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Diabetes endocrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544214/do-we-know-the-true-mechanism-of-action-of-the-dpp-4-inhibitors
#1
REVIEW
Emilie Skytte Andersen, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens Juul Holst
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing which is alarming because of its serious complications. Antidiabetic treatment aims to control glucose homeostasis as tightly as possible in order to reduce these complications. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a recent addition to the antidiabetic treatment modalities, and have become widely accepted because of their good efficacy, their benign side effect profile and their low hypoglycaemia risk. The actions of DPP-4 inhibitors are not direct, but rather are mediated indirectly through preservation of the substrates they protect from degradation...
May 24, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540043/prescription-patterns-of-long-acting-somatostatin-analogues
#2
Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba, Manuel Enrique Machado-Duque
BACKGROUND: Acromegaly and endocrine tumors are uncommon morbidities that are currently treated with different drugs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prescription patterns of somatostatin analogues in patients affiliated with the Health System of Colombia. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients of any age and sex treated with octreotide or lanreotide between January 2011 and August 2015. Socio-demographic, clinical (indications) and pharmacological (comedications) variables were considered...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536423/fam3b-mediates-high-glucose-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-migration-via-inhibition-of-mir-322-5p
#3
Wenxiang Zhang, Siyu Chen, Zhao Zhang, Chen Wang, Chang Liu
The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play an essential role during the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). While many factors potentially contribute to the abnormal activation of VSMCs, hyperglycemia is generally believed to be a major causative factor. On the other hand, FAM3B (named PANDER for its secretory form) is a uniquely structured protein strongly expressed within and secreted from the endocrine pancreas. FAM3B is co-secreted with insulin from the β-cell upon glucose stimulation and regulates glucose homeostasis...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534176/functions-of-pregnane-x-receptor-in-self-detoxification
#4
REVIEW
Liuqin He, Xihong Zhou, Niu Huang, Huan Li, Tiejun Li, Kang Yao, Yanan Tian, Chien-An Andy Hu, Yulong Yin
Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a crucial regulator of nutrient metabolism and metabolic detoxification such as metabolic syndrome, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory responses, glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, and endocrine homeostasis. Notably, much experimental and clinical evidence show that PXR senses xenobiotics and triggers the detoxification response to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, intestinal inflammatory diseases and liver fibrosis...
May 22, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533295/comparative-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diabetes-in-humans-nod-mice-and-canines-has-a-valuable-animal-model-of-type-1-diabetes-been-overlooked
#5
Allison L O'Kell, Clive Wasserfall, Brian Catchpole, Lucy J Davison, Rebecka S Hess, Jake A Kushner, Mark A Atkinson
Despite decades of research in humans and mouse models of disease, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, translation of therapies from preclinical efforts capable of delaying or halting β-cell destruction has been limited. Hence, a pressing need exists to identify alternative animal models that reflect human disease. Canine insulin deficiency diabetes is, in some cases, considered to follow autoimmune pathogenesis, similar to NOD mice and humans, characterized by hyperglycemia requiring lifelong exogenous insulin therapy...
June 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531120/antidiabetic-effects-of-tea
#6
REVIEW
Qiu-Yue Fu, Qing-Sheng Li, Xiao-Ming Lin, Ru-Ying Qiao, Rui Yang, Xu-Min Li, Zhan-Bo Dong, Li-Ping Xiang, Xin-Qiang Zheng, Jian-Liang Lu, Cong-Bo Yuan, Jian-Hui Ye, Yue-Rong Liang
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention...
May 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524171/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Charles E Foulds, Lindsey S Treviño, Brian York, Cheryl L Walker
A growing epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is paralleling the increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in countries that consume a Western diet. As NAFLD can lead to life-threatening conditions such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, an understanding of the factors that trigger its development and pathological progression is needed. Although by definition this disease is not associated with alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental agents that have been linked to other diseases might have a role in the development of NAFLD...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524168/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-the-regulation-of-energy-balance
#8
REVIEW
Angel Nadal, Ivan Quesada, Eva Tudurí, Rubén Nogueiras, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena
Energy balance involves the adjustment of food intake, energy expenditure and body fat reserves through homeostatic pathways. These pathways include a multitude of biochemical reactions, as well as hormonal cues. Dysfunction of this homeostatic control system results in common metabolism-related pathologies, which include obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism-disrupting chemicals (MDCs) are a particular class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect energy homeostasis. MDCs affect multiple endocrine mechanisms and thus different cell types that are implicated in metabolic control...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522822/physical-activity-and-risk-of-comorbidities-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-cohort-study
#9
Tsung Yu, Gerben Ter Riet, Milo A Puhan, Anja Frei
Multi-morbidity is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and low levels of physical activity are hypothesized to be an important risk factor. The current study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between physical activity and risk of seven categories of comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The study included 409 patients from primary care practice in the Netherlands and Switzerland. We assessed physical activity using the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline and followed patients for up to 5 years...
May 18, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521190/simultaneous-determination-of-bisphenol-a-and-estrogens-in-hair-samples-by-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#10
Chaelin Lee, Chong Hyeak Kim, Sunghwan Kim, Sung-Hee Cho
Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter, is widely used to make chemicals for polycarbonate, plastics, beverage containers, epoxy resins, and cash register receipts. BPA is one of the known xenoestrogens, which have weak estrogenic activity and cause obesity, diabetes, breast cancer, and reproductive disorders. Even though the concentration level of metabolomes in hair is usually lower than that in urine and blood, there are several reasons why we chose to use hair samples. First, the sampling procedure of hairs is simple...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516806/is-bisphenol-a-exposure-associated-with-the-development-of-glucose-intolerance-and-increased-insulin-resistance-in-thais
#11
La-Or Chailurkit, Pechngam Tengpraettanakorn, Suwannee Chanprasertyotin, Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul
Bisphenol A (BPA), the monomeric component of polycarbonate plastics, reportedly possesses endocrine-disrupting effects. Exposure to low levels of BPA during more vulnerable periods leads to abnormalities related to sexual development in experimental animals. Moreover, recently a few epidemiological studies in Caucasians have demonstrated the association of BPA exposure with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, in the present study we examined the association of BPA exposure and abnormal glucose tolerance in Thais. This is a cross-sectional study of 240 participants aged at least 50 years, randomly selected by computer-generated random numbers within each glucose tolerance status from an oral glucose tolerance study of 661 participants...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512448/the-potential-role-of-contraction-induced-myokines-in-the-regulation-of-metabolic-function-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Brian P Carson
Skeletal muscle represents the largest organ in the body, comprises 36-42% of body weight, and has recently been recognized as having an endocrine function. Proteins expressed and released by muscle that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine bioactivities have been termed myokines. It is likely that muscle contraction represents the primary stimulus for the synthesis and secretion of myokines to enable communication with other organs such as the liver, adipose tissue, brain, and auto-regulation of muscle metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512134/management-of-endocrine-disease-suicide-risk-in-patients-with-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Bin Wang, Xiaofei An, Xiaohong Shi, Jin-An Zhang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies investigating the risk of suicide in diabetes patients reported controversial findings. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively estimate the risk and incidence rate of suicide in diabetic patients. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for eligible studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the relative risk (RR) and the incidence rate of suicide in diabetes patients. We also calculated the proportion of deaths attributable to suicide among diabetes patients...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511371/study-of-serum-total-psa-and-free-psa-as-an-oncological-marker-in-breast-tumour
#14
Elteza Tahjiba Jahir, Runi Devi, Bibhuti Bhushan Borthakur
INTRODUCTION: Breast Cancer (BC) cases are rising alarmingly all over the world and India is not an exception. This rising trend is due to an increased age at first child birth, decreased breast feeding, and the changing lifestyle mostly in urban India. With the advent of more sensitive methodologies and research works in this field, it has been suggested that Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer besides other established tumour markers...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509114/implicating-the-potential-role-of-orexin-in-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Monika Rani, Raghuvansh Kumar, Pawan Krishan
Orexins (orexin A and orexin B), neuropeptides of hypothalamic origin also known as hypocretins, have been well documented for regulating the different physiological functions including feeding, sleep wakefulness, stress, and reward. However, from the past few years, orexins have evolved as an emerging biomarker for various endocrine disorders including diabetes mellitus and obesity which ultimately leads to various cardiovascular risk factors. Orexins exist in two isoforms orexin A and orexin B and exert their effect by acting on the G protein-coupled receptors orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2R)...
May 16, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508600/endocrine-disorders-developing-after-surgical-intervention-of-craniopharyngioma-in-children
#16
Kyrillus S Shohdy, Wegdan Rashad
Craniopharyngiomas, albeit their benign nature, can cause severe damage to visual, hypothalamic, endocrine and neurologic functions which make their total resection an inevitable approach to save the patient's life. However, significant therapy-related long term complications make those traditional treatment options debatable and hazardous. This review will focus on the various complications that affect the childrens' quality of life considerably such as, diabetes insipidus, precocious puberty and hypothalamic obesity...
March 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507197/muscle-adipose-tissue-cross-talk
#17
Kristin I Stanford, Laurie J Goodyear
Exercise training results in adaptations to both skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) and protects against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Exercise-induced adaptations include an altered profile of secreted proteins, both myokines (from skeletal muscle) and adipokines (from adipose tissue). These secreted proteins may act in an endocrine manner to facilitate tissue-to-tissue communication and "cross talk," likely working together to improve overall metabolic health. Some studies suggest that contracting skeletal muscles release myokines that may function to alter the phenotype of WAT, including WAT "beiging," in which there is increased expression of beige marker genes and increased presence of multilocular cells within the WAT...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506430/george-e-palade-memorial-lecture-my-life-in-pancreatic-research-unexpected-results-may-open-the-door
#18
REVIEW
Makoto Otsuki
The Palade Prize is the most distinguished award of the IAP for achievement in pancreatic research. It is named after George E. Palade, who in 1974 was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on protein trafficking in pancreatic acinar cells. It is a great honor to be awarded the 2016 Palade Prize. While I was in graduate school, I was conducting research on hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis; after finishing graduate school, I began research on amylase isoenzymes. This was the first step of my pancreatic research...
May 6, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506340/-endocrine-and-metabolic-features-of-female-children-with-prader-willi-syndrome-an-analysis-of-4-cases
#19
Mo-Ling Wu, Juan Li, Yu Ding, Yao Chen, Guo-Ying Chang, Xiu-Min Wang, Jian Wang, Yi-Ping Shen
This article reports the clinical features and endocrine and metabolic features of 4 children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). All the patients were female and aged 6-12 years at diagnosis. All of them had clinical manifestations of obesity, unusual facies, developmental retardation, and intellectual disability. Genetic detection showed that 2 patients had paternal deletion of the 15q11.2-q13 region, one patient had maternal autodiploid in the 15q11.2-q13 region, and one patient had no abnormality in the 15q11...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505316/pancreas-atrophy-and-islet-amyloid-deposition-in-patients-with-elderly-onset-type-2-diabetes
#20
An Xin, Hiroki Mizukami, Wataru Inaba, Taro Yoshida, Yu-Ki Takeuchi, Soroku Yagihashi
Context: With prolonged life-expectancy, we often encounter patients with elderly onset type 2 diabetes (eT2DM). Although clinical features of eT2DM are suggested to be different from those in patients with middle-aged onset type 2 diabetes (mT2DM), islet pathology in eT2DM has not been addressed. Objective: We attempted to characterize the pancreatic pathology in eT2DM and sought for its clinical implication. Methods: Pancreata from 13 young non-diabetic (20-29 y...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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