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Diabetes endocrine

Kai G Kahl, Michael Deuschle, Brendon Stubbs, Ulrich Schweiger
Background Severe mental illnesses (SMIs), i.e. major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are associated with an elevated risk for the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. Several factors have been associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality in SMI, including lifestyle factors (smoking, inactivity, unhealthy diet), endocrine and immunologic alterations; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) promotes the development of cardiometabolic disorders, at least in part by inflammatory and metabolic functions...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Rezvan Salehidoost, Asieh Mansouri, Massoud Amini, Sima Aminorroaya Yamini, Ashraf Aminorroaya
AIMS: The relationship between obesity and mortality rate among diabetic patients is a controversial topic. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and all-cause mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this retrospective database study, 2383 patients with type 2 diabetes, who had been registered in the Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Iran, were enrolled between 1992 and 2010. The mean (SD) of diabetes duration and follow-up period was 15...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
B A Kadashev, A N Konovalov, L I Astaf'eva, P L Kalinin, M A Kutin, I S Klochkova, D V Fomichev, O I Sharipov, D N Andreev
The pituitary stalk (PS) is a relatively thin bundle connecting the hypophyseal stalk to the pituitary gland; it consists of both axons of the hypothalamic nuclei (terminating in the neurohypophysis) and the system of portal vessels. Compression of the PS by a space-occupying lesion or its transection (forced or intended) during surgery may lead to the development of endocrine disorders: hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and hyperprolactinemia. The modern literature lacks studies evaluating the severity of endocrine disorders depending on the PS condition before and after surgery...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Cindy J M Loomans, Nerys Williams Giuliani, Jeetindra Balak, Femke Ringnalda, Léon van Gurp, Meritxell Huch, Sylvia F Boj, Toshiro Sato, Lennart Kester, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Matthias S Roost, Susan Bonner-Weir, Marten A Engelse, Ton J Rabelink, Harry Heimberg, Robert G J Vries, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Françoise Carlotti, Hans Clevers, Eelco J P de Koning
Generating an unlimited source of human insulin-producing cells is a prerequisite to advance β cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here, we describe a 3D culture system that supports the expansion of adult human pancreatic tissue and the generation of a cell subpopulation with progenitor characteristics. These cells display high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi ), express pancreatic progenitors markers (PDX1, PTF1A, CPA1, and MYC), and can form new organoids in contrast to ALDHlo cells. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that ALDHhi cells are closer to human fetal pancreatic tissue compared with adult pancreatic tissue...
March 13, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Melanie Li, Swetlana Sirko
Building on the seminal work by Geoffrey Harris in the 1970s, the neuroendocrinology field, having undergone spectacular growth, has endeavored to understand the mechanisms of hormonal connectivity between the brain and the rest of the body. Given the fundamental role of the brain in the orchestration of endocrine processes through interactions among neurohormones, it is thus not surprising that the structural and/or functional alterations following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to endocrine changes affecting the whole organism...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
H R Prasanna Kumar, H Basavana Gowdappa, Tejashwi Hosmani, Tejashri Urs
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic abnormal metabolic condition, which manifests elevated blood sugar level over a prolonged period. The pancreatic endocrine system generally gets affected during diabetes, but often abnormal exocrine functions are also manifested due to its proximity to the endocrine system. Fecal elastase-1 (FE-1) is found to be an ideal biomarker to reflect the exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas. Aim: The aim of this study was conducted to assess exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas in patients with type-2 DM (T2DM) by measuring FE levels and to associate the level of hyperglycemia with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Subhodip Pramanik, Sujoy Ghosh, Pradip Mukhopadhyay, Rana Bhattacharjee, Bidisha Mukherjee, Samim Ali Mondal, Ipsita Ghosh, Ranajit Bari, Subhankar Chowdhury
Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are two major public health endocrine problem, but the prevalence of TD and iodine status in patients with T2 DM in India is less studied. The study objective was to explore the prevalence of TD and to evaluate iodine health in type 2 diabetes patients attending a tertiary care center in Eastern India. Methods: Consecutive 100 patients with diabetes attending outpatient department were evaluated clinically and biochemically (thyrotropin [TSH], free thyroxine, anti-TPO antibody, and urinary iodine)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bedowra Zabeen, Ana Margarida Balsa, Nasreen Islam, Mukta Parveen, Jebun Nahar, Kishwar Azad
Introduction: Dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia are metabolic abnormalities commonly found in young patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and both increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods: This cross-sectional study was aimed to evaluate the pattern of dyslipidemia and its relationship with other risk factors in children and adolescents with T1DM. A total of 576 T1DM patients aged 10-18 years who attended Changing Diabetes in Children, a pediatric diabetes clinic in Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation for Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders over 1 year period from July 2015 to June 2016 were included in this study...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
Islets of Langerhans are islands of endocrine cells scattered throughout the pancreas. A number of new studies have pointed to the potential for conversion of non-β islet cells in to insulin-producing β-cells to replenish β-cell mass as a means to treat diabetes. Understanding normal islet cell mass and function is important to help advance such treatment modalities: what should be the target islet/β-cell mass, does islet architecture matter to energy homeostasis, and what may happen if we lose a particular population of islet cells in favour of β-cells? These are all questions to which we will need answers for islet replacement therapy by transdifferentiation of non-β islet cells to be a reality in humans...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Adrian Keong Kee Teo, Chang Siang Lim, Lih Feng Cheow, Tatsuya Kin, James A Shapiro, Nam-Young Kang, William Burkholder, Hwee Hui Lau
Human pancreatic islets containing insulin-secreting β-cells are notoriously heterogeneous in cell composition. Since β-cell failure is the root cause of diabetes, understanding this heterogeneity is of paramount importance. Recent reports have cataloged human islet transcriptome but not compared single β-cells in detail. Here, we scrutinized ex vivo human islet cells from healthy donors and show that they exhibit de-differentiation signatures. Using single-cell gene expression and immunostaining analyses, we found healthy islet cells to contain polyhormonal transcripts, and INS+ cells to express decreased levels of β-cell genes but high levels of progenitor markers...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Marta Fontcuberta-PiSunyer, Sara Cervantes, Eulàlia Miquel, Sergio Mora-Castilla, Louise C Laurent, Angel Raya, Ramon Gomis, Rosa Gasa
Posttranscriptional modifications of histones constitute an epigenetic mechanism that is closely linked to both gene silencing and activation events. Trimethylation of Histone3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is a repressive mark that associates with developmental gene regulation during differentiation programs. In the developing pancreas, expression of the transcription factor Neurogenin3 in multipotent progenitors initiates endocrine differentiation that culminates in the generation of all pancreatic islet cell lineages, including insulin-producing beta cells...
March 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hélène Neophytou, Marc Wangermez, Elise Gand, Michel Carretier, Jérôme Danion, Jean-Pierre Richer
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the risk factors of endocrine and exocrine insufficiency occurring few years after pancreatic resections in a consecutive series of patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), left pancreatectomy (LP) or enucleation for benign neoplasms at a referral centre. METHODS: Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was defined by the onset of steatorrhea associated with weight loss, and endocrine insufficiency was determinate by fasting plasma glucose...
March 8, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
Beáta Gavurová, Matúš Kubák, Michal Šoltés, Miroslav Barták, Tatiana Vagašová
AIM: To describe the time trends, age and sex distribution of death from diabetes mellitus (E10-E14) as a significant part of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-E90), during 1996-2014 in the Slovak regions, and to estimate the influence of social characteristics on mortality. METHODS: Secondary data on deaths during 1996-2014 were gathered from the National Health Information Center in the Slovak Republic. The total crude death rate per 100,000 of the standard Slovak population and age-standardized death rate per 100,000 of the standard European population were calculated by direct standardization...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Thierry Brue, Vincent Amodru, Frédéric Castinetti
With fewer than 200 reported cases, Cushing's syndrome (CS) in pregnancy remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In normal pregnancies, misleading signs may be observed such as striae or hypokalemia, while plasma cortisol and urinary free cortisol may rise up to 2-3-fold. While the dexamethasone suppression test is difficult to use, reference values for salivary cortisol appear valid. The predominant cause is adrenal adenoma (sometimes without decreased ACTH), rather than Cushing's disease. There are considerable imaging pitfalls in Cushing's disease...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Bin Tang, Limin Xiao, Shenhao Xie, Guanlin Huang, Zhigang Wang, Dongwei Zhou, Erming Zeng, Tao Hong
OBJECTIVES: Removal of recurrent or residual symptomatic craniopharyngiomas is more challenging than the primary surgery. The extended endoscopic endonasal (EEE) approach has been proposed an alternative surgical route for removal of various suprasellar tumors including craniopharyngiomas currently. In this study, we summarized the operative experience and described the feasibility and advantages of this technique in recurrent or residual symptomatic craniopharyngiomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 15 patients (9 males and 6 females) whom underwent EEE approach between April 2012 and February 2017, were included in this study...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Hernán Gonzalo Villagarcía, María Cecilia Castro, Luisa González Arbelaez, Guillermo Schinella, María Laura Massa, Eduardo Spinedi, Flavio Francini
AIM: Hypothalamic obese rats are characterized by pre-diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperadiposity, inflammation and, liver dysmetabolism with oxidative stress (OS), among others. We studied endocrine-metabolic dysfunctions and, liver OS and inflammation in both monosodium l-glutamate (MSG)-neonatally damaged and control litter-mate (C) adult male rats, either chronically treated with N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine since weaned (C-NAC and MSG-NAC) or not. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated circulating TBARS, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid (UA) and, aspartate and alanine amino-transferase; insulin sensitivity markers (HOMA indexes, Liver Index of Insulin Sensitivity -LISI-) were calculated and liver steps of the insulin-signaling pathway were investigated...
March 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Huseyin Demirbilek, Nihal Hatipoglu, Ulku Gul, Zeynep Uzan Tatli, Sian Ellard, Sarah E Flanagan, Elisa De Franco, Selim Kurtoglu
The basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH) transcription factor, NEUROD1(also known as BETA2) is involved in the development of neural elements and endocrine pancreas. Less than 10 reports of adult-onset non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) due to heterozygous NEUROD1 mutations and two cases with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus(PNDM) and neurological abnormalities due to homozygous NEUROD1 mutations have been published.
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Hanifi Ucpunar, Ismet Yalkin Camurcu, Serda Duman, Esra Ucpunar, Hakan Sofu, Avni Ilhan Bayhan
Background and purpose - Patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) are phenotypically overweight or obese and may therefore require clinical follow-up of obesity-related disorders. We evaluated obesity-related disorders such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and vitamin-D deficiency during the postoperative period in patients with SCFE. Patients and methods - 51 patients who were operated and followed-up for SCFE and 62 healthy adolescents without SCFE (control group) were included in this retrospective study...
March 9, 2018: Acta Orthopaedica
F Louwen, A Ritter, N N Kreis, J Yuan
Obesity is associated with a variety of disorders including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and cancer. Obesity changes the composition and structure of adipose tissue, linked to pro-inflammatory environment, endocrine/metabolic dysfunction, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have multiple functions like cell renewal, spontaneous repair and homeostasis in adipose tissue. In this review article, we have summarized the recent data highlighting that ASCs in obesity are defective in various functionalities and properties including differentiation, angiogenesis, motility, multipotent state, metabolism and immunomodulation...
March 8, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Georgia Ntali, Eva Kassi, Maria Alevizaki
Cancer immunotherapy has introduced a novel class of drugs known as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). They enhance antitumour immunity by blocking negative regulators (checkpoints) of T cell function that exist on both immune and tumour cells. ICIs targeting CTLA-4 and PD-1/PDL-1 have dramatically changed the outcome of patients with several advanced-stage malignancies but they may lead to a variety of inflammatory toxicities and autoimmune consequences. The main endocrine immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) include hypophysitis, primary thyroid dysfunction, adrenalitis and type 1 diabetes mellitus...
October 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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