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Diabetes endocrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208663/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-endocrine-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Daisuke Ariyasu, Hiderou Yoshida, Yukihiro Hasegawa
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203085/the-effect-of-psychometric-variables-in-predicting-physical-activity-behavior-among-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-patients
#2
Abraham Tamirat Gizaw, Fira Abamecha Ababulgu, Lakew Abebe Gebretsadik, Getachew Kiros Abraha
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus type-2 (DMT-2), the most common endocrine disease in the world, is a major global public health-related issue. Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally, and there is substantial evidence that it is epidemic in many low- and middle-income countries. It is widely recognized that physical activity is important in preventing and treating DMT-2. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of physical activity among DMT-2 patients attending Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202270/acute-metabolic-and-endocrine-responses-induced-by-glucose-and-fructose-in-healthy-young-subjects-a-double-blinded-randomized-crossover-trial
#3
Wenwen Cai, Jie Li, Jiahui Shi, Bo Yang, Jun Tang, Helen Truby, Duo Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A rise in fructose consumption has been implicated in the etiology of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Serum uric acid (UA) elevates after fructose ingestion, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of fructose ingestion on nitric oxide (NO) has not yet been confirmed. The aim of this study was to investigate the postprandial metabolic and endocrine responses following an acute ingestion of fructose and glucose in healthy subjects...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202025/mild-electrical-stimulation-with-heat-shock-guides-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-pdx1-expressing-cells-within-the-definitive-endoderm
#4
Tomoaki Koga, Nobuaki Shiraki, Shuichiro Yano, Mary Ann Suico, Saori Morino-Koga, Takashi Sato, Tsuyoshi Shuto, Shoen Kume, Hirofumi Kai
BACKGROUND: Because of the increasing number of diabetic patients, it is important to generate pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx1)-expressing cells, which are capable of differentiating into pancreatic endocrine β cells. Mild electrical stimulation was reported to modulate the differentiation of ES cells into ectoderm-derived neuronal cells or mesoderm-derived cardiac cells. RESULTS: In this study, we report that mild electrical stimulation with heat shock (MET) potentiates the differentiation of ES cells into definitive endoderm-derived Pdx1-expressing cells...
February 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193628/management-of-endocrine-disease-neuroendocrine-surveillance-and-management-of-neurosurgical-patients-non-pituitary
#5
Aoife Garrahy, Mark Sherlock, Chris J Thompson
Advances in the management of traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracranial tumours have led to improved survival rates and an increased focus on quality of life of survivors. Endocrine sequelae of the acute brain insult and subsequent neurosurgery, peri-operative fluid administration and/or cranial irradiation are now well described. Unrecognized acute hypopituitarism, particularly ACTH/cortisol deficiency and diabetes insipidus, can be life-threatening. While hypopituitarism may be transient, up to 30% of survivors of TBI have chronic hypopituitarism, which can diminish quality of life and hamper rehabilitation...
February 13, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190613/therapeutics-for-equine-endocrine-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Andy E Durham
Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply...
February 9, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184214/modeling-pancreatic-endocrine-cell-adaptation-and-diabetes-in-the-zebrafish
#7
REVIEW
Lisette A Maddison, Wenbiao Chen
Glucose homeostasis is an important element of energy balance and is conserved in organisms from fruit fly to mammals. Central to the control of circulating glucose levels in vertebrates are the endocrine cells of the pancreas, particularly the insulin-producing β-cells and the glucagon producing α-cells. A feature of α- and β-cells is their plasticity, an ability to adapt, in function and number as a response to physiological and pathophysiological conditions of increased hormone demand. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptive responses that maintain glucose homeostasis are incompletely defined...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182286/maternal-cinnamon-extract-intake-during-lactation-leads-to-sex-specific-endocrine-modifications-in-rat-offspring
#8
Thais Bento-Bernardes, Fernanda P Toste, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Karen J Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Cinnamon supplementation has been associated with improvement in glucose disposal and reduction in fat mass in type 2 diabetes. Maternal nutrition during lactation impacts the health of the offspring throughout life. We hypothesize that cinnamon intake by lactating rats affects maternal physiology, leading to hormonal and metabolic changes in their offspring. To investigate this hypothesis, dams received aqueous cinnamon extract (400 mg cinnamon/kg body mass/day) or water orally, during lactation...
February 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181297/induction-of-oxidative-stress-by-bisphenol-a-and-its-pleiotropic-effects
#9
REVIEW
Natalie R Gassman
Bisphenol A (BPA) has become a target of intense public scrutiny since concerns about its association with human diseases such as obesity, diabetes, reproductive disorders, and cancer have emerged. BPA is a highly prevalent chemical in consumer products, and human exposure is thought to be ubiquitous. Numerous studies have demonstrated its endocrine disrupting properties and attributed exposure with cytotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects; however, the results of these studies are still highly debated and a consensus about BPA's safety and its role in human disease has not been reached...
February 9, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180948/tributyltin-exposure-at-noncytotoxic-doses-dysregulates-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Ya-Wen Chen, Kuo-Cheng Lan, Jing-Ren Tsai, Te-I Weng, Ching-Yao Yang, Shing-Hwa Liu
Tributyltin (TBT) is an endocrine disruptor. TBT can be found in food and in human tissues and blood. Several animal studies revealed that organotins induced diabetes with decreased insulin secretion. The detailed effect and mechanism of TBT on pancreatic β-cell function still remain unclear. We investigated the effect and mechanism of TBT exposure at noncytotoxic doses relevant to human exposure on β-cell function in vitro and in vivo. The β-cell-derived RIN-m5F cells and pancreatic islets from mouse and human were treated with TBT (0...
February 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179447/diagnosis-of-endocrine-disease-differentiation-of-pathologic-neoplastic-hypercortisolism-cushing-syndrome-from-physiologic-non-neoplastic-hypercortisolism-formerly-known-as-pseudo-cushing-syndrome
#11
James Findling, Hershel Raff
Endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing syndrome) usually implies the presence of a pathologic condition caused by either an ACTH-secreting neoplasm or autonomous cortisol secretion from a benign or malignant adrenal neoplasm. However, sustained or intermittent hypercortisolism may also accompany many medical disorders that stimulate physiologic/non-neoplastic activation of the HPA axis (formerly known as pseudo-Cushing syndrome); these two entities may share indistinguishable clinical and biochemical features...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167244/impact-of-risperidone-on-leptin-and-insulin-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#12
Pornpen Srisawasdi, Natchaya Vanwong, Yaowaluck Hongkaew, Apichaya Puangpetch, Somlak Vanavanan, Boontarika Intachak, Nattawat Ngamsamut, Penkhae Limsila, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Martin H Kroll
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of dose and duration of risperidone treatment on cardiovascular and diabetes risk biomarkers in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). DESIGN AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, a total of 168 ASDs patients (89% male) treated with a risperidone-based regimen for ≥12months were included. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lipid metabolic markers, adiponectin, leptin, prolactin, cortisol and high sensitive C-reactive protein...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165437/relationship-of-recovered-hepatitis-b-infection-with-appearance-of-toxic-propylthiouracil-hepatitis
#13
Lejla Čalkić, Lejla Bajramović-Omeragić
Aim To investigate the relationship between recovered hepatitis B infection with appearance of toxic propylthiouracil (PTU) hepatitis and point out the growing importance of the use of drugs in the development of hepatitis. Methods A case of a 45-year-old female patient with suspicion of acute viral hepatitis who had polypragmasy of drugs in the last ten years, due to the polymorphism of symptoms/illnesses (diabetes mellitus, depression, hypertension, hypothyroidism) was presented. Results A female patient had hyperthyroidism after resolved viral hepatitis B with HBsAg seroconversion (HBsAg negative, antiHBs positive)...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159674/extranuclear-initiated-estrogenic-actions-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-is-there-toxicology-beyond-paracelsus
#14
Angel Nadal, Esther Fuentes, Cristina Ripoll, Sabrina Villar-Pazos, Manuel Castellano-Muñoz, Sergi Soriano, Juan Martinez-Pinna, Ivan Quesada, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol-A (BPA) do not act as traditional toxic chemicals inducing massive cell damage or death in an unspecific manner. EDCs can work upon binding to hormone receptors, acting as agonists, antagonists or modulators. Bisphenol-A displays estrogenic activity and, for many years it has been classified as a weak estrogen, based on the classic transcriptional action of estrogen receptors serving as transcription factors. However, during the last two decades our knowledge about estrogen signaling has advanced considerably...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153840/diagnosis-of-endocrine-disease-endocrine-late-effects-of-childhood-cancer-and-its-treatments
#15
Wassim Chemaitilly, Laurie Cohen
Endocrine complications are frequently observed in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). One of two CCS will experience at least one endocrine complication during the course of his / her lifespan, most commonly as a late-effect of cancer treatments, especially radiotherapy and alkylating agent chemotherapy. Endocrine late-effects include impairments of the hypothalamus / pituitary, thyroid, and gonads, as well as decreased bone mineral density and metabolic derangements leading to obesity and/or diabetes mellitus...
February 2, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153622/case-report-of-a-primary-pituitary-abscess-and-systematic-literature-review-of-pituitary-abscess-with-a-focus-on-patient-outcomes
#16
REVIEW
Justice O Agyei, Lindsay J Lipinski, Jody Leonardo
BACKGROUND: Pituitary abscess is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition with an incidence of 0.2-1.1% of operative pituitary lesions. Diagnosis can be challenging, as this disorder shares many similarities with other pituitary lesions in terms of symptomatology and radiographic findings. Most pituitary abscesses are categorized as secondary, arising from pre-existing pituitary lesions or in conjunction with transsphenoidal surgery, sepsis, meningitis, or sinusitis. To date, there have been only a handful of reports of primary pituitary abscess, which occurs without any of the aforementioned risk factors...
January 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150048/lymphocytes-and-macrophages-in-adipose-tissue-in-obesity-markers-or-makers-of-subclinical-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Anna Cinkajzlová, Miloš Mráz, Martin Haluzík
Obesity is accompanied by the development of chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. The presence of chronic inflammatory response along with metabolically harmful factors released by adipose tissue into the circulation is associated with several metabolic complications of obesity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or accelerated atherosclerosis. The present review is focused on macrophages and lymphocytes and their possible role in low-grade inflammation in fat. Both macrophages and lymphocytes respond to obesity-induced adipocyte hypertrophy by their migration into adipose tissue...
February 1, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147449/exercise-effects-on-perivascular-adipose-tissue-endocrine-and-paracrine-determinants-of-vascular-function
#18
REVIEW
B C S Boa, J S Yudkin, V W M van Hinsbergh, E Bouskela, E C Eringa
Obesity is a global epidemic, accompanied by increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue hypertrophy is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, which alters secretion of adipose tissue-derived bioactive products, known as adipokines. Adipokines determine vessel wall properties such as smooth muscle tone and vessel wall inflammation. Exercise is a mainstay of prevention of chronic, non-communicable diseases, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in particular. Aside from reducing adipose tissue mass, exercise has been shown to reduce inflammatory activity in this tissue...
February 1, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143987/scoring-system-development-and-added-value-of-albuminuria-to-estimate-carotid-intima-media-thickness-cimt-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#19
Indra Wijaya, Em Yunir, Dharmeizar Dharmeizar, Ika Prasetya Wijaya, Siti Setiati
AIM: to develop a scoring system and measure the diagnostic added value of albuminuria to estimate CIMT. METHODS: cross-sectional study was done in Endocrine Outpatient Clinic Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between March-May 2012 in T2DM patients without history of cerebrocardiovascular event, CKD stage ≥ III, and smoking. Bivariate analysis and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis was done, followed by developing the scoring system. RESULTS: from 71 subjects, there were 67...
October 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139539/association-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-genes-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-aetiology-among-women-from-southern-india
#20
Battini Mohan Reddy, Uma Jyothi Kommoju, Shilpi Dasgupta, Pranavchand Rayabarapu
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reproductive endocrine disorder of premenopausal women. Given the phenotypic overlap between PCOS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), this study was carried out to investigate whether genes implicated in T2DM were also involved in the susceptibility to PCOS among women from southern India. METHODS: A total of 248 women with PCOS and 210 healthy women as controls were genotyped for a panel of 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the nine T2DM genes, such as TCF7L2, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKAL1, CDKN2A, IRS1, CAPN10 and PPARG, on Sequenom MassARRAY platform...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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