on-roux-en-y-biliopancreatic-limb-length
#8
António M Palha, Sofia S Pereira, Madalena M Costa, Tiago Morais, André F Maia, Marta Guimarães, Mário Nora, Mariana P Monteiro
As incretins are known to play an important role in type 2 diabetics (T2D) improvement observed after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), our aim was to assess whether increasing the length of RYGB biliopancreatic limb in T2D would modify the incretin staining cell density found after the gastric outlet. Small intestine biopsies (n = 38) were harvested during RYGB at two different distances from the duodenal angle; either 60-90 cm (n = 28), from non-diabetic (n = 18) patients, and T2D (n = 10), or 200 cm (n = 10) from T2D...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760871/presacral-myelolipoma-as-a-possible-parasymptom-of-cancer-a-case-report
#9
Akio Sakamoto, Iori Nagamatsu, Eisuke Shiba, Takeshi Okamoto, Masanori Hisaoka, Shuichi Matsuda
Presacral myelolipomas are rare, benign, asymptomatic tumors composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements. Presacral myelolipomas can occur in patients with a medical history of malignancy, steroid use, and/or endocrine disorders including diabetes mellitus. A 65-year-old man with no specific medical history experienced temporal abdominal pain without bowel symptoms that lasted a few hours. By the time he visited a hospital, the pain had diminished. Computed tomography failed to detect any abnormality in the abdominal or pelvic organs that would have caused the abdominal pain but revealed a lesion 4 cm in diameter in the frontal sacrum...
2018: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756578/endocrine-disrupting-chemical-induced-pollution-of-metabolic-pathways-a-case-of-shifting-paradigms-with-implications-for-vascular-diseases
#10
Rajiv Janardhanan
The latter half of the twentieth century has witnessed a humongous spurt in the use of synthetic chemicals in a wide variety of industrial and agricultural applications are leading to niche specific perturbations affecting every trophic level of the ecosystems due to unmitigated environmental contamination. Despite the incremental usefulness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as pesticides and plasticizers, their statutory impact on environmental health is assuming worrisome proportions. The EDCs can disrupt physiological homeostasis resulting in developmental and reproductive abnormalities...
May 14, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756070/reducing-severe-hypoglycaemia-in-hospitalised-patients-with-diabetes-early-outcomes-of-standardised-reporting-and-management
#11
Katherine A Araque, Deepak K Kadayakkara, Nino Gigauri, Diane Sheehan, Sachin Majumdar, Gregory Buller, Clare A Flannery
Background: Severe hypoglycaemic events (HGEs) in hospitalised patients are associated with poor outcomes and prolonged hospitalization. Systematic, coordinated care is required for acute management and prevention of HGEs; however, studies evaluating quality control efforts are scarce. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of system-based interventions to improve management response to HGEs. Methods: System-based interventions were designed and implemented following a root cause analysis of HGE in adult patients with diabetes from two general medical wards with the highest incidence of HGE...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755288/roles-of-perilipins-in-diseases-and-cancers
#12
Pengpeng Zhang, Lian Meng, Lingxie Song, Juan Du, Shutong Du, Wenwen Cui, Chunxia Liu, Feng Li
Perilipins, an ancient family of lipid droplet-associated proteins, are embedded in a phospho-lipid monolayer of intracellular lipid droplets. The core of lipid droplets is composed of neutral fat, which mainly includes triglyceride and cholesterol ester. Perilipins are closely related to the function of lipid droplets, and they mediate lipid metabolism and storage. Therefore, perilipins play an important role in the development of obesity, diabetes, cancer, hepatic diseases, atherosclerosis, and carcinoma, which are caused by abnormal lipid metabolism...
May 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752700/neuro-radiological-features-can-predict-hypopituitarism-in-primary-autoimmune-hypophysitis
#13
Tommaso Tartaglione, Sabrina Chiloiro, Maria Elena Laino, Antonella Giampietro, Simona Gaudino, Angelo Zoli, Antonio Bianchi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Cesare Colosimo, Laura De Marinis
Primary autoimmune hypophysitis (PAH) is considered an underdiagnosed disease, due to the difficulty in reaching a definitive diagnosis. PAH clinical diagnosis remains an exclusion diagnosis. We aimed to correlate PAH neuro-radiological signs to endocrine features and evaluate their prognostic role. 24 PAH cases were enrolled and classified according to neuro-radiological signs: in 12 adeno-hypophysitis (AHs), 8 infundibulo-neuro-hypophysitis (INHs) and 4 pan-hypophysitis (PHs). Secondary hypogonadism developed more frequently in INHs as compared to AHs (54...
May 11, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752488/open-resection-of-hypothalamic-hamartomas-for-intractable-epilepsy-revisited-using-intraoperative-mri
#14
Libby van Tonder, Sasha Burn, Anand Iyer, Jo Blair, Mohammed Didi, Michael Carter, Timothy Martland, Conor Mallucci
INTRODUCTION: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are rare non-neoplastic lesions which cause drug-resistant epilepsy with associated behavioural, psychiatric and endocrine issues. With the development of new minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of HH, there is a need to reappraise the effectiveness and safety of each approach. We review the outcomes of HH patients treated surgically, utilizing intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IOMRI), by a team of Alder Hey NHS Foundation Trust tumour and epilepsy neurosurgeons since 2011...
May 11, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752333/the-endocrinology-of-male-breast-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Ian S Fentiman
Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease but, as a result of epidemiological collaborations, there is now greater clarity concerning endocrine risk factors. The significant rise in global age-standardised mean BMI in men is likely to lead to increases in incidence of maturity-onset diabetes and MBC. The metabolic changes accompanying obesity decrease androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), thereby increasing available oestrogens. The higher rates of MBC in North and Equatorial Africa are largely due to liver damage from endemic bilharziasis and hepatitis B causing elevated oestradiol (E2 ) levels from hepatic conversion of androgen...
June 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750653/risk-of-hypoglycemia-in-youth-with-type-2-diabetes-on-insulin
#16
Madhia Shahid, Gabriel Q Shaibi, Hayley Baines, Pamela Garcia-Filion, Zoe Gonzalez-Garcia, Micah Olson
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to ascertain the risk of hypoglycemia among youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on insulin therapy. METHODS: Twenty-two youth with T2D on insulin therapy (M=12, F=10, age=14.4±4.0 years) were enrolled from a single pediatric endocrine practice. They were followed-up for 3 months with weekly phone calls and monthly in-person visits to review blood glucose logs and document any signs or symptoms of hypoglycemia (defined as finger stick glucose of ≤70 mg/dL)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748915/clinical-benefits-over-time-associated-with-use-of-v-go-wearable-insulin-delivery-device-in-adult-patients-with-diabetes-a-retrospective-analysis
#17
David Sutton, Charissa D Higdon, Carla Nikkel, Karrie A Hilsinger
INTRODUCTION: Advances in insulin delivery have improved outcomes in patients with diabetes. This study evaluated the impact of V-Go® Wearable Insulin Delivery device on glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and insulin total daily dose (TDD) in patients with diabetes not achieving glycemic targets. METHODS: Electronic medical record data was obtained for adult patients with A1C > 7% treated at a multicenter endocrine practice who initiated V-Go between August 2012 and August 2015...
May 10, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748711/calcium-and-voltage-gated-bk-channels-in-vascular-smooth-muscle
#18
REVIEW
Alex M Dopico, Anna N Bukiya, Jonathan H Jaggar
Ion channels in vascular smooth muscle regulate myogenic tone and vessel contractility. In particular, activation of calcium- and voltage-gated potassium channels of large conductance (BK channels) results in outward current that shifts the membrane potential toward more negative values, triggering a negative feed-back loop on depolarization-induced calcium influx and SM contraction. In this short review, we first present the molecular basis of vascular smooth muscle BK channels and the role of subunit composition and trafficking in the regulation of myogenic tone and vascular contractility...
May 11, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744538/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-risk-of-diabetes-an-evidence-based-review
#19
REVIEW
P Monica Lind, Lars Lind
The purpose of this study was to review the epidemiological and experimental evidence linking background exposure to a selection of environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism. The review summarises the literature on both cross-sectional and prospective studies in humans, as well as experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. The findings were subjected to evidence grading according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification...
May 9, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740976/high-prevalence-of-diabetes-before-and-after-lung-transplantation-target-for-improving-outcome
#20
Monika Fazekas-Lavu, Michael Reyes, Monique Malouf, Marshall Plit, Adrian Havryk, Lesley V Campbell, Jacqueline R Center, Allan R Glanville, Jerry R Greenfield
BACKGROUND: Diabetes increases morbidity and mortality of lung transplantation. However, the reported prevalence of diabetes varies post-transplantation partly due to lack of detection protocols. AIMS: We determined the prevalence of diabetes in patients (i) waitlisted for lung transplant and (ii) early post-transplantation. METHODS: We analyzed patients on the St Vincent's Heart Lung database from 1/4/14 to 30/9/15 on the waitlist (Study 1) and those transplanted (Study 2)...
May 9, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
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